The Test Results of Refrigerant R152a in an Automotive Air-Conditioning System

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1 SAE 9 th Alternative Refrigerant Systems Symposium (June 10-12, 2008) The Test Results of Refrigerant R152a in an Automotive Air-Conditioning System June 12, 2008 Man-Hoe Kim J.-S. Shin, W.-G. Park, S. Y. Lee Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology College of Engineering

2 Outline Introduction Thermophysical properties of R152a Cycle performance tests - Performance test - Simple test for effect of oil on evaporator ΔP Two phase flow boiling and condensation tests Conclusion

3 Introduction Need to preserve the global environment - Ozone Depletion : Montreal Protocol Global Warming : Kyoto Protocol 1997 (Effective on Feb. 16, 2005)/ EU F-gas Regulation (Directive 2006/40/EC) Two main strategies for development of new refrigerant systems - The chemical compatible approach : R152a, HFO-1234yf Develop new chemicals to fit existing system - The natural or cycle/system approach : CO2 Design system to fit a selected refrigerant Critria for selection of new refrigerants - ODP=0, GWP<150 - Energy efficiency (LCCP) - Cost-competitive - Material Compatibility/Reliability - Space requirements and footprint - System weights and etc...

4 Thermophysical properties of R152a Å

5 Vapor pressure curves for refrigerants 4 P [MPa] 3 2 R-744 R-32 R-125 R-290 R-134a R-152a R-600a T [ o C]

6 Slope of saturation pressure curve for refrigerants dt/dp [K/MPa] R-600a R-152a R-134a R-290 R-125 R-32 R T [ o C]

7 Density ratio of R134a & R152a Liquid/vapor density ratio R-152a R-134a f / g Ts[ o C]

8 Performance test: Photo of test equipment Flowmeter Subcooler Condenser Evaporator Exp V/V Oil Separator Data Acquisition System Compressor Control Panel Inverter, Motor, Torque/RPM meter

9 Performance test: Schematic of test apparatus Mass Flowmeter Subcooler Discharging Port Variable Speed Fan COND. Dryer Variable Speed Fan Oil Separator Needle V/V TXV Charging Port Needle V/V Torque/RPM Meter EVAP. COMP. Variable Speed Fan Variable Speed Motor

10 Basic specification of test apparatus Refrigerant Compressor Evaporator Condenser Subcooler Expansion Device Lubricant R134a, R152a Swash Plate Type (10 Cylinders, Displacement 110 cc) Fin and Tube Type (O.D. = 9.54 mm, W400 H340 D100 mm) Fin and Tube Type (O.D. = 9.54 mm, W400 H340 D100 mm) Brazed Parallel Flow Type (W110 H130 D19 mm) TXV (Thermo Expansion Valve), Needle Valve PAG (UCON-244)

11 Test conditions Average Saturation Temperature of Evaporation Average Saturation Temperature of Condensation Subcooling Temperature (at expansion device inlet) Superheating Temperature (at evaporator outlet) Compressor Speed o C o C 5 1 o C 5 1 o C 500, 750, 1000, 1250, 1500 * rpm * R152a only.

12 Test conditions in P-h diagrams for R152a & R134a R134a R134a R152a R152a

13 Measurement Data Logger Mass Flow Meter Temperature Absolute Pressure Pressure Difference RPM & Torque Data Collection Recording Refrigerant Properties Agilent 34970A OVAL Coriolis-type mass flow meter ULTRA Mass MKII, CN006C-SS-200R (Range = 0~200 kg/h, 0.1%FS) RTD Sensor (Yokogawa) T-type thermocouple (Watlow) Yokogawa FP101A (Range = 0~2.5 MPa, 0~5 MPa, 0.25%FS) Yokogawa UNE11-SLs1 (Range = 0~2100 kpa, 0.2%FS) DACELL TRB-50K (Range = 0~490 N-m) Pentium 4 with RS232C communication 20 data during 120 seconds at steady condition REFPROP version 6.1, ASHRAE handbook

