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1 SPH4C1 Lesson 03 Newton s Laws NEWTON S THIRD LAW LEARNING GOALS Students will: Be able to state Newton s 3 rd Law and apply it in qualitative and quantitative terms to explain the effect of forces acting on objects. WEBSITE AND TEXTBOOK RESOURCES Textbook Nelson Physics 12 College Preparation Section 1.8 Pgs Videos Links Examples of Newton s Third Law (Astronauts, Cannon, and Boat) Physics Classroom (Third Law and Action-Reaction Force Pairs) ACTION AND REACTION For every action, there is an and. More accurately: for every action force on due to, there is a reaction force, equal in but opposite in, on due to. What does this mean in practice? Examples: An object near the Earth s surface experiences a gravitational force of15n [down]. What is the reaction force? Acting on what? The same object resting on a table experiences a normal force of 15 N [up]. What is the reaction force? EXAMPLE 1 A 55 kg person standing on a frictionless ice rink throws a 5.0kg ball with a force of 25N [E]. What is the acceleration of the:(a)ball;(b) person? The acceleration of the ball is: The acceleration of the person is: 1

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4 SPH4C1 Lesson 03 Newton s Laws PRACTICE 1. A book is resting on a table. The Earth is exerting a gravitational force of 8 N [down] on the book. Which of the following is the reaction force? a) 8 N [up] (table on the book) b) 8 N [down] (book on the table) c) 8 N [up] (book on the Earth) d) The is no reaction force. 2. Box A has a mass of 30 kg. Box B has a mass of 60 kg. If Box A is exerting a force of magnitude 20 N on Box B, what is the magnitude of the force Box B is exerting on Box A? a) 10 N b) 20 N c) 40 N d) It cannot be determined. 3. Object A of mass 2 kg is attached to Object B of mass 4 kg by a string suspended over a pulley. The tension in the part of the string attached to Object A is the tension in the part of the string attached to Object B. a) the same as b) less than c) greater than d) It cannot be determined. 4. The propulsion of a rocket in space by the expulsion of gases from the Rocket is best explained using which of Newton s three laws of motion? a) Newton s 1 st Law b) Newton s 2 nd Law c) Newton s 3 rd Law d) Newton s Laws do not apply in space. 5. Describe the reaction force based on the following action forces. a. You push forward on a book with 5.2 N b. A hockey player hits the boards with a force of 180 N [toward the boards] 6. Which of the following is true when a golfer hits a golf ball? a. The force on the ball is equal to the force on the club. b. The force on the ball is greater than the force on the club. c. The force on the ball is less than the force on the club. Then why does the ball go farther than the club? 7. When a bug hits the windshield of your car, the force on the bug from the car is equal to the force on the car from the bug. Then why doesn t the car s motion change? 2

5 SPH4C1 Lesson 03 Newton s Laws 8. Explain each situation using Newton s 3 rd Law. a. A small balloon releases air and flies around the room. b. You start walking across the floor. c. A canoe is paddling through the water. d. A helicopter hovering e. A rocket turning in space f. A cannon recoils (moves backwards) when it is fired. 9. The total applied horizontal force of a car s tires on the road is 2.1 x 10 3 N [W]. The car s mass is 1.4 x 10 3 kg. a. What is the horizontal force of the road on the car? b. Calculate the car s acceleration. 10. A helicopter of mass 6.4 x 10 3 kg is hovering above a launch pad. a. Draw an FBD of the helicopter as it is hovering, and calculate the upward force that balances gravity. b. If the upward force is now increased to 7.5 x 10 4 N [up], what acceleration does the helicopter undergo? (Hint: Draw an FBD to show the new net force.) 3

6 SPH 4C1 Newton s Laws with Multiple Objects Other than the force of gravity and electromagnetic forces, it is impossible for an object to exert a force on something if it is not touching it! Consider the three boxes below. C 4.0 B 10. kg A 6.0 kg F app = 120 N [left] µ = Is Box A actually touching box C? If not, what is? 2. Is the applied force being applied to box B? If not, what box is it being applied to? 3. What is actually pushing box B forward? 4. What is the effect of box C on box B? 5. Draw free body diagrams for boxes A, B and C C B A 6. Think about Newton s Third Law: are there any forces on your FBD s that are action-reaction pairs? List them below. Check with your teacher before moving on!!

7 SPH 4C1 7. What force(s) actually push the whole system (all the boxes together) forward? Hint: action-reaction pairs cancel out. 8. Calculate the total force of friction on the system. Use g = 10.0 N/kg 9. Determine the acceleration of the system. 10. Do you think that all three boxes have the same net force? 11. Check your answer for #10 by calculating the net force on each box (F net = ma). Explain your results. 12. Now you have to calculate the force that box A exerts on box B. But wait! a. What other force is this equal to? b. Which FBD will you use to find this force? Explain why. c. Find the force that box A exerts on box B.

8 SPH 4C1 13. Use the FBD of box B to determine the force that box C exerts on box B. 14. Use the FBD of box C to determine the force that box B exerts on box C. 15. Which method was easier - #13 or #14? Explain why. Answers: N [right] m/s N [left] N [right] N [left]

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