Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics Review. Name that Layer...

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1 Name that Layer...

2 1 Which layers make up the lithosphere? Multiple answer A B C D crust mantle inner core outer core

3 Why wouldn t the fossil of an ocean fish found on two different continents be good evidence of continental drift? An ocean fish could swim between continents so an ocean fish fossil found on two different continents would simply mean that the fish had migrated near one continent to another at some time.

4 2 Which layer has the lowest temperature? Multiple choice A B C D crust inner core mantle outer core

5 What kind of plates are colliding here?

6 True False The Continental Drift Theory was widely accepted when it first came out. Harry Hess came up with the idea that the continents have drifted to their current location. Alfred Wegener came up with the idea of sea-floor spreading The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is an example of a convergent plate boundary. A tension force is associated with a divergent plate boundary The plates move on average 1 to 25 miles a year. Convection currents have nothing to do with density.

7 3 Which layer has the highest temperature? Multiple choice A B C D crust core mantle lithosphere

8 What kind of plates are colliding here?

9 4 Which layer takes up most of Earth's structure? Multiple choice A B C D crust inner core mantle outer core

10 What are the scientific names for these layers?

11 Was Wegner s Theory of Continental Drift widely accepted by other scientists when it was first published? Explain why. You should have at least two examples. a. He did not have a driving mechanism to explain why or how the land moved. b. He was meteorologist not a geologist. c. He didn t think it was his job to provide a mechanism. d. People didn t believe such large land masses could move across the ocean floor. e. His evidence was based on other people s findings and looked at as coincidence.

12 Name that creature or plant.

13 What are two concepts these diagrams could be representing?

14 The theory that the Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into sections is called. A. seafloor spreading B. plate tectonics The Himalayas were formed at a. A. convergent boundary B. transform fault The San Andreas fault is a. A. divergent boundary B. transform fault The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is a. A. divergent plate boundary B. transform fault Plates float on the. A. asthenosphere B. lithosphere

15 What type of plate boundary is this?

16 Name that Plate! What are the names of the plates in the picture above?

17 Plates are composed of the. A. crust and part of the upper mantle B. lithosphere and asthenosphere A is created where one plate moves under another. A. mantle B. trench The youngest material of the ocean floor is found at mid-ocean. A. ridges B. trenches C. basins Plates move apart at boundaries. A. convergent B. divergent In towing magnetometers across the ocean floor, scientists found bands of magnetism. A. very weak B. alternating C. no

18 Click and Drag Matching Makes up the plates. The word comes from the Latin word Litho. The thin outer layer of the Earth. Solid part of the Earth. Very dense and made of Iron and Nickel. Largest layer of the Earth. Plastic-like layer of the Earth. The plates ride on top of this. Mantle Inner Core Outer Core Lithosphere Asthenosphere Crust Liquid layer of the Earth.

19 What kind of plates are colliding here?

20 Sea-floor spreading occurs because. A. molten material in the mantle rises to the surface at divergent plate boundaries. B. new material is being added to the asthenosphere. C. sediments accumulate at the area of spreading The solid center of Earth is the. A. inner core B. asthenosphere C. mantle The is the largest layer inside Earth. A. inner core B. crust C. mantle The is the thinnest layer of Earth. A. inner core B. crust C. mantle

21 Transform Plate Boundary What kind of plate boundary is this?

22 partially old crustal conveyer ocean Continent mid-ocean molten platecrustal floor Mantle belt/convection floor (top trench rock becomes ridge of plate becomes crustal partially crustal current plate) new molten ocean platefloor rock Click the term and drag it to the proper place on the diagram.

23 Click and Drag Matching Reptile fossil found in South America and Africa Fern fossil found in Africa, Australia, India, South America, and Antarctica Clues that support continental drift Mountains similar to those in Greenland and Western Europe An underwater mountain range Scientist who suggested theory of continental drift Scientist who suggested theory of sea-floor spreading Material that rises to surface at mid-ocean ridge Place where the seafloor is forced down into the mantle Age of oldest continental rocks Wegener Appalachians Molten material 4 billion years Rock, Fossil and Climate Glossopteris Mesosaurus Harry Hess Mid-ocean Ridge Trench

24 The age of the rocks get as you move away from the mid-ocean ridge. A. newer B. older The age of the oldest rocks on the continents would be than the age of the oldest rocks on the seafloor. A. younger B. older What is believed to cause plates to move across the Earth's surface? A. convection currents B. ocean currents C. wind currents When an oceanic plate and a continental plate collide, which one usually stays on top? A. oceanic plate B. continental plate When two plates collide, the one that is usually stays on top? A. less dense B. more dense

25 Click and Drag Matching Poles that reverse themselves Age of oldest seafloor rocks Machine that records magnetic data Direction in which ocean floor moves Process that forms new sea-floor Location of youngest seafloor rocks Movement of continents magnetic Nearest the ridge magnetometer 200 million years Sea-floor Spreading Continental Drift Away from the ridge

26 True False The layers of the Earth get denser as one travels downward towards the center of the Earth. The plates are still moving today. Less dense magma sinks, while more dense magma rises to create convection currents. Convergent boundaries are associated with a compression force.

27 Explain why there are few volcanoes in the Himalayas yet there are so many earthquakes. Volcano Reason: There are few volcanoes in the Himalayas because it is a continentalcontinental plate boundary that results in uplift with little or no subduction zone to create volcanoes. There are also no hot spots in the Himalayas to create volcanoes. Earthquake Reason: There are many earthquakes in the Himalayas because the continentalcontinental boundary is a convergent boundary that creates compression forces on the land resulting in the uplifting of the continents and earthquakes.

28 The Andes Mountains, the Himalayas and the Islands of Japan were all formed at convergent plate boundaries. Explain how the formation of the Andes Mountains, the Himalayas and the Islands of Japan are different. (Hint: Discuss the types of plates involved for each location.) Andes Mountains: The Andes Mountains were formed by a oceanic-continental plate boundary. The less dense South American (continental) plate is riding over the more dense Nazca (oceanic) Plate resulting a subduction zone, trench and volcanoes. Himalayas: The Himalayas were formed by a continental-continental plate boundary. The Indian or Indo-Australian Plate is colliding with the Eurasian Plate resulting in the uplifting of the continental crust to form the tallest mountains in the world. There are many earthquakes as a result of this uplifting movement. Islands of Japan: The Islands of Japan were formed by oceanic-oceanic plate boundaries. The Pacific Plate is colliding with the Eurasian Plate and the Philippine Plate is also colliding with Eurasion Plate creating a deep ocean trench/subduction zone and the Island Arc of Japan because the plates are trying to go down creating many volcanoes and earthquakes.

29

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