Anatomy & Physiology Neural Tissue Worksheet

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1 Anatomy & Physiology Neural Tissue Worksheet 1. Name the two major subdivisions of the nervous system Nervous System Nervous System 2. Name the two parts (organs) of the CNS 3. What are the three functions of the nervous system? c) 4. Fill out the chart concerning neuroglial cells. Neuroglial Cell Astrocytes Microglia Oligodendrocyte Schwann Cell Location CNS or PNS Function 5. Motor (AKA afferent / efferent) neurons carry impulses towards/away from the CNS and towards/away muscles or glands. 6. Associative neurons are also called and are found in the CNS/PNS. 7. What type of neuron carries impulses to the brain and spinal cord? 8. What is the function of myelin sheaths around the axons? 9. What cells produce myelin sheaths in the PNS? CNS? 10. What are the three classifications of neurons based upon their structure? c) 11. Where are bipolar neurons found in the body? 12. What are the three classifications of neurons based upon their functions? c) 13. Impulses are carried towards the soma of a nerve cell by the. 14. What neuroglial cell is responsible for the presence of white matter in the brain? 1

2 15. The approximate resting potential of a typical neuron is mv. 16. Sodium-potassium Pumps transport Na into / out of a cell and K into / out of a cell. 17. The resting membrane potential consists of a cell cytoplasm that contains a higher concentration of ions and a lower concentration of ions than the surrounding extracellular fluid. 18. Depolarization of a membrane will shift the membrane potential from mv to mv. 19. The movement of the membrane potential back to the resting potential level is called. 20. The All-or-None Law states that an action potential will. 21. The sequential depolarization of the membrane along an axon causes transmission of the nerve impulse. This is also called an. 22. The period during which the neuron cannot respond to a second stimulus, no matter how strong is the Refractory Period. 23. The minimum level of a stimulus at which depolarization of an axon will occur is called the stimulus. 24. Summation is the adding of stimuli until a minimum level is reached thus causing depolarization. 25. The junction or space between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of the next neuron is called a. 26. The Latin phrase for the leaping of axon impulse over the myelin sheaths is known as. 27. The spaces between the myelin sheaths are called. 28. The speed of an impulse is based upon what two factors 29. Chemicals that are released by the axon knob are called. 30. What is the space between the axon knob and the receptor membrane called? 31. The neurotransmitters cause to occur in the post-synaptic membrane. 32. The most common excitatory neurotransmitter is 33. Ach is broken down by (abbreviation). 34. Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disorder that destroys the. 2

3 35. Polio is a viral infection that attacks neurons. 36. Rabies is a viral infection that is absorbed through the synaptic. 37. During rabies, what symptom causes the mammal to act crazy? foam at the mouth? Matching Neuron structure (some will be used more than once.) Axon Axon terminal c) Soma d) Dendrite e) Myelin sheath f) Node of Ranvier g) Synapse 38. Releases neurotransmitters 39. Conducts local currents towards the soma 40. Damaged during multiple sclerosis 41. Increases the speed of impulse transmission 42. Location of the nucleus 43. Gaps in the myelin sheaths 44. Junctions between nerve cells 45. Conducts impulses away from the soma 46. Shorter branches that taper off the cell body 47. Formed by Schwann cells in the PNS 48. Longer processes (up to 3-4 feet long) 49. Causes white matter of the brain Label the parts of the Nerve Cell

4 For the following picture of a chemical synapse, label it and color it as directed. (see pg 233) Label the numbered boxes using Color the following structures using the lettered choices below colored pencils A. Synaptic cleft Neurotransmitter molecules BLUE B. Mitochondria Na ions - RED C. Synaptic vesicles D. Axon knob E. Post-synaptic membrane F. Neurotransmitter receptors G. Ion channels

5 65. Define the following terms: a. Neuron b. Neuroglia c. Central nervous system (CNS) d. Peripheral nervous system (PNS) e. Dendrites f. Axon g. Myelin h. Receptor i. Afferent (sensory) neuron j. Interneuron (associative) k. Efferent (motor) neuron l. Effector m. Polarized n. Depolarization o. Repolarization p. Action potential q. Synaptic cleft r. Acetylcholine (ACh) 66. Describe how action potentials are generated and propagated along neurons. (Use correct terminology, complete sentences and a detail.) 5

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