Major Structures of the Nervous System

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Major Structures of the Nervous System"

Transcription

1 Major Structures of the Nervous System Brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, spinal nerves, ganglia, enteric plexuses and sensory receptors Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS 12-1

2 Nervous System Divisions Central Nervous System (CNS) consists of the brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) consists of cranial and spinal nerves that contain both sensory and motor fibers connects CNS to muscles, glands & all sensory receptors Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS 12-2

3 Nerve a bundle of hundreds to thousands of axons plus associated connective tissue and blood vessels that lies outside the brain and spinal cord. Cranial Nerve nerves that emerge from the brain & follows a defined path Spinal Nerves nerves that emerge from the spinal cord & follows a defined path Ganglia small masses of nervous tissue, consisting primarily of neuron cell bodies and are located outside of the brain and spinal cord. They are associated with the brain and spinal nerves. 12-3

4 Enteric plexuses networks of neurons located in the walls of organs of the gastrointestinal tract that help regulate the digestive system Sensory receptor a structure of the nervous system that monitors changes in the external or internal environment.

5 Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS 12-5

6 Subdivisions of the PNS Somatic (voluntary) nervous system (SNS) neurons from cutaneous and special sensory receptors to the CNS motor neurons to skeletal muscle tissue Autonomic (involuntary) nervous systems sensory neurons from visceral organs to CNS motor neurons to smooth & cardiac muscle and glands Sympathetic division (flight or fight) /Explain effects on Organs Parasympathetic division (return body to normal) Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS 12-6

7 CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM brain spinal cord sensory nerves axons of motor nerves somatic subdivision (motor functions) These nerves carry signals to and from skeletal muscles, tendons, and skin. Sensory autonomic subdivision (visceral functions) These nerves carry signals to and from internal organs (gut, heart, glands, etc.). parasympathetic nerves sympathetic nerves Motor Fig. 35.6, p. 591 PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS 12-7

8 Controls and integrates all body activities within limits that maintain life Three basic functions 1. Sensing changes with sensory receptors - internally & externally 2. Integration (interpreting, remembering) of those changes in the int. &ext. environment 3. Motor- reacting to those changes with effectors ; by muscular contractions(smooth, cardiac & skeletal) & glandular secretions Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS 12-8

9 Neuroglial Cells Do not produce action potentials(ap) Half of the volume of the CNS Smaller cells than neurons 25 times more numerous than neurons Cells can divide rapid mitosis in tumor formation (gliomas) 4 Neuroglial Cell types in CNS astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia & ependymal 2 Neuroglial Cell types in PNS Schwann and satellite cells Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS 12-9

10 Neurons Functional unit of nervous system Most do not divide /limited number Have capacity to produce action potentials Cell body single nucleus with prominent nucleolus Nissl bodies (will stain dark) rough ER & free ribosomes for protein synthesis Nerve fiber general term for any neuronal process that emerges from the cell body of a neuron. Dendrites- the receiving on input portions of a neuron.

11 Parts of a Neuron Neuroglial cells Nucleus with Nucleolus Axons or Dendrites Cell body Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS 12-11

12 Axon Conduct impulses away from cell body Long, thin cylindrical process of cell Arises at axon hillock Impulses arise from trigger zone Side branches (collaterals) end in fine processes called axon terminals Swollen tips called synaptic end bulbs contain vesicles filled with neurotransmitters

13

14 Neurotransmitters a molecule released from a synaptic vesicle that excites or inhibits another neuron, muscle fiber or gland cell.

15

16 Classifying Neurons Structural classification is based on the number of processes (axons or dendrites) extending from the cell body.

17 Multipolar neurons have several dendrites and only one axon and are located throughout the brain and spinal cord. The vast majority of the neurons in the human body are multipolar. Classifying Neurons

18 Classifying Neurons Bipolar neurons have one main dendrite and one axon. They are used to convey the special senses of sight, smell, hearing and balance. Found in the retina of the eye, theinner ear, and the olfactory (olfact = to smell) area of the brain.

19 Classifying Neurons Unipolar neurons contain one process which extends from the body and divides into a central branch that functions as an axon and as a dendritic root. Unipolar structure is often employed for sensory neurons that convey touch, pressure and pain.

20 Functional Classification of Neurons Sensory / Afferent Neurons transport sensory information from skin, muscles, joints, sense organs & viscera to CNS Motor / Efferent Neurons send motor nerve impulses to muscles & glands & other neurons Interneurons / Association Neurons connect sensory to motor neurons 90% of neurons in the body Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS 12-20

21 Neurons and Neuroglia As the thinking cells of the brain, each neuron does, in miniature, what the entire nervous system does as an organ: Receive, process and transmit information by manipulating the flow of charge across their membranes. Neuroglia (glial cells) play a major role in support and nutrition of the brain, but they do not manipulate information. They maintain the internal environment so that neurons can do their jobs. Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS 12-21

22 Astrocytes In CNS Star-shaped cells Help form blood-brain barrier by covering blood capillaries Metabolize neurotransmitters Regulate K+ balance Provide structural support

