What is the Percent Copper in a Compound?

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1 Lab 9 Name What is the Percent Copper in a Compound? Pre-Lab Assignment Complete this pre-lab on this sheet. This written pre-lab is worth 15% (3 points) of your lab report grade and must be initialed by your instructor before you begin the lab. 1. Read the entire lab handout. 2. Fill in the following table listing the names and chemical formulas of all chemicals (reactants) used in this lab, including all chemicals for optional experiments as well as all possible unknowns. In the case of ionic compounds, be sure to list the entire compound, not just one of the ions. Note: all spaces in the table will be filled. Substance Name Chemical Formula 3. Add to the following table listing the suspected safety hazards in today s lab AND the safety precautions that should be taken to protect yourself from these hazards. Safety Hazard Copper salts can be skin irritants. Nitric acid and hydrochloric acid are corrosive. Ethyl alcohol is flammable. Safety Precaution 4. Write a brief summary of the experiment that will be performed today. In your summary be sure to state which properties will be measured (length, volume, mass, etc.) on what chemicals. 5. Define the Law of Conservation of Mass.

2 General Chemistry Lab 9: What is the Percent Copper in a Compound? 2 Experimental Questions What is the percent copper in an unknown copper compound? What is the identity of my unknown copper compound? Learning goals Determine the mass of copper in an unknown compound. Perform calculations to determine the molar mass and thus the formula for the unknown compound from the mass percent of a compound. Explain how the Law of Conservation of Mass is used to justify these calculations. Background Many copper compounds are brightly colored (usually blue/green) and soluble in water. When the copper compound dissolves, the copper cations and associated anions separate and disperse throughout the solution. If a reactive metal, such as neutral magnesium, is added to the solution, it will transfer its valence electrons to the copper ions. This process is a chemical reaction that produces two results: (1) the solid magnesium becomes the magnesium +2 ion and goes into solution while (2) the copper cation receives electrons and falls out of solution as solid copper, which is a reddish-brown color. Note that magnesium metal is a shiny silver metal, but the Mg 2+ ion in solution is colorless. This reaction is classified single replacement because the magnesium metal has taken the place of the copper ions in the solution. The net ionic equation is Cu 2+ (aq) + Mg (s) Cu (s) + Mg 2+ (aq) Reaction 1 Once the reaction is complete, the percent of copper in the original sample can be calculated. Recall that to calculate any percentage, the following general formula is applied. part Percent = x100% whole equation 1 Since the recovered copper at the end of the reaction is part of the original sample of the unknown copper compound, the percent formula for this system becomes mass of Cu recovered from the unknown compound %Cuin an unknown compound = x100% mass of unknown copper compound equation 2 There is another way to calculate the percent copper in a compound, but only if the compound is known. We can use the molar mass of the compound as the whole and the atomic mass of the copper as the part. For example, if we wanted to calculate the percent of copper in the ionic compound copper (II) bromide, we would use equation 3. atomic mass of Cu % Cu in CuBr 2 = x100% molar mass of CuBr 2 equation 3 To determine the molar mass of the unknown compound, we can combine equations 2 and 3 as a ratio (since both are equal to %Cu, they are equal to each other). Then we can simply solve for the molar mass of the unknown compound. mass of Cu recovered from the unknown compound mass of unknown copper compound atomic mass of Cu molar mass of the unknown compound So, rearranging equation 4 to solve for molar mass of the unknown compound, we get equation 5: equation 4 atomic mass of Cu mass of unknown copper compound molar mass of the unknown compound equation 5 mass of Cu recovered from the unknown compound Experimental Note In today s experiment, you will add magnesium to a solution of your unknown copper compound. When the solution is colorless, the reaction is complete (there are no more colored Cu 2+ ions at the end of the reaction). However, along with the copper product that you want, you may also have excess solid magnesium left that did not react. To dissolve the remaining magnesium, we must do another chemical reaction to reduce the solid magnesium to Mg 2+. There are no longer any copper ions in solution to do this, so we will add HCl to react with the Mg so we can filter it out as Mg 2+ ions in solution. The chemical reaction is Mg (s) + 2 HCl (aq) MgCl 2 (aq) + H 2 (g) Reaction 2

