# Chemical Proportions in Compounds

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1 Chapter 3 Chemical Proportions in Compounds Note to teacher: You will notice that there are two different formats for the Sample Problems in the student textbook. Where appropriate, the Sample Problem contains the full set of steps: Problem, What Is Required, What Is Given,, Act on Your Strategy, and. Where a shorter solution is appropriate, the Sample Problem contains only two steps: Problem and Solution. Where relevant, a Check Your Solution step is also included in the shorter Sample Problems. Solutions for Practice Problems Student Textbook page Problem A sample of a compound is analyzed and found to contain 0.90 g of calcium and 1.60 g of chlorine. The sample has a mass of 2.50 g. Find the percentage composition of the compound. You need to find the mass percents of calcium and chlorine in the compound. You know the mass of the compound, as well as the mass of each element in the compound. Mass of compound 2.50 g Mass of Ca 0.90 g Mass of Cl 1.60 g To find the percentage composition of the compound, find the mass percent of each element. To do this, divide the mass of each element by the mass of the compound and multiply by 100%. Mass of Ca Mass percent of Ca Mass of compound 0.90 g 2.50 g 36% Mass of Cl Mass percent of Cl Mass of compound 1.60 g 2.50 g 64% The percentage composition of the compound is 36% calcium and 64% chlorine. The mass of calcium is 0.90 g per 2.50 g of the compound. This is a little over one third of the mass of the compound, which is close to the calculated value of 36%. 43

2 2. Problem Find the percentage composition of a pure substance that contains 7.22 g nickel, 2.53 g phosphorus, and 5.25 g oxygen only. You need to find the mass percents of nickel, phosphorus, and oxygen in the pure substance. You know the mass of each element in the compound. Mass of Ni 7.22 g Mass of P 2.53 g Mass of O 5.25 g First calculate the mass of the pure substance. According to the law of conservation of mass, the mass of any compound is the sum of the masses of its component elements. Then, to find the percentage composition of the compound, find the mass percent of each element. To do this, divide the mass of each element by the mass of the compound and multiply by 100%. Mass of the pure substance mass of Ni + mass of P + mass of O 7.22 g g g g Mass percent of Ni mass of Ni mass of substance 7.22 g g 48.% 1 Mass percent of P mass of P mass of substance 2.53 g g 16.% 9 Mass percent of O mass of O mass of substance 5.25 g g 35.% 0 The percentage composition of the pure substance is 48.1% nickel, 16.9% phosphorus, and 35.0% oxygen. The mass of nickel is 7.22 g per g of the compound. This is roughly 50%, which is close to the calculated value of 48.1%. 3. Problem A sample of a compound is analyzed and found to contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The mass of the sample is 650 mg, and the sample contains 257 mg of carbon and 50.4 mg of hydrogen. What is the percentage composition of the compound? 44

3 You need to find the mass percents of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the compound. You know the mass of the compound, as well as the mass of carbon and hydrogen in the compound. Mass of compound 650 mg Mass of C 257 mg Mass of H 50.4 mg First calculate the mass of oxygen in the compound. According to the Law of Conservation of Mass, the mass of any compound is the sum of the masses of its component elements. To find the percentage composition of the compound, find the mass percent of each element. To do this, divide the mass of each element by the mass of the compound and multiply by 100%. Mass of O mass of compound -(mass of C + mass of H) mg -( 257 mg mg) 343 mg Mass percent of C mass of C mass of compound 257 mg 650 mg 39.% 5 Mass percent of H mass of H mass of compound 50.4 mg 650 mg 78.% Mass percent of O mass of O mass of substance 343 g 650 g 52.% 8 The percentage composition of the compound is 39.5% carbon, 7.8% hydrogen, and 52.8% oxygen. The mass of oxygen is mg per 650 mg of the compound. This is roughly 50%, which is close to the calculated value of 52.7%. 4. Problem A scientist analyzes a 50.0 g sample and finds that it contains 13.3 g of potassium, 17.7 g of chromium, and another element. Later the scientist learns that the sample is potassium dichromate, K 2 Cr 2 O 7. Potassium dichromate is a bright orange compound that is used in the production of safety matches. What is the percentage composition of potassium dichromate? You need to find the mass percents of potassium, chromium, and oxygen in the potassium dichromate. 45