23 Oligodendrocytes In CNS Most common Glial cell type Each cell forms myelin sheath around more than one axon in CNS 12-23

24 Microglia Cells In CNS Small cells found near blood vessels Phagocytic role -- clear away dead cells

25 Ependymal cells In CNS Form epithelial membrane lining cerebral cavities & central canal Produce & circulate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

26 Schwann Cells In PNS The Schwann cells encircle PNS axons Each cell produces part of the myelin sheath surrounding an axon in the PNS Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS 12-26

27 Satellite Cells In PNS Flat cells surrounding neuronal cell bodies in peripheral ganglia Support neurons in the PNS ganglia Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS 12-27

28 Neuroglia

29 Neuroglia Myelination is the process of forming a myelin sheath which insulates and increases nerve impulse speed. Myelin is formed by Oligodendrocytes in the CNS and by Schwann cells in the PNS.

30 Axon Coverings in PNS All axons surrounded by a lipid & protein covering (myelin sheath) produced by Schwann cells Neurolemma is cytoplasm & nucleus of Schwann cell / Myelin Sheath is plasma membrane of Schwann Cell gaps called nodes of Ranvier Myelinated fibers appear white jelly-roll like wrappings made of lipoprotein = myelin acts as ion insulator speeds conduction of nerve impulses Unmyelinated fibers slow, small diameter fibers only surrounded by neurolemma but no myelin sheath wrapping Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS 12-30

31 Myelination in PNS In PNS Schwann cells myelinate (wrap around) individual axons in the PNS during fetal development Schwann cell cytoplasm & nucleus forms outermost layer of neurolemma with inner portion being the myelin sheath Tube guides growing axons that are repairing themselves Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS 12-31

32 Myelination in the CNS Oligodendrocytes myelinate axons in the CNS Broad, flat cell processes wrap about CNS axons, but the cell bodies do not surround the axons No neurolemma is formed Little regrowth after injury is possible due to the lack of a distinct tube or neurolemma Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS 12-32

33 The group of cells bodies in the peripheral nervous system are known as ganglia. The axons leaving these cells are called nerves. Most ganglial cells are sensory neurons which gather nerve information from sensory systems and motor neurons and transfer processed information to muscles, glands and internal organs. Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS 12-33

34 Nuclei are the clusters of neuron cell bodies found in the central nervous system. The axons leaving these cells are called tracts. Nuclei make the grey matter while tracts make the white matter in the central nervous system.

35 Gray and White Matter White matter = myelinated processes (white in color) Gray matter = nerve cell bodies, dendrites, axon terminals, bundles of unmyelinated axons and neuroglia (gray color) In the spinal cord = gray matter forms an H-shaped inner core surrounded by white matter In the brain = a thin outer shell of gray matter covers the surface & is found in clusters called nuclei inside the CNS Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS 12-35

36 Resting Membrane Potential More negative ions along inside of cell membrane & more positive ions along outside of membrane at REST potential energy difference at rest is -70 mv cell is POLARIZED Resting Membrane Potential exists because; 1. Concentration of ions different inside & outside extracellular fluid rich in Na+ and Cl- cytosol full of K+, organic phosphate & amino acids 2. Membrane permeability differs for Na+ and K greater permeability for K+ inward flow of Na+ can t keep up with outward flow of K+ 3. Na+/K+ pump removes Na+ as fast as it leaks in 3 Na out of the cell & 2 K into the cell Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS 12-36

37 Continuous versus Saltatory Conduction Continuous conduction (unmyelinated fibers) step-by-step depolarization of each portion of the length of the neuron Saltatory conduction - over myelinated axons in PNS depolarization only at Nodes of Ranvier where there is a high density of voltage-gated ion channels current carried by ions flows through extracellular fluid from node to node / much faster Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS 12-37

38 Saltatory Conduction Nerve impulse conduction in which the impulse jumps from node to node Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS 12-38

39 Chemical Synapses Action potential reaches end bulb and voltage-gated Ca+ 2 channels open Ca+2 flows inward triggering release of neurotransmitter Neurotransmitter crosses synaptic cleft & binding to ligand-gated receptors the more neurotransmitter released the greater the change in potential of the postsynaptic cell One-way information transfer Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS 12-39

40 Removal of Neurotransmitter Diffusion move down concentration gradient into the blood stream Enzymatic degradation acetylcholinesterase brakes it down Uptake by neurons or glia cells neurotransmitter transporters Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS 12-40

11 Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue: Part A

11 Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue: Part A 11 Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue: Part A Functions of the Nervous System 1.Sensory input Information gathered by sensory receptors about internal and external changes 2.Integration

More information

Nerve Cell Flashcards

Nerve Cell Flashcards 1. What does the word innervates mean? Refers to a nerve supplying a muscle or organ. For example, The phrenic nerve innervates the diaphragm muscle. 2. 3 parts of the Nervous System 1. Central Nervous

More information

Ch. 7 Neurons: The Matter of the Mind

Ch. 7 Neurons: The Matter of the Mind Ch. 7 Neurons: The Matter of the Mind The nervous system: Controls, integrates and coordinates the body s activities Provides rapid and brief responses to stimuli Has 2 major divisions: 1. The central

