Pacific NW Rocks & Minerals Mid Term I: KEY

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1 Name: Date: (1) 2 pts. Compared to the age of the Earth accepted as correct today, how did seventeenth and eighteenth century proponents of catastrophism envision the Earth's age? A) They believed Earth to be much older than current estimates. B) They believed Earth to be much younger than current estimates. C) They believed it to be about the same as current estimates, give or take a few million years. D) None of the above, they didn't really address the age of Earth. (2) 2 pts. is often paraphrased as "the present is the key to the past." A) Biblical prophecy B) Aristotelian logic C) Uniformitarianism D) Catastrophism (3) 2 pts. The currently accepted age of the Earth is years. A) 4.6 billion B) 4.6 thousand C) 6.4 million D) 6.4 trillion (4) 2 pts. Which of the following best describes the fundamental concept of superposition? A) Any sedimentary deposit accumulates on older rock or sediment layers. B) Older strata generally are deposited on younger strata without intervening, intermediate age strata. C) Strata with fossils are generally deposited on strata with no fossils. D) Older fossils in younger strata indicate a locally inverted geologic time scale. (5) 2 pts. A is a well tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain scientific observations. A) law B) hypothesis C) generalization D) theory (6) 2 pts. All of the following are possible steps of scientific investigation EXCEPT for. A) the collection of scientific facts through observation and measurement B) assumption of conclusions without prior experimentation or observation C) development of observations and experiments to test the hypotheses D) the development of one or more working hypotheses or models to explain facts (7) 2 pts. The forms the relatively cool, brittle plates of plate tectonics. A) geosphere B) asthenosphere C) astrosphere D) lithosphere (8) 2 pts. In correct order from the center outward, Earth includes which units? A) inner core, crust, mantle, hydrosphere B) core, crust, mantle, hydrosphere C) core, inner mantle, outer mantle, crust D) inner core, outer core, mantle, crust (9) 2 pts. The is the thinnest layer of the Earth. 13) A) inner core B) crust C) mantle D) outer core (10) 2 pts. rocks form by crystallization and consolidation of molten magma. A) Igneous B) Primary C) Sedimentary D) Indigenous (11) 2 pts. rocks always originate at the surface of the solid Earth. A) Secondary B) Sedimentary C) Igneous D) Metamorphic

2 (12) 2 pts. is the process by which rocks break down in place to produce soils and sediments. A) Subduction B) Lithification C) Weathering D) Metamorphism (13) 2 pts. Which one of the following statements is NOT correct? A) Sedimentary rocks may weather to igneous rocks. B) Igneous rocks can undergo metamorphism. C) Magmas crystallize to form igneous rocks. D) Metamorphic rocks may melt to magma. (14) 1 pts. The currently accepted age of the Earth is approximately 4.5 million years. T/F (15) 1 pts. A scientific theory is a tentative or untested explanation that is proposed to explain scientific observations. T/F (16) 1 pts. Internally, the Earth consists of spherical shells with different compositions and densities. T/F (17) 1 pts. The asthenosphere is a relatively cool and rigid shell that overlies the lithosphere. T/F (18) 1 pts. According to the rock cycle, any type of rock (igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic) may be transformed into another type of rock, given enough time. T/F (19) 1 pts. Igneous rocks are produced largely by the deposition and consolidation of surface materials like sand and mud. T/F (20) 2 pts. By applying the law of superposition ages can be determined. A) relative B) conventional C) radiometric D) both relative and radiometric (21) 2 pts. The half life of carbon 14 is about 6000 years. Assume that a sample of charcoal formed by burning of living wood 15,000 years ago. How much of the original carbon 14 would remain today? A) between 33% and 50% B) between 25% and 50% C) more than 50% D) between 12.5% and 25% (22) 1 pts. The percentage of radioactive atoms that decay during one half life is always the same. T/F (23) 1 pts. After two half lives there is no longer any of the original radioactive material remaining. T/F (24) 1 pts. After three half lives, one ninth of an original, radioactive parent isotope remains and eight ninths has decayed into the daughter isotope. T/F (25) 8 pts. In the chart of radioactive decay shown at the right>>> (a) how many half lives have elapsed by this time? 2 (b) how many half lives have elapsed by this time? 3