4 You know the mass of potassium dichromate, as well as the mass of the potassium and chromium in the compound. Mass of K 2 Cr 2 O g Mass of K 13.3 g Mass of Cr 17.7 g First calculate the mass of oxygen in the compound. According to the Law of Conservation of Mass, the mass of any compound is the sum of the masses of its component elements. To find the percentage composition of the compound, find the mass percent of each element. To do this, divide the mass of each element by the mass of the compound and multiply by 100%. Mass of O mass of K 2 Cr 2 O 7 - (mass of K + mass of Cr) 50.0 g - (13.3 g g) 19.0 g Mass percent of K mass of K mass of compound 13.3 g 50.0 g 26.% 6 Mass percent of Cr mass of Cr mass of compound 17.7 g 50.0 g 35.% 4 Mass percent of O mass of O mass of compound 19.0 g 50.0 g 38.% 0 The percentage composition of the compound is 26.6% potassium, 35.4% chromium, and 38.0% oxygen. The mass of oxygen is mg per 650 mg of the compound. This is roughly 50%, which is close to the calculated value of 52.7%. Solutions for Practice Problems Student Textbook page Problem Calculate the mass percent of nitrogen in each compound. (a) N 2 O (b) Sr(NO 3 ) 2 (c) NH 4 NO 3 (d) HNO 3 You need to find the mass percent of nitrogen in the compounds listed. The molecular formula of each compound is given. This gives the total number of elements of each type in one mole of the compound. (a) N 2 O 2Nand1O (c) NH 4 NO 3 2N,4H,and 3 O (b) Sr(NO 3 ) 2 1Sr,2N,and6O (d) HNO 3 1H,1N,and 3 O 46

5 First calculate the molar mass of each compound. This is the sum of the molar masses of its component elements. To find the mass percent of nitrogen in the compound, divide the total molar mass of nitrogen in each compound by the molar mass of the compound, and multiply by 100%. (a) Molar mass of N 2 O 2(molar mass of N) + molar mass of O 2(14.01 g/mol) g/mol g/mol Total molar mass of N in N 2 O 2(molar mass of N) 2(14.01 g/mol) g/mol Mass percent N in N O total molar mass of N 2 molar mass of N O g/mol g/mol % (b) Molar mass of Sr(NO 3 ) 2 molar mass of Sr + 2(molar mass of N) + 6(molar mass of O) g/mol + 2(14.01 g/mol) + 6(16.00 g/mol) g/mol Total molar mass of N in Sr(NO 3 ) 2 2(molar mass of N) + molar mass of O 2(14.01 g/mol) g/mol g/mol Mass percent N in Sr(NO total molar mass of N 3 ) molar mass of Sr(NO3 ) g/mol g/mol % (c) Molar mass of NH 4 NO 3 2 (molar mass of N) + 4(molar mass of H) + 3(molar mass of O) 2(14.01 g/mol) + 4(1.01 g/mol) + 3(16.00 g/mol) g/mol Total molar mass of N in NH 4 NO 3 2(molar mass of N) 2(14.01 g/mol) g/mol Mass percent N in NH NO total molar mass of N 4 3 molar mass of NH NO g/mol g/mol % (d) Molar mass of HNO 3 molar mass of H + molar mass of N + 3(molar mass of O) 1.01 g/mol g/mol + 3(16.00 g/mol) g/mol Total molar mass of N in HNO 3 1(molar mass of N) g/mol 47