More information

Structural Classification of the Nervous System

Structural Classification of the Nervous System Structural Classification of the Nervous System Central nervous system (CNS) Brain and spinal cord Activates nerve responses Interprets sensations Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Composed of all the nerves

More information

Chapter 17 Nervous Tissue

Chapter 17 Nervous Tissue Chapter 17 Nervous Tissue Introduction The nervous system and the endocrine system are the body s major control and integrating centers. Neurology is the study of the normal functioning and disorders of

More information

ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY. Part 1: The Nervous System

ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY. Part 1: The Nervous System ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY Part 1: The Nervous System Please watch the following video. - Click the link below. - Adjust volume on speaker (far right on teacher desk). - Increase picture size by clicking bottom

More information

Figure: 11.2 ;pg 387 4

Figure: 11.2 ;pg 387 4 ANATOMY I; CHAPTER 11, NERVOUS SYSTEM Nervous system is the master control, 2 communication and coordinating system between the different body structures and systems Every activity, thought and emotion

More information

Student Academic Learning Services Page 1 of 8 Nervous System Quiz

Student Academic Learning Services Page 1 of 8 Nervous System Quiz Student Academic Learning Services Page 1 of 8 Nervous System Quiz 1. The term central nervous system refers to the: A) autonomic and peripheral nervous systems B) brain, spinal cord, and cranial nerves

More information

Nervous Tissue Dr. Archana Rani Associate Professor Department of Anatomy KGMU UP, Lucknow

Nervous Tissue Dr. Archana Rani Associate Professor Department of Anatomy KGMU UP, Lucknow 13.01.2015 Nervous Tissue Dr. Archana Rani Associate Professor Department of Anatomy KGMU UP, Lucknow Introduction Property of irritability and conductivity Respond to various types of stimuli Distributed

More information

Association neurons allow for integration of information, reflexes and associative functions (decision making)

Association neurons allow for integration of information, reflexes and associative functions (decision making) The Nervous System Nervous system links sensory receptors and motor effectors Sensory (afferent) neurons carry impulses from receptors Motor (efferent) neurons carry impulses to effectors - muscles and

More information

HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY

HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY C H A P T E R 1 11 HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY THE HUMAN BODY: AN ORIENTATION FUNDAMENTALS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM & NERVOUS TISSUE C H A P T E R 1 PART I HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY FUNDAMENTALS OF THE NERVOUS

More information

Anatomy & Physiology Neural Tissue Worksheet

Anatomy & Physiology Neural Tissue Worksheet Anatomy & Physiology Neural Tissue Worksheet 1. Name the two major subdivisions of the nervous system Nervous System Nervous System 2. Name the two parts (organs) of the CNS 3. What are the three functions

More information

Nerves and Nerve Impulse

Nerves and Nerve Impulse Nerves and Nerve Impulse Terms Absolute refractory period: Period following stimulation during which no additional action potential can be evoked. Acetylcholine: Chemical transmitter substance released

More information

Nervous Lecture Test Questions Set 1

Nervous Lecture Test Questions Set 1 Nervous Lecture Test Questions Set 1 1. The most basic function of the nervous system is: a. stimulation b. reception c. conduction d. inhibition e. none of the above 2. The nervous system is involved

More information

Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling

Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling Chapter 8 Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling Overview: Lines of Communication The cone snail kills prey with venom that disables neurons Neurons are nerve cells that transfer information within the body

More information

Anatomy & Physiology Bio 2401 Lecture. Instructor: Daryl Beatty Nervous System Introduction Part 1

Anatomy & Physiology Bio 2401 Lecture. Instructor: Daryl Beatty Nervous System Introduction Part 1 Anatomy & Physiology Bio 2401 Lecture Instructor: Daryl Beatty Nervous System Introduction Part 1 Nervous System Introduction Chapter 11 Section A Sequence 4.1 DB Nervous system 1 Intro Presentations 4.2,

More information

48a A&P: Nervous System -! Introduction, Physiology, and Cells

48a A&P: Nervous System -! Introduction, Physiology, and Cells 48a A&P: Nervous System -! Introduction, Physiology, and Cells 48a A&P: Nervous System -! Introduction, Physiology, and Cells! Class Outline" 5 minutes" "Attendance, Breath of Arrival, and Reminders "

More information

NERVOUS SYSTEM. Academic Resource Center

NERVOUS SYSTEM. Academic Resource Center NERVOUS SYSTEM Academic Resource Center Overview of the Nervous System Peripheral nervous system-pns cranial nerves spinal nerves ganglia peripheral nerves enteric plexuses sensory receptors Overview of

More information

12. Nervous System: Nervous Tissue

12. Nervous System: Nervous Tissue 12. Nervous System: Nervous Tissue I. Introduction to the Nervous System General functions of the nervous system The nervous system has three basic functions: 1. Gather sensory input from the environment

More information

Essay Question for exam 3

Essay Question for exam 3 Essay Question for exam 3 Describe how action potentials are generated and propagated along neurons. Include in your description how intracellular voltage changes during the action potential by labeling

