Joy of Science Experience the evolution of the Universe, Earth and Life

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1 Joy of Science Experience the evolution of the Universe, Earth and Life Review Introduction Main contents Quiz Unless otherwise noted, all pictures are taken from wikipedia.org

2 Review 1 Which is not included in objects of the solar system? A. Sun B. Quasars C. Moons D. Comets E. Asteroids F. Planets

3 Review 1 Which is not included in objects of the solar system? A. Sun B. Quasars C. Moons D. Comets E. Asteroids F. Planets

4 Review 2 Which of the following is the largest planet? A. Neptune B. Jupiter C. Uranus D. Saturn E. Mars

5 Review 2 Which of the following is the largest planet? A. Neptune B. Jupiter C. Uranus D. Saturn E. Mars

6 Review 3 Which of the following is a terrestrial planet? A. Mars B. Neptune C. Saturn D. Uranus E. Jupiter

7 Review 3 Which of the following is a terrestrial planet? A. Mars B. Neptune C. Saturn D. Uranus E. Jupiter

8 Review 4 A small piece of space debris that reaches the surface of the Earth is (another name for it is shooting star or falling star ) A. a meteor B. a meteorite C. an asteroid D. a comet

9 Review 4 A small piece of space debris that reaches the surface of the Earth is (another name for it is shooting star or falling star ) A. a meteor B. a meteorite C. an asteroid D. a comet

10 Review 5 The small rocky bodies found in a broad band between Mars and Jupiter are A. meteorites B. meteors C. asteroids D. comets

11 Review 5 The small rocky bodies found in a broad band between Mars and Jupiter are A. meteorites B. meteors C. asteroids D. comets

12 May 18, 2012 The Earth - Experience the evolution of the Earth: the restless Earth Today s Keywords volcano, earthquake, plate tectonics, mantle convection, plate boundaries, seismology

13 Introduction 1. Introduction Recall the structure and formation of the solar system! After the most of Earth s mass have accumulated in the beginning, - Heavy, dense materials sank under gravity toward the center of the earth - Lighter, less-dense materials floated to the top à Let us take a closer look at Earth s internal structure Other terrestrial planets also have a distinctively layered structure by the result of the process represented above Only Earth has dynamic and restless activities originated by energy from the hot, dense core à What dynamic aspects of the Earth are there? à What is the theory to explain Earth s dynamic features?

14 Inner structure of the Earth 1. Introduction From the center of the Earth, Core: iron and nickel metal - Inner core: over 5000 deg. C temperature, very high pressure, solid state - Outer core: lower pressure, liquid state Mantle: Charged elements of oxygen, silicon, magnesium, and iron. Much denser forms of similar composition to surface rocks due to high pressure. Dense fluid of rocks. Crust: Made of lightest materials. Less than 10 km thickness in parts of the oceans, as much as 70 km beneath parts of the continents. We think of it as a sold surface of Earth.

15 1. Introduction Inner structure of the Earth: Picture Atmospheric structure

16 1. Introduction Dynamic aspects of Earth The case of disappearing mountains Volcanoes and Earthquakes Movements of continents à Primary continental model on Earth: Pangaea

17 1. Introduction Primary continent on Earth: Pangaea

18 Evolution of continents on Earth from Pangaea 1. Introduction

19 2. Plate tectonics Plate Tectonics: a unifying View of Earth Plate Tectonics Compelling model of dynamic Earth Explains many of Earth s large-scale surface features and related phenomena Central idea of the theory Earth s surface is broken up into some large pieces called tectonic plates Earth plate is composed of Crust and part of upper Mantle Ocean plates: 8-10 km thickness with dense rock Continent plates: average 35 km thickness with lower dense rock

20 2. Plate tectonics Tectonic Plates Plates a

21 Mantle Convection: continents move as a result of the forces generated by mantle 2. Plate tectonics Mantle Earth behaves something like a giant spherical stove, with burners on the inside and circulating rocks bringing the heat core convection volcanoes, to the surface! earthquakes, movement of continents Effects of mantle convection to Earth s plates The top of mantle rocks encounter relatively thin, week plates à Along oceanic ridges brittle plates crack à Lava erupts à Seafloor spreading starts à All other plates motions start

22 Mantle Convection: picture 2. Plate tectonics

23 Plate Boundaries: determine much of geological character of Earth s surface 2. Plate tectonics 1. Divergent plate boundaries 2. Convergent plate boundaries 3. Plate transform boundaries

24 2. Plate tectonics Plate Boundaries 1. Divergent plate boundaries Spreading zone of crustal formation Motion of magma pushes two adjoining plates farther away from each other. Results are, 1) A chain of mountains formed by volcanic motions 2) New pate materials produced by newly erupted melted materials 3) Shallow earthquakes with low energy

