GEOLOGY MEDIA SUITE Chapter 2

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1 UNDERSTANDING EARTH, SIXTH EDITION GROTZINGER JORDAN GEOLOGY MEDIA SUITE Chapter 2 Plate Tectonics The Unifying Theory 2010 W.H. Freeman and Company

2 Interactions at plate boundaries depend on the direction of relative plate motion and the type of crust. Key Figure 2.6 (pages 26-27) Go to next slide to begin

3 Divergent Boundaries Oceanic Plate Separation Mid- Atlantic Ridge Eurasian Eurasian Plate North North American American Plate Plate

4 Divergent Boundaries Oceanic Plate Separation Volcanoes and earthquakes concentrate. Mid- Atlantic Ridge Eurasian Eurasian Plate North North American American Plate Plate

5 Divergent Boundaries Continental Plate Separation East African Rift Valley Somali Subplate African Plate African Plate

6 Divergent Boundaries Continental Plate Separation Parallel valleys; volcanoes and earthquakes. East African Rift Valley African Plate Somali Subplate

7 Convergent Boundaries Ocean-Ocean Convergence Mariana Islands Marianas Trench Pacific Plate Pacific Plate Philippine Philippine Plate Plate

8 Convergent Boundaries Ocean-Ocean Convergence Deep-sea trench; volcanic island arc. Mariana Islands Marianas Trench Pacific Plate Pacific Plate Philippine Philippine Plate Plate

9 Convergent Boundaries Ocean-Continent Convergence Andes Mountains Peru-Chile Trench Nazca Plate South American Plate

10 Convergent Boundaries Ocean-Continent Convergence A volcanic belt of mountains forms. Andes Mountains Peru-Chile Trench Nazca Plate South American Plate

11 Convergent Boundaries Continent-Continent Convergence Himalaya Tibetan Plateau Indian-Australian Plate Main thrust fault Eurasian Plate

12 Convergent Boundaries Continent-Continent Convergence Crust crumbles, creating high mountains and a wide plateau. Himalaya Tibetan Plateau Indian-Australian Plate Main thrust fault Eurasian Plate

13 Transform-Fault Boundaries Mid-Ocean Ridge Transform Fault Eurasian Plate North American Plate North American Plate

14 Transform-Fault Boundaries Mid-Ocean Ridge Transform Fault Spreading centers offset. Eurasian Plate North American Plate North American Plate

15 Transform-Fault Boundaries Continental Transform Fault Pacific Plate Pacific Plate North American Plate

16 Transform-Fault Boundaries Continental Transform Fault Offset continental crust. Pacific Plate Pacific Plate North American Plate

17 The San Andreas fault Figure 2.9 (page 30) Go to next slide to begin

18

19 As plates move past each other...

20 As plates move past each other... creek beds are offset

21 As plates move past each other... creek beds are offset San Francisco San Andreas fault Los Angeles

22 Interactions at plate boundaries depend on the direction of relative plate motion Which of the locations listed below is least associated with a volcanically active plate boundary? A. Mid-ocean ridge B. Deep ocean trench C. Transform fault D. Continental Rift and the type of crust.

23 Interactions at plate boundaries depend on the direction of relative plate motion Which of the locations listed below is least associated with a volcanically active plate boundary? A. Mid-ocean ridge B. Deep ocean trench C. Transform fault D. Continental Rift and the type of crust.