More information

11.1: The Role of the Nervous System pg

11.1: The Role of the Nervous System pg UNIT 4: Homeostasis Chapter 11: The Nervous System pg. 514 11.1: The Role of the Nervous System pg 516-521 Organisms need to senses heir environments to make appropriate adjustments and survive. The nervous

More information

Topic 1: Introduction to the Nervous System

Topic 1: Introduction to the Nervous System Topic 1: Introduction to the Nervous System v Name the parts of a generalised neuron & indicate the input, output and integration areas of the neuron. Ø Neurons are the functional cell of the nervous system

More information

Biology Slide 1 of 38

Biology Slide 1 of 38 Biology 1 of 38 2 of 38 35-2 The Nervous System What are the functions of the nervous system? 3 of 38 35-2 The Nervous System 1. Nervous system: a. controls and coordinates functions throughout the body

More information

FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. Sensory input. Sensory receptors detects external and internal stimuli.

FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. Sensory input. Sensory receptors detects external and internal stimuli. FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. Sensory input. Sensory receptors detects external and internal stimuli. 2. Integration. The brain and spinal cord process sensory input and produce responses. 3. Homeostasis.

More information

Chapter 9 Nervous System

Chapter 9 Nervous System Chapter 9 Nervous System Nervous System function: The nervous system is composed of neurons and neuroglia. at the ends of peripheral nerves gather information and convert it into nerve impulses. When sensory

More information

The Nervous System CH 28

The Nervous System CH 28 The Nervous System CH 28 Nervous system Structure and function Nerve signals and their transmission Nervous systems The human brain Giant Squid! Artituthus can be 30 ft+ The Giant Squid Nervous System

More information

The Nervous System : communication

The Nervous System : communication The Nervous System : communication A. Neurons = masses of nerve cells that transmit information 1. Cell Body - contains the nucleus and two extensions 2. Dendrites shorter, more numerous, receive information

More information

The Human Nervous System ReBuilder Medical, Inc.

The Human Nervous System ReBuilder Medical, Inc. The Human Nervous System ReBuilder Medical, Inc. Nerve Cells Reflex Arc Organization of the Nervous System Humans, like all living organisms, can respond to their environment. Humans have two complimentary

More information

Neurons Fox Chapter 7 pt 1

Neurons Fox Chapter 7 pt 1 Vert Phys PCB3743 Neurons Fox Chapter 7 pt 1 T. Houpt, Ph.D. Structure of Vertebrates Two major compartments of the body Peripheral Compartment Everything outside of the brain and spinal cord (heart, lungs,

More information

Nervous Tissue (NT) NEURON

Nervous Tissue (NT) NEURON Nervous Tissue (NT) - highly specialized tissue - forms, receives and sorts signals (irritability) - transmits electrical impulses (conductivity) Functions of Nerve Tissue Nervous tissue allows an organism

More information

Nerves mp3

Nerves mp3 Nerves mp3 http://www.cptproton.com/ Test Muscles of the Forearm: Anterior Compartment These muscles are primarily flexors of the wrist and fingers Palmar aponeurosis Flexor retinaculum Flexor digitorum

More information

Chapter 7: The Nervous System

Chapter 7: The Nervous System Chapter 7: The Nervous System Objectives Discuss the general organization of the nervous system Describe the structure & function of a nerve Draw and label the pathways involved in a withdraw reflex Define

More information

Histology of Nervous Tissue Nervous system consists mostly of nervous tissue, which is highly cellular. Less than 20% of the CNS is extracellular

Histology of Nervous Tissue Nervous system consists mostly of nervous tissue, which is highly cellular. Less than 20% of the CNS is extracellular The Nervous System Overview The nervous system is the master controlling and communicating system of the body. Every thought, action and emotion reflects its activity. Its cells communicate by electrical

More information

NERVOUS TISSUE CNS (PNC) neurons glia Neurons perikaryo Nissl bodies Neuronal Processes: dendrites axons - Dendrites

NERVOUS TISSUE CNS (PNC) neurons glia Neurons perikaryo Nissl bodies Neuronal Processes: dendrites axons - Dendrites NERVOUS TISSUE The nervous system consists of all nervous tissue in the body. It is divided anatomically into the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNC). The CNS consists

More information

Nervous Systems: Neuron Structure and Function

Nervous Systems: Neuron Structure and Function Nervous Systems: Neuron Structure and Function Integration An animal needs to function like a coherent organism, not like a loose collection of cells. Integration = refers to processes such as summation

More information

Nerve tissue. Development and function of the nervous system Neuron Membrane potentials Synaptic communication

Nerve tissue. Development and function of the nervous system Neuron Membrane potentials Synaptic communication Nerve tissue Development and function of the nervous system Neuron Membrane potentials Synaptic communication Development neuroectoderm neural plate neural tube: brain vesicles spinal cord neural crest

More information

Chapter 7: The Nervous System

Chapter 7: The Nervous System Chapter 7: The Nervous System I. Organization of the Nervous System Objectives: List the general functions of the nervous system Explain the structural and functional classifications of the nervous system

More information

Nervous system. Figure 1 The nervous system.