14 Data acquisition & real time analysis MS-Excel with Visual Basic

15 Results : Cooling capacity 4000 R152a R134a Capacity (W) % 41% Compressor Speed (rpm)

16 Results : COP (Coefficient of performance) % R152a R134a COP % Compressor Speed (rpm)

17 Results : Refrigerant mass flow rate 60 R134a h ) g / (k e a r t w o f l R152a 22-5% discrepancy at rpm M ass Compressor speed (rpm)

18 Results : Evaporator pressure drop 250 R152a Evaporator Pressure Drop(kPa) % 33% R134a Compressor Speed (rpm)

19 Results : Discharge temperature 100 Discharge Temperature ( C) o C R152a R134a 10.8 o C Compressor Speed (rpm)

20 Oil separation test: Test rig Mass Flowmeter Subcooler Discharging Port Oil Separator Pass / Bypass Variable Speed Fan COND. Dryer Observation Variable Speed Fan Oil Separator Needle V/V TXV Charging Port Needle V/V Torque/RPM Meter EVAP. COMP. Variable Speed Fan Variable Speed Motor

21 Results : Oil separation test Evaporator Pressure Drop (kpa) with oil separator without oil separator 0 R134a (500 rpm) R152a (750 rpm) Evaporator Inlet

22 Two phase flow test for R152a: Test loop Receiver Test Section Preheater Gear Pump

23 Two phase flow test for R152a : Test section Tw3 Tr,out, Pout Tw2 Tw1 Tr,in, Prin Refrigerant Tw,in Tw,out 270 mm Water 250 mm 260 mm 1045 mm Test section: Concentric annular tube - Inner tube: Smooth copper tube (OD=9.52 mm, ID=7.55 mm, L=1045 mm) - Outer tube: Acrylic tube (OD=38 mm, ID=28 mm) 12 K-type thermocouples were attached on the inner tube wall Top, bottom, left and right along circumferential direction in 3 locations

24 Two phase flow test for R152a: Evaporation dp p T Subcooler T 6 Tw Tw p Tw T 4 5 P Stabilizer T dt T1 T m T2 dt 2 Test Section 6 p m 1 Refrigerant Cooling Water Heating Water p T 2 p Preheater 1 T2 3 4 T1 Q 5 h T 3

25 Two phase flow test for R152a: Condensation dp p T Subcooler T 6 Tw Tw p Tw T 4 5 P 2 Stabilizer T dt T1 T m T2 dt 6 Test Section 1 Refrigerant Cooling Water Cooling Water 1 T1 p m 5 p T 2 p Preheater 3 4 Q T2 h T 3

26 Results: Evaporation heat transfer of 152a Test condition % hcal 5000 Kandlikar (1990) correlation - 20 % - Refrigerants : water, R11, R12, R13B1,R22, R113, R114, R152a, Nitrogen, Neon - Mean Deviation : % - Average Deviation : % hexp Comparison of experimental data with the Kandlikar (1990) correlation 7000 Kandlikar correlation (1990) predicts well the test data within 10% error Kandlikar correlation can be used within this test conditions

27 Results: Condensation heat transfer of 152a Test condition Comparison of data with the correlation % % hcal(w/m2k) hcal(w/m2k) % % hexp(w/m K) Comparison of experimental data with the Shah (1978) correlation Shah correlation predicts well the test data hexp(w/m K) Comparison of experimental data with the Dobson and Chato (1998) correlation

28 Conclusion At the same compressor speed, R152a system with readjustment of an expansion valve showed better performance compared to R134a system - 20 ~ 41% higher cooling capacity - 27 ~ 42% higher COP - 33 ~ 48% lower evaporator pressure drop ~ 10.8oC higher discharge temperature However, discharge temperature of R152a system is similar to R134a system at the same cooling capacity. Refrigerant Compressor rpm Cooling capacity (kw) Discharge temp. (oc) R152a/R134a 750/ kW 78/79 Two phase flow boiling and condensation tests of R152a were conducted - Evaporation heat transfer: Kandlicar correlation - Condensation heat transfer: Shar correlation Without oil separator, severe oil forming was observed and this resulted in significant increase of evaporator pressure drop for both R152a and R134a systems

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