GRECO ROMAN WORLD PART II ROME: FROM BEGINNING TO END 509 BCE

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1 GRECO ROMAN WORLD ROME: FROM BEGINNING TO END 753 BCE the legendary date for the founding of Rome Romulus and Remus, twin brothers and sons of Mars, founded the the city on the Tiber river PART II 509 BCE 600 to 509 BCE Rome was a monarchy influenced a great deal by the more civilized Etruscans who lived north of Rome Rome founds a republic Two classes form the basis of society patricians and plebeians Patricians began with all the power and rights Plebeians has none As Rome expanded its influence in the Italian peninsula, plebeians grew wealthier and demanded more rights conflict was a constant source of tension in republic The Roman Republic The republic was governed by two consuls, elected annually by the Senate. The Senate was the highest body of Rome. Eventually the office of tribune was established to protect plebeian rights. Three bodies worked in a system of checks and balances for much of the republic The first codified law was called the Twelve Tables. Created harsh penalties but guaranteed that all free citizens had a right to protection under the law. Rome relies on expansion and its army Throughout the early republic, Rome continued to expand its influence over the Italian peninsula, including the takeover of former Greek colonies in Southern Italy and Sicily As their influence spread, Romans came into conflict with the Carthaginians. Carthage was a powerful trading and sea power located in North Africa Cincinnatus 1

2 Punic Wars The two powers fought a series of three wars from 264 to 146 BCE During the Second Punic War, Carthaginian general, Hannibal, marched from North Africa through Spain and across the Alps to attack Rome from the north. The Roman army could not stop Hannibal, who pillaged and looted northern Italy for 13 years. Hannibal's conquests sent a stream of refugees to Rome. The presence of these poor put a great stress on Rome's economic and political systems. The End of the Republic In the final years of the republic, several leaders sought reform chief among them were the Gracchi Brothers. The attempts were unsuccessful due in part to the many poor who had to sell themselves into slavery The First Triumvirate During the next 10 years, the three ruled Rome and its provinces. Julius Caesar grew increasingly popular due to his conquests in Gaul. When Crassus died, Pompey and the Senate feared Caesar's strength and summoned him back to Rome without his army Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon back into Italy with his army, violating the Senate's orders. This act began a civil war between Pompey and Caesar By 60 BCE, Rome fell into civil war between generals who had created their own private armies. To end the bloodshed Rome created the First Triumvirate of the three most powerful generals: Julius Caesar, Crassus the Rich, and Pompey. In 46 BCE Julius Caesar defeats Pompey He is made dictator for 10 years and institutes reforms: grants citizenship to people in the provinces expands the Senate by adding non Romans sets up public works programs founded 20 colonies to siphon off Rome's poor establishes a solar calendar Fear of Julius Caesar's power On March 15, 44 BCE, Senators Brutus and Cassius assassinated Julius Caesar, citing an ancient Roman law that anyone who attempts to be king can be killed for the good of Rome. Months (Roman) Lengths before 45 BC Lengths as of 45 BC Months (English) Ianuarius[2] January Februarius 28 (leap years: 23 or 24) 28 (leap years: ) February Mercedonius/Intercalaris 0 (leap years: 27) (abolished) Martius March Aprilis April Maius May Iunius[2] June Quintilis[3] (Iulius) July Sextilis (Augustus) August September September October October November November December December 2

3 New Civil War A second civil war resulted in the Second Triumvirate: Octavian, Julius Caesar's heir, Lepidus, and Marc Antony The triumvirate ruled for 10 years, but collapsed Octavian defeated Lepidus and then Marc Antony in the Battle of Actium in BCE Augustus and the Roman Empire Octavian created an empire and renamed himself Augustus in 27 BCE. He established the Pax Romana in which he and his successors ruled "peacefully" until CE180. Augustus instituted many reforms that helped to keep the empire intact for hundreds of years Built a system of roads to connect all provinces Universal coinage Eliminated tariffs between provinces, leading to a great trading empire Created a civil service, based on merit DID NOT establish a system for peacefully choosing a new emperor, a factor which would contribute to the fall of Rome Beginning of the Fall of Rome The fall of Rome dates to 476, but began in the 3rd century after a number of crises weakened the empire: Trade was disrupted by Germanic tribes (barbarians) and pirates Roman treasury was depleted by the cost of wars and lavish living Soil in the western half of the empire was overworked and depleted Inflation became widespread and the monetary system devalued Loyalty of the troops waned due to a greater reliance on non Romans Bureaucracy began to fall apart because civil servants were required to make up tax deficits Later Emperors try to save Rome In the late 3rd century, Diocletian tried numerous reforms to stem decline, including: price reforms enlarging the army new persecutions of the Christians the biggest reform: divide the empire into two halves The two sections became completely independent of each other. Each being ruled by a caesar. 3

4 Divided Empire The east began to thrive as it had more resources than the west. East spoke Greek and adopted an increasingly Greek way of life West spoke Latin and continued to decline Christianity In 3, the emperor Constantine converted to Christianity and declared it an approved religion in the empire by the Edict of Milan In 395 emperor Theodosius declared Christianity the official religion of the empire; thus changing both the nature of Christianity and the values of Rome The End of Rome in the West Beginning in 376, the Roman Empire, primarily in the west, was overrun by Germanic tribes looking to escape more ferocious people in Asia and for a better life. These tribes included the Goths, Ostrogoths, Franks, Burgundians, Vandals, Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Lombards, and Huns Attila The final blow came to the Western Roman Empire in 476 when the last Roman emperor, Romulus Augustus, lost his throne to the barbarian general, Odoacer. While the west was gone, the Eastern Roman empire flourished for another 1,000 years under the name of the Byzantine Empire Rome's Legacy Latin, Rome's language, is the root of many modern languages Engineering achievements used for centuries Having adopted most of the Greek culture, Greco Roman culture preserved many of the Greek ideals, while Rome added ideas of Epicureanism and Stoicism. Roman authors contributed to the history of the world Livy and Tacitus The creation of a system of law, which provided the foundation of legal thought in the middle ages. Rome's vastness help to spread the new religion, Christianity Early Christianity Originally a sect of Judaism Spread to non Jews by St. Paul Reaches Rome as early as 70 CE Persecutions partly based on the perception that Christians were secret cannibals Early Christians in the empire were usually poor, female, and slaves 4

5 Early Christianity Religion offered hope to the disenfranchised Suffering endured in this world = reward in afterlife Clandestine meetings = support groups Women often had equal status with men By ~0 CE, about 40% of the Roman Empire was Christian How Rome Changed Christianity Authority in the early church became formalized.rome began to organize the hierarchy of the church under the central authority of the Bishop of Rome. The church became wealthy. Large churches and cathedrals are built Bishops began to political authority as well as advisory positions to secular authorities Women lost power. Men took control of all ceremonies. The beliefs of Christianity are codified. Heresies are persecuted by civil authorities. Constantine called the Council of Nicaea, resulting in the Nicene Creed. Gospel stories collected into an authorized version of the Bible How Christianity Changed Rome Persecutions of Christians stopped Monotheism adopted. Polytheism slowly disappeared Personal nature of Christian salvation limited participation in public life (further led to decline of Roman culture) TITLE POPE CARDINAL Roman Catholic Church Hierarchy DESCRIPTION OF AREA OF DUTIES OR AUTHORITY AUTHORITY EQUIVALENT POSITIONS ARCHBISHOP BISHOP PRIEST DEACON 5

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