3 General Chemistry Lab 9: What is the Percent Copper in a Compound? 3 Procedure My lab partner is: Write down detailed qualitative and quantitative observations directly on this sheet. Proper eye protection and proper shoes and clothing are required for this lab. Avoid raising any dust or breathing fumes. Report any spills immediately. Part A Obtain an unknown copper compound and record the identification number. Unknown # Record a description of the compound. Take the sample in its container into the weighing room with a clean 150 ml beaker. Place the beaker gently on a toploading balance. When the balance settles, push Tare to zero it. Remove the beaker from the balance, then tap the container to transfer the compound into the beaker a little at a time, until you have 0.90 g (±0.05 g) in the beaker. Record the precise mass. At the bench, add about 50 ml of deionized water to the compound in the beaker. The water does not take part in the reaction, so the exact amount of water is not important. Simply add water to about the 50mL mark on the beaker. Use a small graduated cylinder to measure 5 ml of 6M HCl (caution: corrosive!) and add to your beaker. Rinse the cylinder with about 5 ml of deionized water from a wash bottle and add to the beaker. Stir carefully until the solid has dissolved. If solid is difficult to dissolve, add 2 ml more HCl. If necessary, consult with your instructor. Record a description of all changes. (The acid helps the solid to dissolve and disperse the cations and anions throughout the solution). Critical Thinking Question 1: Has the single replacement reaction described on page 2 occurred yet? Make a particle level drawing of all the separate particles present in the beaker. Use weighing paper to weigh 0.40 g (±0.05 g) of magnesium turnings on the balance. Record the precise mass. Add the Mg turnings to the beaker and stir carefully for at least 15 minutes. Describe all changes. If the solution becomes cloudy, consult your instructor.

4 General Chemistry Lab 9: What is the Percent Copper in a Compound? 4 The reaction is complete when the solution loses all color. When the solution becomes colorless, add 2 ml of 6M HCl to dissolve any excess Mg. Use a stirring rod to break up small chunks of bubbling magnesium metal. Stir occasionally until the H 2 production has completely stopped. Continue to describe all changes. Critical Thinking Question 2: Which particles of the ones shown in CTQ 1 reacted? Make a particle level drawing of all particles that are now in the beaker. Critical Thinking Question 3: Why does the color of the solution disappear as the Mg (s) disappears? Critical Thinking Question 4: Consider the changes (both macroscopic and at the particle level) that happen when Mg is added to the unknown compound. Is this a chemical change or a physical change? Explain your reasoning. Put a distinguishing mark on a filter paper using a pencil. Weigh the filter paper. Prepare a funnel with the filter paper, supported in a ring clamp over a flask. Pour the mixture from the beaker down a stirring rod and into the funnel. Use a wash bottle to chase all the remaining solid into the funnel. Run about 25 ml more of deionized water through the sample in the filter paper to dilute the acid in the mixture. After the water has drained away, use about 5 ml of ethyl alcohol (also called ethanol) from a squeeze bottle to wash the solid in the filter paper. Allow to drain. Describe the solid. Use forceps to remove the filter paper and spread it out on a watch glass. Place the watch glass with sample in a drying oven for at least 10 minutes. When the paper is dry, weigh the paper + copper product. Critical Thinking Question 5: What is the chemical formula or symbol for the solid product on the filter paper? What are the chemical symbols/formulas for the substances in the beaker after filtration? Include phase labels.

5 General Chemistry Lab 9: What is the Percent Copper in a Compound? 5 (Optional) Test the solid product by placing some in a test tube and adding several crops of concentrated nitric acid in the hood. Describe the changes. Clean all equipment and glassware. Return materials to the community area. Wipe down the lab bench. Return the key to the front desk. Do not remove your safety goggles until ALL GROUPS have finished cleaning up. Obtain instructor initials before leaving the lab. Instructor Initials Table 1: Possible Unknown Copper Compounds Compound Molar mass (g/mol) CuCl 2 2H 2 O Cu(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 H 2 O CuCO 3 Cu(OH) CuSO 4 5H 2 O When writing the names of the compounds above in the Results Table3 on p. 6, it is acceptable in this lab to name only the part of the formula that is in bold in the Table 1 above. Data Analysis For calculations, SHOW ALL WORK NEATLY. Use proper units and unit conversions throughout each calculation. Report your answer with correct significant figures. 1. Data Table 2: Transfer previous measurements neatly into the Data Tables below. Include proper units. Unknown Number Description of Unknown Compound Mass of Unknown Compound Mass of filter paper Mass of copper product + paper Description of copper product 2. Calculate the mass of the copper product. 3. Calculate the sample s molar mass using equation 5 on page 2 of this handout.

6 General Chemistry Lab 9: What is the Percent Copper in a Compound? 6 4. Compare your calculated molar mass to the table of possible unknowns on page 4. Identify your compound give the formula in the space below. 5. Calculate the percent error for your calculated molar mass. ( actual value) ( calculated value) % error x100% actual value 6. Results Table 3: Unknown Number Calculated Molar Mass of the Compound (g/mol) Formula of the Compound Name of the Compound Actual Molar Mass of the Compound (g/mol) Percent Error Questions 1. Imagine that when you did your reaction, you were careful to let it proceed until the solution was completely colorless. What you didn t realize was that some magnesium metal, Mg, was still present. To answer some of the following questions, you may need to refer to the mathematical equations on p. 2. A. Will the measured mass of the product be higher or lower than the maximum theoretical mass? B. Based on your answer to A, will your calculated percent copper be higher or lower than it should be? C. Will your calculated molar mass be higher or lower than it should be? 2. How is the Law of Conservation of Mass used in this experiment to justify using the end product of the reaction to calculate the %Cu in the reactant. Lab Report Due before you leave lab TODAY: Turn in this completed handout.

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