# Chapter Thirteen. Physical Properties Of Solutions

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1 Chapter Thirteen Physical Properties Of Solutions 1

2 Solvent: Solute: Solution: Solubility: Types of Solutions Larger portion of a solution Smaller portion of a solution A homogeneous mixture of 2 or more compounds Measure of maximum amount of solute in solution 2

3 Solubility Terms Saturated solution Maximum amount of solute that stays in solution Any additional will precipitate Unsaturated solution Contains less solute than in saturated solution Supersaturated solution more solute than in saturated solution Extremely unstable 3 Crystallization Extra solute in supersaturated solution precipitates Forms crystals Precipitation Solid comes out of solution, not always a crystal

4 Solubility As A Function Of Temperature 4

5 Solvent/Solute Intermolecular Forces and Polarity The rule of thumb is that "like dissolves like. 5 Intermolecular forces strongest for similar compounds Polar solvent/polar solute Nonpolar solvent/nonpolar solute Solvent and solute are miscible Fully dissolve in one another Stable as a solution Examples: /methanol solutions Dissolution of ionic salts in H 2 O CCl 4 in benzene, C 6 H 6

6 Concentration Units 6 Molarity (M): Moles solute divided by the volume (L) of solution Unit: mol/l Percent by mass Grams solute divided by the amount of solution (in grams) multiplied by 100% Unitless: mass units cancel out ppm: part per million (1g/1x10 6 g) Molality (m) Denominator is kg solvent, not solution! Removes temperature dependence as it is mass based Unit: mol/kg solvent

7 A 14.00% by mass acetic acid solution has a density of g/ml. What is its molarity? Molarity moles Lsolution Moles 14.00g 1mole x mole g Volume of solution ml Lsolution 100.0gsolutionx mL 1.020g Molarity mol M M L solution HOAC solution 7

8 A 14.00% by mass acetic acid solution has a density of g/ml. What is its molality? Molality Moles 14.00g 1 Mass of solvent moles Kg 1mole x 60.05g mole HOAC 8 Molality m Mass g 14.00g g mol Kg solution m

9 The Solubilities Of Gases: Effect of Temperature Gases are less soluble in liquids as temp. increases 9 Molecules move faster break intermolecular forces Bounce free of the liquid Les gas in liquid Lower solubility O 2 solubility In sealed container, pressure will increase Gas laws will govern gas phase and thus solubility Review chapter 5

10 The Solubilities Of Gases: Effect of Pressure Gases are more soluble in liquids as pressure increases Molecules too close together so they are forced back into liquid 10 Henry s Law ckp c solubility or concentration P pressure k proportionality constant, If using gas laws, c moles/l and P atm

11 At 0 C, L of CO 2 at STP dissolves in ml of solution. What is the [CO 2 ] in a solution at 1250 torr? First determine the molarity of the solution at STP Moles CO L and 1 mole at STP 22.4 L LCO 2 1molCO 2 x molCO L mol 1 CO CO x. 0765M 0.100L soln CO 2 11 Find the value of the Henry's law constant, k k Solubility/Pressure P 1.00 atm c M at STP M k M/1.00atm M/atm Find the solubility at the new pressure 1250 torr x 1atm/760 torr 1.65 atm c kp M/atm x 1.65 atm 0.126M

12 Raoult s Law: Vapor Pressures of Solutions P a X a xp a 12 P a : Vapor pressure of solvent a above a solution P o a:vapor pressure of pure solvent a x a : Mole fraction of a in the solution moles i x i Molestotal solution Works perfectly for ideal solutions total moles Works for the solvent in dilute solutions Solvent molecules in similar environment to pure solvent. n n i

13 If is the solvent, what is the mole fraction of acetic acid in the 14.00% CH 3 COOH solution Mole Fraction (x i ) x i mole mole solution 13 Moles Mole x g Moles solution 86.0g mole Mole mole soln 0.233mole mole 5. 00molessoln x i X 0.233moles 5.00moles solution

14 What is the vapor pressure of in a solution that 14 contains 10.0% sucrose, C 12 H at 40 C, where the vapor pressure of pure is 55.5 torr? Determine amount of each component in g 100.0g 10.0g g solution sucrose Determine moles of all components 10.0g 1mol sucrose sucrose Moles sucrose x gsucrose mol sucrose 90.0g 1mol Moles x g mol

15 What is the vapor pressure of in a solution that 15 contains 10.0% sucrose, C 12 H at 40 C, where the vapor pressure of pure is 55.5 torr? Determine mole fraction of in the solution x 5.00mol 1 x 5.00mol mol sucrose Determine vapor pressure at 55.5 torr P X xp x P o 55.5 torr P 0.994x55.5torr 55. 2torr

16 Solutions Of Electrolytes 16 Colligative properties: Physical properties of solutions that depend on the number of solute particles present but not on the identity of solute. Boiling Point, Freezing Point, Osmotic Pressure van t Hoff factor, i Used to modify the equations for colligative properties For nonelectrolytic solutions, i 1. For a solution of electrolytes, i is equal to the number of ions a substance dissociates into in solution. For NaCl, i 2 and for Pb(NO 3 ) 2, i 3

17 Boiling Point Elevation Vapor pressure above a solution is always less than vapor pressure above pure solvent. 1. Higher temperature needed for vapor pressure to hit 1 atm. 2. Boiling point of solution higher than boiling point of pure solvent 3. Boiling Point Elevation Depends on: Type of solvent # of solute particles 17 T b ik b m T b T b - T b m solute molality

18 Freezing Point Depression The solution freezes at a lower temperature than if pure. Depends on solvent & # of solute particles 18 T f ik f m T f T f - T f Only the pure solvent freezes out Solution is more concentrated. Solution freezes at a lower temp. Broad range for melting points. Pure substances:"sharp" mp Impure materials: broader range

19 For cyclohexane, K f 20.0 C/m and T f 6.55 C. A solution of 2.366g solute in 82.10g cyclohexane freezes at 2.65 C. Determine the molar mass of the solute. First determine the molality of the solution m T K f f (6.55 C 2.65 C) m x C 0.195m 0.195moles 1Kg cyclohexane solute 19 Determine the moles of solute in the solution 0.195moles 1Kg cyclohexane solute Kg x 1 cyclohexane mol solute Calculate molar mass of solute 2.366gsolute 147grams moles mol solute solute solute

20 Constants 20

21 Osmotic Pressure Semi-permeable membranes: Materials with tiny pores that allow solvent molecules to pass, but not solute. Osmosis: Net flow of solvent molecules through a semipermeable membrane from dilute to concentrated solution. Osmotic Pressure (π ): Pressure needed to stop flow P constant: V π depends on: Concentration Temperature π imrt M molarity R gas constant T temperature 21

22 Practical Applications Of Osmosis Isotonic Solution: Organ Transplantation Same π on both sides of membrane Organs would burst in 22 Hypertonic Solution: Food Preservation Higher π outside the membrane Salt pulls from microbes and kills them Hypotonic Solution: Tree Growth Lower π outside the membrane Water pulled through sap to top of trees Reverse osmosis: Water Purification Reversing the net flow of solvent through the membrane by applying pressure greater than osmotic pressure.

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