3 (26) 2 pts. In the early part of the twentieth century, argued forcefully for continental drift. A) Karl Wagner B) Bill Kohl C) Peter Rommel D) Alfred Wegener (27) 2 pts. The late Paleozoic supercontinent is known as. A) Panatopia B) Pangaea C) Pandomonia D) Pancakea (28) 2 pts. All of the following are evidence supporting the theory of plate tectonics EXCEPT for. A) hot spots B) paleomagnetism C) ocean floor drilling D) changes in the Moon's orbit due to shifting plates (29) 2 pts. Pull apart rift zones are generally associated with a plate boundary. A) convergent B) divergent C) transform D) all plate boundaries (30) 2 pts. A typical rate of seafloor spreading in the Atlantic Ocean is. A) 0.1 inches per year B) 2 feet per year C) 20 feet per year D) 2 centimeters per year (31) 2 pts. New oceanic crust and lithosphere are formed at. A) divergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of basaltic magma B) convergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of basaltic magma C) divergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of rhyolitic magma D) convergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of rhyolitic magma (32) 2 pts. The volcanoes and deep valleys of east Africa are related to a. A) continental collision zone between Africa and the Zagros Mountains along the southern margin of Eurasia B) transform fault aligned with the Red Sea carrying the Arabian and African blocks in opposite directions C) continental rift along which parts of the African continent are beginning to slowly separate D) fault allowing Arabia to slip westward past east Africa and penetrate into Turkey (33) 2 pts. Cooler, older, oceanic lithosphere sinks into the mantle at. A) transform fault zones along divergent plate boundaries B) subduction zones along convergent plate boundaries C) rift zones along mid ocean ridges D) sites of long lived, hot spot volcanism in the ocean basins (34) 2 pts. The is an example of an active, continent continent collision. A) westward movement of the South American plate over the Nazca plate B) Arabian Peninsula slamming into North Africa under the Red Sea C) northern movement of Baja California and a sliver of western California toward the Hawaiian Islands D) northward movement of India into Eurasia

4 (35) 2 pts. A very long lived magma source located deep in the mantle is called a. A) hot spot B) magma welt C) basalt spout D) melt well (36) 2 pts. Linear, magnetic patterns associated with mid ocean ridges are configured as. A) reversed magnetizations along the rift valleys and normal magnetizations along the ridge B) normal and reversed magnetized strips roughly parallel to the ridge C) normal and reversed magnetized strips roughly perpendicular to the ridge axis D) concentric circles about a rising plume of hot mantle rocks and magma (37) 1 pts. An extensive, late Paleozoic glaciation affected southern India, southern Africa and southeastern South America. T/F (38) 1 pts. The rate of seafloor spreading is, on the average, about one meter per year. T/F (39) 1 pts.as the South Atlantic basin widens by seafloor spreading, Africa and South America are moving closer together. T/F (40) 1 pts. The oldest rocks of the oceanic crust are found in deep ocean trenches far away from active, mid ocean ridges. T/F (41) 1 pts. In general, rocks of the continental crust are less dense than rocks of the oceanic crust. T/F (42) 1 pts. The Himalayan Mountains are the tectonic product of a collision between India and Eurasia that began in Eocene time and still continues. T/F (43) 1 pts. Hawaii is the oldest island of the Hawaiian Island chain. T/F (44) 1 pts. During various times in the geologic past, the polarity of Earth's magnetic field has been reversed. T/F (45) 1 pts. The volcanoes of Hawaii are localized above a deep mantle hot spot; they are not part of the East Pacific oceanic ridge. T/F (46) 6 pts. In the diagram below, match the letter of each illustration to the correct type of plate boundary. A) convergent B) transform C) divergent Delete this: (a) B, (b) C, (c) A

5 (47) 2 pts. The energy for Plate Tectonics comes from A) the magnetic field of the earth B) heat from the sun C) gravity between the earth and moon D) ocean currents E) heat from the earth's core (48) 2 pts. The Himalayas are associated with which of the following plate boundaries? A) Ocean continental convergence B) Ocean ocean convergence C) Continent continent convergence D) Divergent E) Transform Fault

6 (49) 2 pts. The Hawaiian Islands are an example of: A) Two Ocean plates converging B) Two Continental plates converging C) Diverging plates D) Hot Spots E) Transform Fault Boundary (50) 2 pts. The youngest seafloor rocks are found: A) nearest to the mid ocean ridges B) nearest to the continental shelves C) evenly distributed throughout the ocean D) underneath the continents E) where the ocean is the flattest Pacific NW Rocks & Minerals (51) 2 pts. During large subduction zone earthquakes, some areas go up and some areas go down. a. true b. false. (52) 2 pts. Interseismic strain in a subduction zone looks like the drawing above. a. true b. false

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