Nervous system. Figure 1 The nervous system. Nervous system Components The nervous system is the central nervous system (CNS) - the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) - nerves connecting to the CNS and serving the body.

More information

Chapter 11: Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue

Chapter 11: Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue Chapter 11: Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue Multiple Choice 1. The nervous system A) monitors internal and external stimuli. B) transmits information in the form of action potentials. C) interprets

More information

NERVOUS TISSUE. b) Ganglia Cerebro spinal. Spinal. Parasympathetic

NERVOUS TISSUE. b) Ganglia Cerebro spinal. Spinal. Parasympathetic NERVOUS TISSUE The nervous sys. is classified into: Central nervous system (C.N.S): brain and spinal cord. Peripheral nervous system (P.N.S): a) Peripheral nerves Cranial Spinal b) Ganglia Cerebro spinal

More information

Histology of Nervous Tissue, Medulla Spinalis and Brain Stem

Histology of Nervous Tissue, Medulla Spinalis and Brain Stem Histology of Nervous Tissue, Medulla Spinalis and Brain Stem Nervous Tissue 2 cell types: Nerve cells (neurons) receive or transmit impulses interconnections (at least 1000 each) Neuroglial cells more

More information

NEURAL CONTROL AND COORDINATION

NEURAL CONTROL AND COORDINATION NEURAL CONTROL AND COORDINATION THE HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM VIKASANA - VIGNANA PATHADEDEGE NIMMA NADIGE Bridge Course Program for SSLC Students who want to take up Science in I PUC in 2012 CONTENTS Introduction

More information

Parts of the Nerve Cell and Their Functions

Parts of the Nerve Cell and Their Functions Parts of the Nerve Cell and Their Functions Silvia Helena Cardoso, PhD [ 1. Cell body] [2. Neuronal membrane] [3. Dendrites] [4. Axon] [5. Nerve ending] 1. Cell body The cell body (soma) is the factory

More information

CHAPTER 10: NERVOUS SYSTEM I. 1. Name the two major divisions of the nervous system and list the organs within each.

CHAPTER 10: NERVOUS SYSTEM I. 1. Name the two major divisions of the nervous system and list the organs within each. OBJECTIVES: 1. Name the two major divisions of the nervous system and list the organs within each. 2. Fully discuss the three general functions of the nervous system, and draw a figure that summarizes

More information

Nervous System. Brain Teaser. IntroducGon. Which number comes next in the sequence? 4,7,10 or 12? Dr. Dinithi Peiris Dept.

Nervous System. Brain Teaser. IntroducGon. Which number comes next in the sequence? 4,7,10 or 12? Dr. Dinithi Peiris Dept. Nervous System Dr. Dinithi Peiris Dept. of Zoology 8 15 14 9 1 6 3 Brain Teaser Which number comes next in the sequence? 4,7,10 or 12? 3 IntroducGon For survival, animal must respond to the outside environment

More information

Nervous System Histology

Nervous System Histology Nervous System Histology Week 9 Expanded Studies OBJECTIVES Identify the portions of a multipolar neuron using models & slides Differentiate between pseudounipolar, bipolar & multipolar neurons from slides

More information

AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes

AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes 1. General information: passage of information occurs in two ways: Nerves - process and send information fast (eg. stepping on a tack) Hormones - process and send information

More information

2. Peripheral nervous system - all of the afferent and efferent nerves off of the spinal cord as well as the cranial nerves.

2. Peripheral nervous system - all of the afferent and efferent nerves off of the spinal cord as well as the cranial nerves. Nervous System The nervous system is divided into two parts: 1. Central nervous system - the brain and spinal cord 2. Peripheral nervous system - all of the afferent and efferent nerves off of the spinal

More information

M555 Medical Neuroscience Neurocytology: Cells of the Nervous System

M555 Medical Neuroscience Neurocytology: Cells of the Nervous System M555 Medical Neuroscience Neurocytology: Cells of the Nervous System Central Nervous System brain spinal cord bundles of s in Peripheral Nervous System nerves ganglia figure 1-1 Harriet Cole Dr. R.B. Weaver

More information

The connection between adjacent neurons.

The connection between adjacent neurons. 1. The diagram below is of a nerve cell or neuron. i. Add the following labels to the diagram. Axon; Myelin sheath; Cell body; Dendrites; Muscle fibres; ii. Now indicate the direction that the nerve impulse

More information

CELLS IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

CELLS IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM NEURONS AND GLIA CELLS IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Glia Insulates, supports, and nourishes neurons Neurons Process information Sense environmental changes Communicate changes to other neurons Command body response

More information

Chapter 15. The Autonomic Nervous. The Autonomic Nervous System. Autonomic Motor Pathways. ANS vs. SNS

Chapter 15. The Autonomic Nervous. The Autonomic Nervous System. Autonomic Motor Pathways. ANS vs. SNS The Autonomic Nervous System Chapter 15 The subconscious involuntary nervous system Regulates activity of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle & certain glands The Autonomic Nervous System 1 2 ANS vs. SNS Somatic