6 Mass percent N in HNO You can calculate the mass percent of the other elements in each compound in the same way. The total mass percents should equal 100%. For example, in N 2 O, the g/mol mass percent of O is %. The mass percent of the nitrogen g/mol was 63.65%. Both mass percents total 100%. 6. Problem Ammonia, NH 3, has a strong, distinctive odour. Determine the percentage composition of ammonia. What is Required? You need to find the mass percents of nitrogen and hydrogen in ammonia. What is given? The molecular formula of ammonia is NH 3. The periodic table is available for the molar masses of nitrogen and hydrogen. Plan your Strategy Use the molar masses of nitrogen and hydrogen and the formula NH 3 to determine the molar mass of ammonia. Calculate the mass percents of nitrogen and hydrogen by dividing the mass the mass of each element by the molar mass of NH 3 and multiplying by 100%. molar mass of NH g/mol g/mol mass percent nitrogen g/mol 82.22% 3(1.01 g/mol) mass percent hydrogen 17.78% g/mol The mass percents add to 100%. 3 total molar mass of N molar mass of HNO g/mol g/mol % 7. Problem Potassium nitrate, KNO 3, is used in fireworks. What is the mass percent of oxygen in potassium nitrate? What Is required? You need to find the mass percent of oxygen in the potassium nitrate. The molecular formula of KNO 3 is given. This indicates the number of elements of each type in the compound. KNO 3 1K,1N,and 3 O First determine the molar mass of the compound. To find the mass percent of oxygen, divide the total molar mass of oxygen by the molar mass of the compound and multiply by 100%. 48

7 Molar mass of KNO 3 molar mass of K + molar mass of N + 3(molar mass of O) g/mol g/mol + 3(16.00 g/mol) g/mol Total molar mass of O 3(molar mass of O) 3(16.00 g/mol) g/mol Total molar mass of O Mass percent of O Molar mass KNO g/mol g/mol 47.47% You can calculate the mass percent of the other elements in the compound in the same way. The total mass percents should add up to 100%. 8. Problem A mining company wishes to extract manganese metal from pyrolusite ore, MnO 2. (a) What is the percentage composition of pyrolusite ore? (b) Use your answer from part (a) to calculate the mass of pure manganese that can be extracted from 250 kg pyrolusite ore. (a) You need to find the mass percents of manganese and oxygen in the pyrolusite ore. (b) You need to find the mass of the manganese in 250 kg of pyrolusite ore. What Is given? (a) The molecular formula of pyrolusite ore is given. This indicates the number of elements of each type in the compound. MnO 2 1Mnand2O (b) The mass of the pyrolusite is given. MnO kg (a) First determine the molar mass of the compound. To find the mass percent of each element, divide the total molar mass of the element by the molar mass of the compound and multiply by 100%. (b) To find the mass of manganese in the pyrolusite ore, multiply the mass percent of manganese by the mass of the ore. First determine the molar mass of the compound. To find the mass percent of oxygen, divide the total molar mass of oxygen by the molar mass of the compound and multiply by 100%. (a) Molar mass of MnO 2 molar mass of Mn + 2(molar mass of O) g/mol + 2(16.00 g/mol) g/mol Mass percent of Mn Total molar mass of Mn Molar mass of MnO g/mol g/mol 63.19% 49

8 Mass percent of O Total molar mass of O Molar mass of MnO g/mol g/mol 36.81% The percentage composition of pyrolusite ore is 63.19% manganese and 36.81% oxygen. (b) The mass of manganese in 250 kg of MNO2 mass percent of Mn 250 kg kg kg (a) The mass percents add up to 100%. (b) Calculated similarly, the mass of oxygen in the pyrolusite ore is 36.81% 250 kg 92 kg. The masses of manganese and oxygen (i.e. 158 kg + 92 kg) add up to 250 kg. Solutions for Practice Problems Student Textbook page Problem A compound consists of 17.6% hydrogen and 82.4% nitrogen. Determine the empirical formula of the compound. You need to find the empirical formula of the compound. You know the percentage composition of the compound. You have access to a periodic table. Assume you have 100 g of the compound. From the given mass percents of the elements in the compound, you can determine the mass of the element. This means you have 17.6 g of hydrogen and 82.4 g of nitrogen. Convert each mass to moles using the molar mass of the element. The number of moles can then be converted into a lower terms ratio of the element to get the empirical formula. Number of moles of H in 100 g sample mass of H molar mass of H 17.6 g 1.01 g / mol mol Number of moles of N in 100 g sample mass of N molar mass of N 82.4 g g / mol The lowest whole number ratio molar amount lowest molar amount H N ÆH N Æ H N mol 5.88 mol 5.88 mol 5.88 mol mol 50