24 Interactions at plate boundaries depend on the direction of relative plate motion and the type of crust. Which kind of plate boundary is associated with Earthquake activity? A. Divergent Boundary B. Convergent Boundary C. Transform-fault Boundary D. All of the above

25 Interactions at plate boundaries depend on the direction of relative plate motion and the type of crust. Which kind of plate boundary is associated with Earthquake activity? A. Divergent Boundary B. Convergent Boundary C. Transform-fault Boundary D. All of the above

26 Interactions at plate boundaries depend on the direction of relative plate motion and the type of crust. At which kind of plate boundary is new oceanic lithosphere formed? A. Oceanic transform boundary B. Oceanic divergent boundary C. Ocean-ocean convergent boundary D. Ocean-continent convergent boundary

27 Interactions at plate boundaries depend on the direction of relative plate motion and the type of crust. At which kind of plate boundary is new oceanic lithosphere formed? A. Oceanic transform boundary B. Oceanic divergent boundary C. Ocean-ocean convergent boundary D. Ocean-continent convergent boundary

28 Continental rifting, drifting, and collisions assembled and dispersed Pangaea Key Figure 2.13 (pages 38 39) Go to next slide to begin

29 ASSEMBLY OF PANGAEA RODINIA Late Proterozoic, 750 Ma

30 ASSEMBLY OF PANGAEA RODINIA Late Proterozoic, 750 Ma Formed about 1.1 billion years ago; began to break up about 750 million years ago.

31 ASSEMBLY OF PANGAEA Late Proterozoic, 650 Ma

32 ASSEMBLY OF PANGAEA Late Proterozoic, 650 Ma The pre-pangean pattern of continental drift.

33 ASSEMBLY OF PANGAEA Middle Ordovician, 458 Ma The pre-pangean pattern of continental drift.

34 ASSEMBLY OF PANGAEA Early Devonian, 390 Ma The pre-pangean pattern of continental drift.

35 ASSEMBLY OF PANGAEA PANGAEA (a) Early Triassic, 237 Ma

36 ASSEMBLY OF PANGAEA PANGAEA (a) Early Triassic, 237 Ma Assembled by 237 Ma.

37 BREAKUP OF PANGAEA (b) Early Jurassic, 195 Ma

38 BREAKUP OF PANGAEA (b) Early Jurassic, 195 Ma Signaled by the opening of rifts from which lava poured; relics can be found today in volcanic rocks from Nova Scotia to North Carolina.

39 BREAKUP OF PANGAEA (c) Late Jurassic, 152 Ma

40 BREAKUP OF PANGAEA (d) Late Cretaceous, Early Tertiary, 66 Ma

41 THE PRESENT-DAY AND FUTURE WORLD (e) PRESENT-DAY WORLD

42 THE PRESENT-DAY AND FUTURE WORLD (e) PRESENT-DAY WORLD The modern world has been produced over the past 65 million years.

43 THE PRESENT-DAY AND FUTURE WORLD (f) 50 million years in the future

44 Continental rifting, drifting, and collisions assembled and dispersed Pangaea According to the reconstructed history of continental movements you just saw, about when did the modernday Atlantic Ocean first begin to form? A. About 750 million years ago B. About 390 million years ago C. About 150 million years ago D. About 50 million years ago

45 Continental rifting, drifting, and collisions assembled and dispersed Pangaea According to the reconstructed history of continental movements you just saw, about when did the modernday Atlantic Ocean first begin to form? A. About 750 million years ago B. About 390 million years ago C. About 150 million years ago D. About 50 million years ago

46 Two competing hypotheses for the mantle convection system. Figure 2.14 (page 40) Go to next slide to begin

47 Whole-mantle convection Mantle Outer core Inner core Upper mantle 700 km Lower mantle 2900 km Outer core

48 Whole-mantle convection Upper mantle 700 km Lower mantle 2900 km Outer core

49 Stratified convection Boundary near 700 km separates the two convection systems.

50 Two competing hypotheses for the mantle convection system. Considering either the whole mantle or stratified mantle convection models, at which kind of plate tectonic boundary is the upper part of the mantle (asthenosphere) rising? A. Divergent boundaries B. Convergent boundaries C. Transform boundaries

51 Two competing hypotheses for the mantle convection system. Considering either the whole mantle or stratified mantle convection models, at which kind of plate tectonic boundary is the upper part of the mantle (asthenosphere) rising? A. Divergent boundaries B. Convergent boundaries C. Transform boundaries