25 Plate Boundaries 2. Plate tectonics 2. Convergent plate boundaries Continent - Continent Ocean Ocean Ocean Continent

26 2.2. Plate Boundaries 2. Plate tectonics 2. Convergent plate boundaries Continent - Continent : two continents collide and ride on top of both à high, jagged mountain chain Ex) The Himalayas

27 2.2. Plate Boundaries 2. Plate tectonics 2. Convergent plate boundaries Ocean Ocean: both plates converge à Deep ocean trench à Melted materials become magma, then rise up to the surface à Eruptions of lava build a chain of volcanic islands adjacent to the trench

28 2.2. Plate Boundaries 2. Plate tectonics 2. Convergent plate boundaries Ocean Continent : denser oceanic plate converge into beneath continental plate, continental material is crumpled into coastal mountains. à volcanic mountains parallel to coast, trench

29 2. Plate tectonics Plate Boundaries 3. Plate transform boundaries Two plates slide each other not smoothly Results are, 1) Earthquake 2) No mountain building 3) No volcanic activities

30 2. Plate tectonics Plate Boundaries San Andreas Fault in California 3. Plate transform boundaries Two plates slide each other not smoothly Results are, 1) Earthquake 2) No mountain building 3) No volcanic activities

31 San Andreas Fault from Google maps

32 3. Volcanism Plate and Volcanism Divergent plate boundaries: Main source of new crustal formation along volcanic spreading ridges Convergent plate boundaries: Volcanoes are common near subduction zones. (Pacific) Ring of Fire is a dramatic string of volcanoes. Hot spots: Chimney like columns of rising hot rocks from lower mantle or even the core-mantle boundary (cf. bubbles coming to the surface in water being heated on a stove). A chain of volcanoes is formed as a tectonic plate slowly moves over a fixed hot spot (ex. the Hawaiian islands)

33 3. Volcanism Plate and Volcanism Convergent plate boundaries: Volcanoes are common near subduction zones. (Pacific) Ring of Fire is a dramatic string of volcanoes. Hot spots: Chimney like columns of rising hot rocks from lower mantle or even the core-mantle boundary (cf. bubbles coming to the surface in water being heated on a stove). A chain of volcanoes is formed as a tectonic plate slowly moves over a fixed hot spot (ex. the Hawaiian islands)

34 3. Volcanism Plate and Volcanism Hot spots: Chimney like columns of rising hot rocks from lower mantle or even the core-mantle boundary (cf. bubbles coming to the surface in water being heated on a stove). A chain of volcanoes is formed as a tectonic plate slowly moves over a fixed hot spot (ex. the Hawaiian islands) Hawaiian Islands Hot spot

35 3. Volcanism Plate and Volcanism Hot spots: Chimney like columns of rising hot rocks from lower mantle or even the core-mantle boundary (cf. bubbles coming to the surface in water being heated on a stove). A chain of volcanoes is formed as a tectonic plate slowly moves over a fixed hot spot (ex. the Hawaiian islands) Picture taken Hawaiian Islands Hot spot

36 4. Earthquake Earthquake Earthquakes may be felt near any plate boundary. Minor shallow ones occur near divergent plate boundaries as two plates move apart. Strong earthquakes occur near subduction zones. (many of Japan s) Earthquakes along the transform plate boundaries in the USA. Occasional ones in the middle of plates è The origins of these earthquakes are still not fully understood!

37 5. Seismology Seismology: exploring Earth s interior with earthquakes The idea of seismology Some of waves of vibrational energy travel through Earth s center, others move along the surface, and still others bounce off layers deep within the planet.

38 5. Seismology Seismology: exploring Earth s interior with earthquakes

39 5. Seismology Two principal seismic waves P-wave (Primary: longitudinal) : Travel through any time of material at speed of sound S-wave (Secondary: transverse) : Typically follows P-wave. Travel only through solids at usually 60% of speed of P-wave.

40 Quiz 1 The energy for the movement of tectonic plates comes from A. the Sun B. outer space C. the mantle D. the crust

41 Quiz 1 The energy for the movement of tectonic plates comes from A. the Sun B. outer space C. the mantle D. the crust

42 Quiz 2 A subduction zone is characteristic of A. a fault zone B. a transformed plate boundary C. a divergent plate boundary D. a convergent plate boundary

43 Quiz 2 A subduction zone is characteristic of A. a fault zone B. a transformed plate boundary C. a divergent plate boundary D. a convergent plate boundary

44 Quiz 3 The subsurface molten material in the mantle that enters a volcano is called A. crustal material B. fault flow C. magma d. lava

45 Quiz 3 The subsurface molten material in the mantle that enters a volcano is called A. crustal material B. fault flow C. magma d. lava

46 Quiz 4 The study of earthquake waves is called A. continentalism B. seismology C. geology D. volcanism

47 Quiz 4 The study of earthquake waves is called A. continentalism B. seismology C. geology D. volcanism

48 Next class is on Earth cycles: Chapter 14

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