9 Alternatively, you can set your solution as a table. Element H N Mass percent (%) The empirical formula of the compound is H 3 N 1 or NH 3. Work backward. Calculate the percentage composition of NH g/mol Mass percent of N 100% g/mol % 303. g/mol Mass percent of N 100% g/mol % These calculated values are very close to the given percentage compositions (variations arise depending on the periodic table value used for the molar mass of N and H, which differs in different publications). 10. Problem Find the empirical formula of a compound that is 46.3% lithium and 53.7% oxygen. You need to find the empirical formula of the compound. You know the percentage composition of the compound. You have access to a periodic table. Assume you have 100 g of the compound. From the given mass percents of the elements in the compound, you can determine the mass of the element. This means you have 46.3 g of lithium and 53.7 g of oxygen. Convert each mass to moles using the molar mass of the element. The number of moles can then be converted into a lower terms ratio of the element to get the empirical formula. Number of moles of Li in 100 g sample Number of moles of O in 100 g sample The lowest whole number ratio Grams per 100 g sample (g) Li 6.67O 3.35 Li 1.99O Li 2 O 1 Molar mass (g/mol) mass of Li molar mass of Li 46.3 g 69.4 g/mol 6.67 mol mass of O molar mass of O 53.7 g g/mol 3.35 mol molar amount lowest molar amount Number of moles (mol) Molar amount/ lowest molar amount 17.42/ /

10 Alternatively, you can set your solution as a table. Element Li O Mass percent (%) Grams per 100 g sample (g) Molar mass (g/mol) Number of moles (mol) Molar amount / lowest molar amount 6.67/ / The empirical formula of the compound is Li 2 O 1 or Li 2 O. Work backward. Calculate the percentage composition of Li 2 O g/mol Mass percent of Li g/mol 46.45% Mass percent of O g/mol g/mol 53.55% These calculated values are very close to the given percentage compositions (variations arise depending on the periodic table value used for the molar mass of Li and O, which differs in different publications). 11. Problem What is the empirical formula of a compound that is 15.9% boron and 84.1% fluorine. You need to find the empirical formula of the compound. You know the percentage composition of the compound. You have access to a periodic table. Assume you have 100 g of the compound. From the given mass percents of the elements in the compound, you can determine the mass of the element. This means you have 15.9 g of boron and 84.1 g of fluorine. Convert each mass to moles using the molar mass of the element. The number of moles can then be converted into a lower terms ratio of the element to get the empirical formula. Number of moles of B in 100 g sample Number of moles of F in 100 g sample The lowest whole number ratio B 1.47F 4.43 B 1.00 F 3.01 BF mass of B molar mass of B 15.9 g g/mol mol mass of F molar mass of F 84.1 g g/mol 443. mol molar amount lowest molar amount 52

11 Alternatively, you can set your solution as a table. Element B F Mass percent (%) Grams per 100 g sample (g) Molar mass (g/mol) Number of moles (mol) Molar amount / lowest molar amount 1.47/ / The empirical formula of the compound is BF 3. Work backward. Calculate the percentage composition of BF 3. Mass percent of B g/mol % g/mol Mass percent of F g/mol % These calculated values are the same as the given percentage compositions. 12. Problem Determine the empirical formula of a compound made up of 52.51% chlorine and 47.48% sulfur. You need to find the empirical formula of the compound. You know the percentage composition of the compound. You have access to a periodic table. Assume you have 100 g of the compound. From the given mass percents of the elements in the compound, you can determine the mass of the element. This means you have g of chlorine and g of sulfur. Convert each mass to moles using the molar mass of the element. The number of moles can then be converted into a lower terms ratio of the element to get the empirical formula. Number of moles of Cl in 100 g g / mol mol Number of moles of S in 100 g sample mass of S molar mass of S g g / mol The lowest whole number ratio S Cl ÆS Cl ÆSCl g/mol 100% % sample mol molar amount lowest molar amount Alternatively, you can set your solution as a table. mass of Cl molar mass of Cl g Element Mass percent (%) Grams per 100 g sample (g) Molar mass (g/mol) Number of moles (mol) Molar amount/ lowest molar amount Cl / S /