52 Two competing hypotheses for the mantle convection system. Although the exact nature of mantle convection is still a matter of debate, which model for mantle convection is currently favored by most geoscientists? A. Whole-mantle convection B. Stratified-mantle convection

53 Two competing hypotheses for the mantle convection system. Although the exact nature of mantle convection is still a matter of debate, which model for mantle convection is currently favored by most geoscientists? A. Whole-mantle convection B. Stratified-mantle convection

54 Two competing hypotheses for the mantle convection system. Which is the underlying fundamental driving force for mantle convection? A. Magnetism B. Nuclear fusion C. Earth s rotation D. Gravity

55 Two competing hypotheses for the mantle convection system. Which is the underlying fundamental driving force for mantle convection? A. Magnetism B. Nuclear fusion C. Earth s rotation D. Gravity

56 Seafloor Spreading Evidence for magnetic reversals has been primarily preserved in: A. metamorphic rocks near convergent plate boundaries B. limestone and shale accumulating in shallow ocean basins C. active dune fields in the arid regions of the world D. extrusive igneous rocks associated with mid-ocean ridges

57 Seafloor Spreading Evidence for magnetic reversals has been primarily preserved in: A. metamorphic rocks near convergent plate boundaries B. limestone and shale accumulating in shallow ocean basins C. active dune fields in the arid regions of the world D. extrusive igneous rocks associated with midocean ridges

58 Seafloor Spreading The idea that igneous rocks can record magnetic anomalies was first observed in: A. pillow basalts near the mid-atlantic ridge B. basaltic lava flows from successive volcanic eruptions C. welded ash and cinders accumulated after an explosive volcanic eruption D. granitic rocks that have been contact metamorphosed

59 Seafloor Spreading The idea that igneous rocks can record magnetic anomalies was first observed in: A. pillow basalts near the mid-atlantic ridge B. basaltic lava flows from successive volcanic eruptions C. welded ash and cinders accumulated after an explosive volcanic eruption D. granitic rocks that have been contact metamorphosed

60 Seafloor Spreading Which of the following magnetic reversals are we currently experiencing? A. Gilbert B. Matuyama C. Brunhes D. Gauss

61 Seafloor Spreading Which of the following magnetic reversals are we currently experiencing? A. Gilbert B. Matuyama C. Brunhes D. Gauss

62 Seafloor Spreading Absolute ages obtained from igneous rocks samples recovered from mid-ocean ridges reveal that: A. rocks ages get older with greater distance from the axis of the spreading ridge B. the pattern of rock ages is mirrored on each side of the spreading ridge C. the duration of each magnetic interval is the same across the axis of the spreading ridge D. all of these E. None of these

63 Seafloor Spreading Absolute ages obtained from igneous rocks samples recovered from mid-ocean ridges reveal that: A. rocks ages get older with greater distance from the axis of the spreading ridge B. the pattern of rock ages is mirrored on each side of the spreading ridge C. the duration of each magnetic interval is the same across the axis of the spreading ridge D. all of these E. None of these

64 Seafloor Spreading Which of the following components within an igneous rock are most responsive to the direction of the Earth s magnetic field? A. quartz B. feldspar C. iron D. magnesium

65 Seafloor Spreading Which of the following components within an igneous rock are most responsive to the direction of the Earth s magnetic field? A. quartz B. feldspar C. iron D. magnesium

66 Transform Boundary Based on the relative motion of the North American and Pacific Plates, the San Andreas Fault is an example of a (an): A. normal fault B. reverse fault C. left-lateral strike-slip fault D. right-lateral strike-slip fault

67 Transform Boundary Based on the relative motion of the North American and Pacific Plates, the San Andreas Fault is an example of a (an): A. normal fault B. reverse fault C. left-lateral strike-slip fault D. right-lateral strike-slip fault

68 Transform Boundary At the present rate motion along the San Andreas Fault, the city of Los Angeles will be a suburb of the city of San Francisco in: A. 9 years B. 9 million years C. 40,000 years D. 2 million years

