Tuta absoluta. Plant Research International. A new pest for tomato production in Europe

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1 Plant Research International Tuta absoluta A new pest for tomato production in Europe Willem Stol, Frans C. Griepink and Peter van Deventer II Jornadas Feromonas Murcia November 2009

2 overview Biology, damage, distribution Pheromone identification Pheromone applications and R&D Integrated Pest Management

3 species Name: Tuta absoluta (Povolny) Family: Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, Leafmining moth Origin: Latin America (Chile) Host: Solanaceae, tomato, potato, pepper, bean, weeds Detected in Europe: June 2007, Spain Permanently established: EPPO A2 List

4 species Larvae (four stages): 0.5 > 7 mm Pupae: 6 mm Adult: 7 mm with wingspan of 10 mm One female produces hundreds of eggs during lifetime Life cycle: 29 days > generations per year ( under greenhouse conditions )

5 damage Mining of leaves, stems and fruits Dead leaves, malformation of plant, damage to fruits Yield loss, secundary infections Reduction of marketable yield

6 distribution South America: whole continent Europe: 2007 Spain France, Italy, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria Turkey, Greece, Portugal, Switzerland, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Slovakia Further spreading and establishment in Europe, the Middle East and Africa is expected

7 other leafminers in tomato Phthorimeae opercullela (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) Potato tuber moth, Mediterranean, Maghreb Keiferia lycopersicella (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) Tomato leaf miner, Liturgia, Italy, 2008, potential Q organism Tuta absoluta

8 GC EAG volatiles exit GC EAD unit

9 GC EAG air flow direction insect antenna between glass electrodes

10 GC EAD EAD response FID or EAD Response FID response Time (minutes)

11 pheromone identification Cooperation project Wageningen University International Potato Center (CIP) (Griepink, 1996) Female sex pheromone: two components Major component: Minor component: Commercial pheromone dispenser: 95 : 5 pheromone blend, 0.8 mg pure pheromone per dispenser Griepink, F.C. et al., Tetrahedron Lett. 37:

12 pheromone synthesis synthesis of (E,Z,Z) 3,8,11 tetradecatrienyl acetate

13 pheromone synthesis 9 steps synthesis scheme Time consuming and low overall yield; very expensive pheromone Till 2009: < 1 kg per year Currently: upscaling multi kg level

14 monitoring Prevalence and incidence: risk assessment Deltatraps with pheromone dispenser ( 2 3 traps per hectare ) Weekly observations Replacement of dispenser every 6 weeks

15 mass trapping Objective: reducing population of male moths Watertraps with pheromone dispenser ( greenhouse: traps / ha ; open field: traps / ha ) Replacement of dispenser every 6 weeks

16 mating disruption Experiment: 2007, Consejeria de Murcia Objective: disruption of sexual communication between females and males 100 dispensers per ha Result: 4 weeks reduction in trap catches and low damage compared to control (at low temperatures) R&D: biodegradable dispensers for mating disruption

17 greenhouse crops system Biocruz System Biocruz s.a. Chile : Barrier 1: 1 light trap per 20 m to trap both males and females (outside) Barrier 2: water traps (corridor) Barrier 3: water traps, 30 per ha (crop) Result: low population density, low crop damage

18 open field system Griepink System Griepink : Peru, Ica 30 water traps / ha male insects / trap / week Result: 70% reduction of yield loss

19 integrated pest management Prevention! Pheromone traps: monitoring mass trapping Predatory bugs: Nesiodiocorus tenuis Macrolophus caliginosus Parasitoids: Trichogramma spp. Bacillus thuringiensis Selective insecticides

20 IPM: thresholds and actions (Source: A. Monserrat, Consejeria Murcia, 2008)

21 summary The pest is really harmful in tomato and rapidly spreading across Europe Control is possible by means of IPM, in case sufficient attention of the grower Further spreading in Europe and North Africa is expected New pheromone based control methods are under development

22 Thanks to Open Natur s.l., Lleida, Mrs. Lourdes Navarra Crop Protection Service, Murcia, Mr. Antonio Monserrat Koppert Biological Systems, Mr. José Eduardo Belda thank you for your attention!

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