More information

Nerve Cell Physiology

Nerve Cell Physiology Nerve Cell Physiology body is electrically neutral there are small differences in electrical charge between inside and outside of cell membranes due to differences in + and ions on inside and outside of

More information

Nervous System: PNS and CNS

Nervous System: PNS and CNS Nervous System: PNS and CNS Biology 105 Lecture 10 Chapter 8 Outline I. Central Nervous System vs Peripheral Nervous System II. Peripheral Nervous System A. Somatic Nervous System B. Autonomic Nervous

More information

The Nervous System, Part I.Unlecture

The Nervous System, Part I.Unlecture The Nervous System, Part I.Unlecture Review basic nervous system anatomy before you begin this lecture. The lecture touches on a few of the major characteristics, but you are expected to have already been

More information

Neuron Structure and Function

Neuron Structure and Function C H A P T E R 4 Neuron Structure and Function PowerPoint Lecture Slides prepared by Stephen Gehnrich, Salisbury University Neurons Vary in structure and properties Use same basic mechanisms to send signals

More information

The Autonomic Nervous System

The Autonomic Nervous System The Autonomic Nervous System Regulate activity of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle & certain glands Structures involved general visceral sensory neurons integration center within the brain general visceral

More information

The Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/Nervous System Worksheet/Worksheet Answers

The Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/Nervous System Worksheet/Worksheet Answers The Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/Nervous System Worksheet/Worksheet Answers From WikiEducator < The Anatomy and Physiology of Animals Nervous System Worksheet 1. The diagram below is of a nerve cell

More information

Nervous Tissue Chapter 12

Nervous Tissue Chapter 12 Nervous Tissue Chapter 12 Overview of the Nervous System Cells of the Nervous System Electrophysiology of Neurons Synapses Subdivisions of the Nervous System Two major anatomical subdivisions: Central

More information

Name Date Hour. Nerve Histology Microscope Lab

Name Date Hour. Nerve Histology Microscope Lab Name Date Hour Nerve Histology Microscope Lab PRE-LAB: Answer the following questions using your reading and class notes before starting the microscope lab. 1. What is the difference between the functions

More information

Biopsychology Chapter 2: Structure and Functions of Cells of the Nervous System. Neuron Structure. Neuron Classification Schemes

Biopsychology Chapter 2: Structure and Functions of Cells of the Nervous System. Neuron Structure. Neuron Classification Schemes Biopsychology Chapter 2: Structure and Functions of Cells of the Nervous System Neuron Structure 2.2 Neuron Classification Schemes Neurons can be classified according to Number of axon processes: Unipolar:

More information

NERVOUS SYSTEM IN HUMAN BEINGS

NERVOUS SYSTEM IN HUMAN BEINGS Class X Episode 4 A P State NERVOUS SYSTEM IN HUMAN BEINGS You all must have seen a Computer and most of you also use the computer. What are the parts in a computer? The C P U Monitor, Keyboard, and the

More information

NEUROSCIENCE EXAM 1 FALL 2011 KEY

NEUROSCIENCE EXAM 1 FALL 2011 KEY NEUROSCIENCE EXAM 1 FALL 2011 KEY Multiple Choice: Read the entire question and all answers before choosing (circle the letter ) the one best answer. Each question is worth 2 point 1. Which of the following

More information

Resting membrane potential ~ -70mV - Membrane is polarized

Resting membrane potential ~ -70mV - Membrane is polarized Resting membrane potential ~ -70mV - Membrane is polarized (ie) Electrical charge on the outside of the membrane is positive while the electrical charge on the inside of the membrane is negative Changes

More information

NEURONS NEUROGLIAL CELLS.

NEURONS NEUROGLIAL CELLS. 1 THE NERVOUS TISSUE Definition: The nervous tissue is an assemblage of cells and supportive elements (materials) in which there is a predominance of cells which are highly specialized in the property

More information

You can t turn on the television or radio, much less go online, without seeing something

You can t turn on the television or radio, much less go online, without seeing something 11 Introduction to the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue You can t turn on the television or radio, much less go online, without seeing something to remind you of the nervous system. From advertisements

More information

The Peripheral Nervous System. Liam Chen, MD/PhD 9/22/2014

The Peripheral Nervous System. Liam Chen, MD/PhD 9/22/2014 The Peripheral Nervous System Liam Chen, MD/PhD 9/22/2014 The Peripheral Nervous System Nervous structures outside the brain and spinal cord Nerves allow the CNS to receive information and take action

More information

Name: Teacher: Olsen Hour:

Name: Teacher: Olsen Hour: Name: Teacher: Olsen Hour: The Nervous System: Part 1 Textbook p216-225 41 In all exercises, quizzes and tests in this class, always answer in your own words. That is the only way that you can show that

More information

2. Regulator responses - controlling responses and directing them to the right place

2. Regulator responses - controlling responses and directing them to the right place Nervous Regulation A. Functions of the nervous system Maintain Regulator responses - controlling responses and directing them to the right place 3. Coordinate responses - B. Mechanisms for Nervous Regulation