12 The empirical formula of the compound is SCl. Work backward. Calculate the percentage composition of SCl g/mol Mass percent of Cl g/mol % g/mol Mass percent of S g/mol % These calculated values are the same as the given percentage compositions. Solutions for Practice Problems Student Textbook page Problem An oxide of chromium is made up of 68.4% chromium and 31.6% oxygen. What is the empirical formula of this oxide? You need to find the empirical formula of this oxide of chromium. You know the percentage composition of the compound. You have access to a periodic table. Assume you have 100 g of the compound. Convert the mass percents of the elements to mass, then to the number of moles. Then find the lowest whole number ratio. Element Mass percent (%) Grams per 100 g sample (g) Molar mass (g/mol) Number of moles (mol) Molar amount/ lowest molar amount Cr O You now have the empirical formula Cr 1 O Convert the subscript 1.50 (3/2) to a whole number. Cr 1 2 O Cr 2 O 3. The empirical formula of the compound is Cr 2 O 3. Work backward. Calculate the percentage composition of Cr 2 O g/mol Mass percent of Cr g/mol % g/mol Mass percent of O g/mol % These calculated values are the same as the given percentage compositions. 14. Problem Phosphorus reacts with oxygen to give a compound that is 43.7% phosphorus and 56.4% oxygen. What is the empirical formula of the compound? You need to find the empirical formula of this compound. 54

13 You know the percentage composition of the compound. You have access to a periodic table. Assume you have 100 g of the compound. Convert the mass percents of the elements to mass, then to the number of moles. Then find the lowest whole number ratio. Element Mass percent (%) Grams per 100 g sample (g) Molar mass (g/mol) Number of moles (mol) Molar amount/ lowest molar amount P O You now have the empirical formula P 1 O Convert the subscript 2.50 (5/2) to a whole number. P 1 2 O P 2 O 5. The empirical formula of the compound is P 2 O 5. Work backward. Calculate the percentage composition of P 2 O g/mol Mass percent of P g/mol % g/mol Mass percent of S g/mol % These calculated values are the same as the given percentage compositions. 15. Problem An inorganic salt is composed of 17.6% sodium, 39.7% chromium, and 42.8% oxygen. What is the empirical formula of this salt? You need to find the empirical formula of this inorganic salt. You know the percentage composition of the compound. You have access to a periodic table. Assume you have 100 g of the compound. Convert the mass percents of the elements to mass, then to the number of moles. Then find the lowest whole number ratio. Element Mass percent (%) Grams per 100 g sample (g) Molar mass (g/mol) Number of moles (mol) Molar amount / lowest molar amount Na Cr O You now have the empirical formula Na 1.00 Cr 1.00 O Convert the subscript 3.50 (7/2) to a whole number. N Cr O Na 2 Cr 2 O 7. The empirical formula of the compound is Na 2 Cr 2 O 7. Work backward. Calculate the percentage composition of Na 2 Cr 2 O 7. 55

14 g/mol Mass percent of Na g/mol % g/mol Mass percent of Cr g/mol % g/mol Mass percent of O g/mol % These calculated values are the same as the given percentage compositions. 16. Problem Compound X contains 69.9% carbon, 6.86% hydrogen, and 23.3% oxygen. Determine the empirical formula of compound X. You need to find the empirical formula of compound X. You know the percentage composition of the compound. You have access to a periodic table. Assume you have 100 g of the compound. Convert the mass percents of the elements to mass, then to the number of moles. Then find the lowest whole number ratio. Element Mass percent (%) Grams per 100 g sample (g) Molar mass (g/mol) Number of moles (mol) Molar amount/ lowest molar amount C H O You now have the empirical formula C 3.99 H O Convert the subscripts 3.99 (12/3) and 4.65 (14/3) to whole numbers. C H O C 12 H 14 O 3. The empirical formula of the compound is C 12 H 14 O 3. Work backward. Calculate the percentage composition of C 12 H 14 O g/mol Mass percent of C g/mol % g/mol Mass percent of H g/mol 698. % g/mol Mass percent of O g/mol % These calculated values are the same as the given percentage compositions. Solutions for Practice Problems Student Textbook page Problem Oxalic acid has the empirical formula CHO 2. Its molar mass is 90 g/mol. What is the molecular formula of oxalic acid? 56