69 Transform Boundary At the present rate motion along the San Andreas Fault, the city of Los Angeles will be a suburb of the city of San Francisco in: A. 9 years B. 9 million years C. 40,000 years D. 2 million years

70 Transform Boundary Transform boundaries form as a result of stresses in the lithosphere. A. tensional B. compressional C. shear D. random

71 Transform Boundary Transform boundaries form as a result of stresses in the lithosphere. A. tensional B. compressional C. shear D. random

72 Transform Boundary The San Andreas Fault System is composed of: A. a network of parallel transform faults B. a single fault C. a network of perpendicular transform faults D. a zone of both normal and reverse faults

73 Transform Boundary The San Andreas Fault System is composed of: A. a network of parallel transform faults B. a single fault C. a network of perpendicular transform faults D. a zone of both normal and reverse faults

74 Transform Boundary Unlike both convergent and divergent plate boundaries, transform plate boundaries do NOT involve: A. the relative motion between two fault blocks B. the buildup of tectonic stresses C. the creation or destruction of crust D. the generation of earthquakes in response to the release of elastic strain

75 Transform Boundary Unlike both convergent and divergent plate boundaries, transform plate boundaries do NOT involve: A. the relative motion between two fault blocks B. the buildup of tectonic stresses C. the creation or destruction of crust D. the generation of earthquakes in response to the release of elastic strain

76 Plate Tectonics: Subduction Subduction is a tectonic process that happens at which type of plate boundary? A. convergent B. divergent C. transverse D. hot spot

77 Plate Tectonics: Subduction Subduction is a tectonic process that happens at which type of plate boundary? A. convergent B. divergent C. transverse D. hot spot

78 Plate Tectonics: Subduction What causes oceanic crust to subduct when it is confronted by another oncoming plate? A. temperature B. strain C. density D. elasticity

79 Plate Tectonics: Subduction What causes oceanic crust to subduct when it is confronted by another oncoming plate? A. temperature B. strain C. density D. elasticity

80 Plate Tectonics: Subduction Which of the following statements are TRUE? A. All convergent plate boundaries are subduction zones. B. All subduction zones involve the interaction of oceanic and continental crust. C. All subduction zones occur at convergent plate boundaries. D. All convergent plate boundaries involve the process of rifting.

81 Plate Tectonics: Subduction Which of the following statements are TRUE? A. All convergent plate boundaries are subduction zones. B. All subduction zones involve the interaction of oceanic and continental crust. C. All subduction zones occur at convergent plate boundaries. D. All convergent plate boundaries involve the process of rifting.

82 Plate Tectonics: Subduction What factors cause the downgoing plate to melt during the process of subduction? A. pressure and gravity B. gravity and elasticity C. seismicity and pressure D. depth and frictional heating

83 Plate Tectonics: Subduction What factors cause the downgoing plate to melt during the process of subduction? A. pressure and gravity B. gravity and elasticity C. seismicity and pressure D. depth and frictional heating

84 Plate Tectonics: Subduction Where would we go to see the closest convergent plate boundary in North America? A. to the island of Hawaii B. off the coast of Washington State C. to central New Mexico D. all of these E. none of these

85 Plate Tectonics: Subduction Where would we go to see the closest convergent plate boundary in North America? A. to the island of Hawaii B. off the coast of Washington State C. to central New Mexico D. all of these E. none of these

86 Divergent Boundaries The Red Sea is the surface expression of a Continental Rift, or divergent boundary between which two plates? A. Pacific and Indian Plates B. North American and Pacific Plates C. African and North American Plates D. Arabian and African Plates

87 Divergent Boundaries The Red Sea is the surface expression of a Continental Rift, or divergent boundary between which two plates? A. Pacific and Indian Plates B. North American and Pacific Plates C. African and North American Plates D. Arabian and African Plates

88 Divergent Boundaries A divergent plate boundary like the East African Rift is a result of stresses within the crust. A. compressional B. tensional C. shear D. none of these

89 Divergent Boundaries A divergent plate boundary like the East African Rift is a result of stresses within the crust. A. compressional B. tensional C. shear D. none of these

90 Divergent Boundaries Which of the following statements are TRUE? A. All divergent plate boundaries are mid-ocean ridges. B. All continental rift boundaries will become mid-ocean ridges (tricky). C. All mid-ocean ridges boundaries began as continental rifts. D. All divergent plate boundaries involve the process of subduction.