More information

Unit 4: Animal Systems The Nervous System

Unit 4: Animal Systems The Nervous System Unit 4: Animal Systems The Nervous System Biology 30 Mr. Oosterom 12.1 The Structure of the Nervous System Humans have the most complex nervous System of all organisms on earth This is the result of millions

More information

4-Nervous system I: Structure and organization

4-Nervous system I: Structure and organization 4-Nervous system I: Structure and organization GENERAL ORGANIZATION NEURON STRUCTURE BRAIN & CRANIAL NERVES SPINAL CORD & NERVES AUTONOMIC SYSTEM Announcements Andrew s Office Hours: Friday 9:00-10:00,

More information

Integration and Coordination of the Human Body. Nervous System

Integration and Coordination of the Human Body. Nervous System I. General Info Integration and Coordination of the Human Body A. Both the and system are responsible for maintaining 1. Homeostasis is the process by which organisms keep internal conditions despite changes

More information

Anatomy Review. Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.

Anatomy Review. Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc. Anatomy Review Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1. Introduction The structure of neurons reflects their function.

More information

U N IT 10 NE RVOUS SYS TE M REVIEW 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B.

U N IT 10 NE RVOUS SYS TE M REVIEW 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. U N IT 10 NE RVOUS SYS TE M REVIEW 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C. increased blood flow to muscle tissue

More information

Animal Systems: The Nervous System

Animal Systems: The Nervous System Animal Systems: The Nervous System Your joys and your sorrows, your memories and your ambitions, your sense of personal identity and free will are, in fact, no more than the behaviour of a vast assembly

More information

4. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelial tissue is found in (on) the A) skin. B) trachea. C) blood vessels. D) digestive tract.

4. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelial tissue is found in (on) the A) skin. B) trachea. C) blood vessels. D) digestive tract. Chapter 4: Body Tissues and Membranes 1. Which tissue covers surfaces and lines cavities? A) connective B) epithelial C) muscle D) connective and muscle 2. Epithelial tissue A) prevents drying. B) secretes

More information

Chapter 9. The Nervous System. Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006, 2002, 1997, 1992 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

Chapter 9. The Nervous System. Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006, 2002, 1997, 1992 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Chapter 9 The Nervous System Objectives List the organs and divisions of the nervous system and describe the generalized functions of the system as a whole Identify the major types of cells in the nervous

More information

Unit 1 Lesson 5 The Nervous and Endocrine Systems Essential Question: How do the nervous and endocrine system work?

Unit 1 Lesson 5 The Nervous and Endocrine Systems Essential Question: How do the nervous and endocrine system work? Unit 1 Lesson 5 The Nervous and Endocrine Systems Essential Question: How do the nervous and endocrine system work? Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company P60 What is the function of the

More information

Functions of the Nervous System

Functions of the Nervous System NAME PERIOD MY TEST DATE: STUDY GUIDE UNIT 9 The Human Body NERVOUS SYSTEM TEST FORMAT: 10 Fill-Ins (using word bank) 20 Multiple choice DIAGRAMS: Neuron Brain DIAGRAMS + OPEN RESPONSE: Label the diagram

More information

Anatomy Review Graphics are used with permission of: adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl.com/bc).

Anatomy Review Graphics are used with permission of: adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl.com/bc). Page 1. Introduction The structure of neurons reflects their function. One part of the cell receives incoming signals. Another part generates outgoing signals. Anatomy Review Graphics are used with permission

More information

Psych 2200, Lecture 2

Psych 2200, Lecture 2 Honors Conversion Discussion Group Wed 3:30-4:30 PM Organizational meeting, Wed Sept 9 3:30p Room 109 Bousfield (Psych) Syllabus available at: www.fitchlab.com Psych 2200, Lecture 2 Mammalian Brain Anatomy

More information

Exercise 5 Nervous Tissue

Exercise 5 Nervous Tissue Exercise 5 Nervous Tissue Objectives After completing the laboratory exercise for nervous tissue you should be able to: Introduction Identify a "typical" multipolar neuron in the light microscope. Identify

More information

Nervous System Section 35 1 Human Body Systems (pages )

Nervous System Section 35 1 Human Body Systems (pages ) Name Period Chap 35.1, 35.2, 35.3, 36.1, 36.2, 36.3, and 38.3 A look at cells, tissues, organs, organ systems of humans as well as the role of passive and active transport in nerve and muscle conduction

More information

Vocab Term Definition of Term Example An individual nerve cell. Carries and processes information.

Vocab Term Definition of Term Example An individual nerve cell. Carries and processes information. Chapter and Topic of this Review Guide: Chapter 2 the Brain pages 52-62 and the Psychology in Action Vocab Term Definition of Term Example Neuron An individual nerve cell. Carries and processes information.