15 You need to find the molecular formula of oxalic acid. You know the empirical formula and the molar mass of oxalic acid. Divide the molar mass of oxalic acid by the molar mass of the empirical formula. The answer you get is the factor by which you multiply the empirical formula. The molar mass of the empirical formula CHO 2, determined using the periodic table, is g/mol g/mol + 2(16.00 g/mol) g/mol The molar mass of oxalic acid is 90 g/mol. 90 g/mol g/mol Molecular formula subscripts 2 Empirical formula subscripts C 1 2 H 1 2 O 2 2 C 2 H 2 O 4 Therefore, the molecular formula of butane is C 2 H 2 O 4. Work backward by calculating the molar mass of C 2 H 2 O 4. ( g/mol) + ( g/mol) + ( g/mol) g/mol The calculated molar mass matches the molar mass that is given in the problem. The answer is reasonable. 18. Problem The empirical formula of codeine is C 18 H 21 NO 3. If the molar mass of codeine is 299 g/mol, what is its molecular formula? You need to find the molecular formula of codeine. You know the empirical formula and the molar mass of codeine. Divide the molar mass of codeine by the molar mass of the empirical formula. The answer you get is the factor by which you multiply the empirical formula. The molar mass of the empirical formula C 18 H 21 NO 3, determined using the periodic table, is 18(12.01 g/mol) + 21(1.01 g/mol) g/mol + 3(16.00 g/mol) g/mol. The molar mass of the codeine is the same as that of its empirical formula. Therefore, the molecular formula is the same as its empirical formula: C 18 H 21 NO 3. The calculated molar masses are the same, so the formula should be the same. The answer is reasonable. 19. Problem A compound s molar mass is g/mol. Its percentage composition is 75.0% carbon, 5.05% hydrogen, and 20.0% oxygen. What is the compound s molecular formula? 2 57

16 You need to find the molecular formula of the unknown compound. You know the mass percent of the elements in the compound. You also know the molar mass of the compound. (a) First determine the empirical formula. Assume you have 100 g of the compound. Convert the mass percents of the elements to mass, then to the number of moles. Then find the lowest whole number ratio. (b) To determine the molecular formula, divide the molar mass of oxalic acid by the molar mass of the empirical formula. The answer you get is the factor by which you multiply the empirical formula. (a) Consider a 100 g sample: Element C H O Grams per 100 g sample (g) Molar mass (g/mol) Number of moles (mol) Molar amount/ lowest molar amount / / / The empirical formula of the compound is C 5 H 4 O. (b) The molar mass of the empirical formula C 5 H 4 O, determined using the periodic table, is 5(12.01 g/mol) + 4(1.01 g/mol) g/mol g/mol. The molar mass of the compound is g/mol g/mol g/mol Molecular formula subscripts 3 Empirical formula subscripts C 5 3 H 4 3 O 1 3 C 15 H 12 O 3 Therefore, the molecular formula of this unknown compound is C 15 H 12 O 3. Work backward by calculating the molar mass of C 15 H 12 O 3. ( g/mol) + ( g/mol) + ( g/mol) g/mol The calculated molar mass matches the molar mass that is given in the problem. The answer is reasonable. 20. Problem Lab technicians determine that a gas collected from a nearby marshy area is made up of 80.0 % carbon and 20.0 % hydrogen. They also find that a 4.60 g sample occupies a volume of 3.44 L at STP. What is the molecular formula of the gas? What is required? You must find the molecular formula of the marsh gas. What is Given? The composition of the gas in percent by mass and the mass of a certain volume of the gas at STP are known. Use the percent by mass composition to determine the empirical formula of the gas and calculate the molar mass of this empirical formula. Knowing that the molar 58