91 Divergent Boundaries Which of the following statements are TRUE? A. All divergent plate boundaries are mid-ocean ridges. B. All continental rift boundaries will become mid-ocean ridges (tricky). C. All mid-ocean ridges boundaries began as continental rifts. D. All divergent plate boundaries involve the process of subduction.

92 Divergent Boundaries Why is molten magma rising to the surface at divergent plate boundaries? A. because it is more dense than the hotter rock around it B. because it is affected by anti-gravity C. because it is less dense than the cooler rock surrounding it D. it is pure chance that magma rises at these boundaries

93 Divergent Boundaries Why is molten magma rising to the surface at divergent plate boundaries? A. because it is more dense than the hotter rock around it B. because it is affected by anti-gravity C. because it is less dense than the cooler rock surrounding it D. it is pure chance that magma rises at these boundaries

94 Divergent Boundaries Where would we go to see the closest divergent plate boundary in North America? A. off the coast of Washington State B. to central New Mexico C. to the island of Hawaii D. all of these E. none of these

95 Divergent Boundaries Where would we go to see the closest divergent plate boundary in North America? A. off the coast of Washington State B. to central New Mexico C. to the island of Hawaii D. all of these E. none of these

96 Assembly and Breakup of Pangaea Which continental landmass was assembled first? A. Pangea B. Australia C. Gondwana D. Rodinia

97 Assembly and Breakup of Pangaea Which continental landmass was assembled first? A. Pangea B. Australia C. Gondwana D. Rodinia

98 Assembly and Breakup of Pangaea How long did it take to form the modern continental arrangement since the breakup of Pangaea? A. 750 Ma B. 200 Ma C. 500 Ma D. 50 Ma

99 Assembly and Breakup of Pangaea How long did it take to form the modern continental arrangement since the breakup of Pangaea? A. 750 Ma B. 200 Ma C. 500 Ma D. 50 Ma

100 Assembly and Breakup of Pangaea Based on the present directions of plate motions, which of the following should occur over the next 50 million years? A. North America will separate from South America. B. Australia will collide with Antarctica. C. Africa will collide with Eurasia. D. The Atlantic Ocean Basin will close.

101 Assembly and Breakup of Pangaea Based on the present directions of plate motions, which of the following should occur over the next 50 million years? A. North America will separate from South America. B. Australia will collide with Antarctica. C. Africa will collide with Eurasia. D. The Atlantic Ocean Basin will close.

102 Assembly and Breakup of Pangaea The bolide impact that is hypothesized to have led to the extinction of the dinosaurs impacted the Earth s surface about years ago. A. in the Australian Outback; 200 million B. in Northern Siberia; 25 million C. off the Yucatan Peninsula; 65 million D. near the North Pole; 5 million

103 Assembly and Breakup of Pangaea The bolide impact that is hypothesized to have led to the extinction of the dinosaurs impacted the Earth s surface about years ago. A. in the Australian Outback; 200 million B. in Northern Siberia; 25 million C. off the Yucatan Peninsula; 65 million D. near the North Pole; 5 million

104 Assembly and Breakup of Pangaea Which of the following ocean basins are no longer present due to plate motions over the past 750 Ma? A. Rheic Ocean B. Iapetus Ocean C. Tethys Ocean D. all of these E. none of these

105 Assembly and Breakup of Pangaea Which of the following ocean basins are no longer present due to plate motions over the past 750 Ma? A. Rheic Ocean B. Iapetus Ocean C. Tethys Ocean D. all of these E. none of these

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