More information

Neurophysiology. Study of the cellular properties of nerve cells and how these properties give rise to behaviors from simple to complex

Neurophysiology. Study of the cellular properties of nerve cells and how these properties give rise to behaviors from simple to complex Neurophysiology Study of the cellular properties of nerve cells and how these properties give rise to behaviors from simple to complex Levels of organization of the nervous system From Shepherd Neurobiology,

More information

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Somatic efferent and ANS Somatic Efferent Control is over skeletal muscles. External environment This division of the PNS responds to some change in the external environment. single

More information

Autonomic Nervous System Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi

Autonomic Nervous System Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi Autonomic Nervous System Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi Nervous System Divisions of the nervous system The human nervous system consists of the central nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).

More information

Neurophysiology. 2.1 Equilibrium Potential

Neurophysiology. 2.1 Equilibrium Potential 2 Neurophysiology 2.1 Equilibrium Potential An understanding of the concepts of electrical and chemical forces that act on ions, electrochemical equilibrium, and equilibrium potential is a powerful tool

More information

North Bergen School District Benchmarks

North Bergen School District Benchmarks Grade: 10,11, and 12 Subject: Anatomy and Physiology First Marking Period Define anatomy and physiology, and describe various subspecialties of each discipline. Describe the five basic functions of living

More information

IV. Anatomy of a Neuron aka. A nerve cell: * various sizes; from < 1mm to 1 meter in length * various nerve impulse speeds; from 0.

IV. Anatomy of a Neuron aka. A nerve cell: * various sizes; from < 1mm to 1 meter in length * various nerve impulse speeds; from 0. IV. Anatomy of a Neuron aka. A nerve cell: * various sizes; from < 1mm to 1 meter in length * various nerve impulse speeds; from 0.5 to 395 meters/sec [1to280 miles/hour] How do Neurons communicate? Neurons

More information

Nervous system overview - Review Ch. 2; pp ; pp

Nervous system overview - Review Ch. 2; pp ; pp Lecture 02: Introduction to CNS/PNS Objectives: Gain an understanding of the central nervous system (CNS) Gain an understanding of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) Nervous system overview - Review Ch.

More information

Localization of Certain Neurons Neurotransmitters Nerve Conduction. by: Mary V. Andrianopoulos, Ph.D

Localization of Certain Neurons Neurotransmitters Nerve Conduction. by: Mary V. Andrianopoulos, Ph.D Localization of Certain Neurons Neurotransmitters Nerve Conduction by: Mary V. Andrianopoulos, Ph.D Clarification: Types of Neuron There may be none, one, or many dendrites composing part of a neuron.

More information

Nervous System Function:

Nervous System Function: Nervous System Function: It regulates and coordinates many of the other systems. It controls memory and logical thought, and it gives the body the ability to react or respond to both internal and external

More information

Explore the Neuroscience for Kids Web Site (ANSWERS) Start at: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neurok.html

Explore the Neuroscience for Kids Web Site (ANSWERS) Start at: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neurok.html NAME Explore the Neuroscience for Kids Web Site (ANSWERS) Start at: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neurok.html On the left side, click on Explore, then click on The Neuron, then click on Millions

More information

Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology. Chapter 7. The Nervous System. Slides Lecture Slides in PowerPoint by Jerry L.

Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology. Chapter 7. The Nervous System. Slides Lecture Slides in PowerPoint by Jerry L. Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Elaine N. Marieb Seventh Edition Chapter 7 The Nervous System Slides 7.1 7.102 Lecture Slides in PowerPoint by Jerry L. Cook Functions of the Nervous System Sensory

More information

Unit 5: Nerve Tissue. Neurons, fibers, fascicles, & ganglia

Unit 5: Nerve Tissue. Neurons, fibers, fascicles, & ganglia 81 Unit 5: Nerve Tissue Neurons, fibers, fascicles, & ganglia 82 Introduction and Objectives The structural and functional unit of nerve tissue is the nerve cell, or neuron. There are over 10 billion of

More information

Chapter 15: The Autonomic Nervous System

Chapter 15: The Autonomic Nervous System Chapter 15: The Autonomic Nervous System Chapter Objectives COMPARISON OF SOMATIC AND AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEMS 1. Compare the structural and functional differences between the somatic and autonomic nervous

More information

Nerves and Conduction of Nerve Impulses

Nerves and Conduction of Nerve Impulses A. Introduction 1. Innovation in Cnidaria - Nerve net a. We need to talk more about nerves b. Cnidaria have simple nerve net - 2 way conduction c. Basis for more complex system in Vertebrates B. Vertebrate

More information

Human Movement Systems: Nervous System

Human Movement Systems: Nervous System Human Movement Systems: Nervous System Objectives After this presentation, the participant will be able to explain: The Human Movement System Nervous System Organization Sensory, integrative and motor

More information

Nervous Tissue IUSM Lab 10 Nervous Tissue I. Learning Objectives. Introduction

Nervous Tissue IUSM Lab 10 Nervous Tissue I. Learning Objectives. Introduction Lab 10 Nervous Tissue I. II. III. IV. Introduction Nervous Tissue Learning Objectives Keywords Slides V. Summary SEM of myelinated axons in a peripheral nerve. Nervous Tissue 1. Nervous tissue integrates

More information