17 volume at STP is 22.4L use the given information that 4.60 g of the gas occupy 3.44 L to find the molar mass of the gas. Divide the molar mass of the gas by the molar mass of the empirical formula. The answer from this is the factor that the empirical formula is multiplied by to get the molecular formula of the gas. Element Mass Percent Grams per 100 g sample (g) Molar Mass (g/mol) Numbers of moles (mol) Molar amount/ lowest molar amount C H The empirical formula is CH 3. The molar mass using empirical formula g/mol molar mass 22.4 L/mol 344. L 4.60 g 30.0 g/mol 30.0 g/mol g/mol Therefore the molecular formula subscripts 2 empirical formula subscripts The molecular formula of the marsh gas is C 2 H 6 Working backwards, using the molar masses on the periodic table, the molar mass of C 2 H 6 is g/mol. Therefore at STP, g will occupy 22.4 L. Therefore the mass of 3.44 L 3.44 L This closely matches the given mass of 4.60 g Solutions for Practice Problems Student Textbook page g 22.4 L 4.62 g 21. Problem A g sample of a compound that contained only carbon and hydrogen was subjected to combustion analysis. The combustion produced 1.64 g of carbon dioxide and g of water. Calculate the percentage composition and the empirical formula of the sample. (a) You need to find the mass percent of carbon and hydrogen in the sample. (b) You need to find the empirical formula of the compound. You know the mass of the sample. You also know the masses of the water and the carbon dioxide in the combustion of the sample. (a) All the carbon was converted into the carbon dioxide, and all the hydrogen was converted into water. Therefore, the mass percent of C in the sample substrate is its mass in CO 2 divided by the mass of the sample substrate, multiplied by 100%. Similarly, the mass percent of H in the sample is its mass in water divided by the 59

18 mass of the sample substrate, multiplied by 100%. You obtain this mass by dividing the total molar mass of the element (H or C) in the products (H 2 O or CO 2 ) by the molecular mass of the products, and multiplying by the given mass of the products. (b) To determine the empirical formula of the substrate sample, convert the calculated masses of the C and H in (a) to the number of moles using the molar masses of C and H, respectively. Then find the lowest whole number ratio. (a) Mass of carbon in the carbon dioxide produced g/mol m 164. g g g/mol g/mol Mass percent of C in the sample 83. 3% g/mol 202. g/mol Mass of hydrogen in the water produced g g g/mol g/mol Mass percent of H in the sample % g/mol Thus the percentage composition of the unknown sample is 83.3% C and 16.8% H g (b) Mass percent of C in the sample mol g/mol g Moles of H in sample mol 101. g/mol Empirical formula C H C H ( ) Convert the subscript 2.40 to a whole number. 5 Thus the empirical formula is C 5 H 12. (a) The sum of the masses of carbon and hydrogen is g g g. This is close to the given mass of the sample. (b) Work backward. Calculate the percentage composition of C 5 H g/mol Mass percent of C g/mol 83.21% g/mol Mass percent of H g/mol 16.79% These mass percent values are close to the values calculated in part (a). Therefore your answers are reasonable Problem An 874 mg sample of cortisol was subjected to carbon-hydrogen combustion analysis g of carbon dioxide and g of water were produced. The molar mass of cortisol was found to be 362 g/mol using a mass spectrometer. If cortisol contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, determine its molecular formula. You need to find the molecular formula of cortisol. The mass of the sample cortisol is given, as well as the masses of the carbon dioxide and water produced. The molar mass of cortisol is also given. The empirical formula of cortisol must first be found in order to determine its molecular formula. Therefore, the number of moles of C, H, and O in cortisol has to be 60

19 determined for the mole ratio. In a complete reaction, all the C would have been converted to CO 2 and all the H to H 2 O. Therefore, the masses of C and H in the products are the same as that in the 874 mg sample of cortisol. (a) You first obtain this mass by dividing the total molar mass of the element (H or C) in the products (H 2 O or CO 2 ) by the molecular mass of the products, and multiplying by the given mass of the products. (b) By the Law of Conservation of Mass, the mass of the O in the sample of cortisol as the given mass of cortisol minus the sum of the calculated masses of C and H. (c) Finally, convert the masses of the C, H and O calculated in (a) and (b) to the number of moles using the molar masses of C, H, and O, respectively. Then find the lowest whole number ratio g/mol (a) Mass of carbon in the CO 2 produced 223. g g g/mol Mass of hydrogen in the H 2 O produced g g g/mol (b) Using the law of conservation of mass, the O in the original compound is m g - ( g g) g g (c) Moles of C in cortisol g/mol mol g Moles of H in cortisol 101. g/mol mol g Moles of O in cortisol mol g/mol Empirical formula C0.0507H0.0724O C4.22H6.03O Convert the subscripts 4.21 ( ) and 6.02 ( ) to whole numbers. 5 5 C H O 1 5 C 21 H 30 O 5 The molar mass of this empirical formula is 21(12.01 g/mol) + 30(1.01 g/mol) + 5(16.00 g/mol) g/mol Since the given molar mass of cortisol was 362 g/mol, then the molecular formula is the same as the empirical formula, C 21 H 30 O 5. The calculated molar masses are the same, so the formula should be the same. The answer is reasonable. Solutions for Practice Problems Student Textbook page g/mol 23. Problem What is the percent by mass of water in magnesium sulfite hexahydrate, MgSO 3 6H 2 O? You need to find the mass percent of water in the magnesium sulfite hexahydrate. The molecular formula of the sample is MgSO 3 6H 2 O. Calculate the molar mass of the magnesium sulfite hexahydrate. Then calculate the total molar mass of the water portion of the substance. The mass percent is the molar mass of the water divided by the molar mass of the substance, multiplied by 100%. 61

20 Molar mass of MgSO 3 6H 2 O g/mol g/mol + 3(16.00 g/mol) + 6[2(1.01 g/mol) g/mol] g/mol Molar mass of water portion 6[2(1.01) ] g/mol g/mol Mass percent of water g/mol % Similarly, the mass percent of the MgSO 3 portion is g/mol g/mol + 3(16.00 g/mol) g/mol The two mass percents add up to 100%. 24. Problem A 3.34 g sample of a hydrate has the formula SrS 2 O 3 xh 2 O, and contains 2.30 g of SrS 2 O 3. Find the value of x. You need to find how many water molecules are bonded to each formula unit of SrS 2 O 3. The mass of the sample is given, as well as the mass of the SrS 2 O 3 portion of the hydrate. The formula of the hydrate is given. To find the mass of water in the hydrate, subtract the given mass of SrS 2 O 3 from the given mass of the hydrate. Then, find the number of moles of SrS 2 O 3 and H 2 O by dividing their mass by their respective molar mass. To find out how many water molecules bond to each formula unit of SrS 2 O 3, divide each mole value obtained by the number of moles of SrS 2 O 3. Mass of water portion Mass of hydrate - Mass of SrS 2 O g g 1.04 g 2.30 g Moles of SrS 2 O mol Moles of H 2 O g/mol 1.04 g g/mol mol The mole ratio is mol SrS 2O 3 : mol H 2O 1 mol SrS 2 O 3 : 5.02 mol H 2 O,which is rounded off to 1 mol SrS 2 O 3 :5mol H 2 O. The value of x in SrS 2 O 3 xh 2 O is 5. Therefore the molecular formula is SrS 2 O 3 5H 2 O. According to the formula, the percent by mass of water in SrS 2 O 3 5H 2 O is 5(18.02 g/mol) g/mol g/mol g/mol %. The percent by mass of the SrS 2 O 3 is 68.92%. The two mass percents add up to 100%. 62

21 25. Problem A hydrate of zinc chlorate, Zn(ClO 3 ) 2 xh 2 O, contains 21.5% zinc by mass. Find the value of x. You need to find out how many water molecules are bonded to each formula unit of Zn(ClO 3 ) 2. The mass percent of zinc is given, as well as the formula of the zinc chlorate. Find the molar mass of the zinc hydrate in terms of x by adding up the molar masses of all the elements in the given formula. Equate the given mass percent of Zn as being the molar mass of Zn divided by the calculated molar mass of the zinc chlorate in terms of x, multiplied by 100%. In this way, x can be solved. Molar mass of the Zn(ClO 3 ) 2 xh 2 O in terms of x g/mol + 2[35.45 g/mol + 3(16.00 g/mol)] + x[2(1.01 g/mol) g/mol] g/mol x g/mol Mass percent of Zn 21.5% g/mol g/mol x g/mol Therefore, 21.5 ( g/mol x g/mol) g/mol x x x 3.987, which can be rounded off to 4. The formula of the hydrate is Zn(ClO 3 ) 2 4H 2 O. According to the formula, the percent by mass of water in Zn(ClO 3 ) 2 4H 2 O is 4(18.02 g/mol) g/mol g/mol 23.68%. The percent by mass of the Zn(ClO 3 ) 2 is %. The two mass percents add up to 100% g/mol 63

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