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1 Physical Science: Chemistry Study Guide Final Exam Test consists of 90 multiple choice questions. Introduction Unit Graphing, measuring, and metric system 1. Where on the graph would I put the independent variable? 2. Where on the graph would I put the dependent variable? 3. Time is always considered the variable. 4. How should measurements in the metric system be written, as fractions or decimals? 5. List all the metric prefixes in order from largest to smallest, starting with kilo-. 6. List and describe the 5 steps of the scientific method. 7. What is a hypothesis? 8. What are two things that all good hypotheses have to do? 9. What is a variable? 10. What is the control of an experiment? Give an example.

2 11. Create a graph of the data listed below using the graph area. Time (s) Speed (cm/s) Unit 1: States of Matter/Thermal Chemistry 12. What is mass? In what units can it be recorded? 13. What measuring devices are used to determine mass? 14. What is volume? In what units can it be recorded? 15. What measuring devices are used to determine volume? 16. Describe the properties of plasma 17. Complete the following chart, listing the states of matter in order of least energy to most and stating whether they have a definite volume and/or a definite shape.

3 18. What is the volume of the object in the picture? ml 19. What is the meniscus and where do you measure it from? This is a phase-change diagram for water. 20. Label the phase change diagram as the temperature is increasing and decreasing. 21. Explain what is happening during Leg B and Leg D. 22. What is the difference between vaporization, evaporation, and condensation? 23. Particles move as the states of matter change from low to high temperatures. Illustrate below the motion and spacing of these particles in a melting ice cube. Describe the attractive forces between the particles in each state. 24. Define the following: Conduction: Convection: Radiation: 25. What is specific heat?

4 26. What is the difference between heat and temperature? 27. Heat (thermal energy) flows from objects/areas with a temperature to objects/areas with a temperature. 28. Describe the molecular make-up of a material that is generally a good conductor. 29. Give 3 examples of materials that would be good thermal conductors. 30. Give 3 examples of materials that would be good thermal insulators. 31. What is the freezing point/boiling point of water in degrees Celsius and Fahrenheit? Unit 2: Atomic Theory/Periodic Table 32. The building blocks of matter are. 33. What are the three subatomic particles, their charges and their locations in an atom? 34. Define strong nuclear force. 35. The atomic number of an element is the same as the. The number of neutrons + the number of protons tells us the. 36. Draw an example of a periodic table tile. Be sure to label the element name, chemical symbol, atomic mass, mass number, and atomic number. Next, draw one to represent Nitrogen. 37. Define isotope and identify how many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in a Hydrogen-3 (Tritium) isotope? 38. What are valence electrons? How can you figure out how many valence electrons an element has? Name the diagram used to show the valence electrons of an element.

5 39. Calcium has an atomic number of 20. How many filled energy levels does it have? How many electrons are left over? 40. Why are Noble Gases considered non-reactive? 41. What do scientists call the place where electrons are found? 42. What are the benefits of the following elements? Chlorine: Fluorine: Aluminum: 43. What are the only two elements that are liquid at room temperature? 44. Identify where on the periodic table these families are found, their valence electrons and their oxidation numbers: Halogens: Alkali metals: Alkaline Earth Metals: Noble Gases: 45. As you move from left to right across the periodic table, what happens to the mass and size of the elements? 46. The of an element is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. 47. Fill in the following chart. Na Cl -1 Li +1 Atomic Number Protons Neutrons Mass Electrons 48. Elements with similar properties are listed in a single column on the periodic table called. 49. Be able to name the discoveries of the following scientists: a. Bohr: b. Dalton: c. Democritus: d. Rutherford:

6 50. Where are nonmetals located on the periodic table? Metals? 51. Ionic bonds form between 52. Covalent bonds form between 53. In the formation of an ionic bond, the metal electrons and the nonmetal electrons. 54. Define diatomic molecule and provide four examples. 55. What is the difference between a monoatomic ion and a polyatomic ion? 56. What is so unique about Carbon? 57. How do you figure out how many valence electrons an atom will have by looking at the periodic table? 58. What does the oxidation number tell us about an element? How do you figure out an element s oxidation number by looking at the periodic table? 59. How many valence electrons does an atom need to be considered stable? 60. What are the only 2 elements that don t follow this rule?. How many valence electrons do they need? 61. Draw the dot diagram for the following elements: Tin Lead Xenon Iodine Cesium 62. How many atoms of each element are in 4H 2 O. Put a box around the coefficient and circle the subscript. H= O=

7 Unit 3: Nomenclature,Formula Stoichiometry & Bonding 63. Complete the following table by writing the chemical formula of the compound formed by the two ions. Br - CO 3 2- OH - Ni 3+ NH 4 + Ba + Al Complete the following table by writing the chemical formula and naming the compound formed. Magnesium Chlorine Sulfate Oxygen Lithium Sodium Calcium Unit 4: Equations and Organic Chemistry Balance the following equations: 65. C 7 H 17 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O 66. CaCO 3 + H 3 PO 4 Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + H 2 CO Ag 2 S Ag + S KBr + Fe(OH) 3 KOH + FeBr KNO 3 + H 2 CO 3 K 2 CO 3 + HNO Pb(OH) 4 + Cu 2 O PbO 2 + CuOH 71. Cr(NO 2 ) 2 + (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 CrSO 4 + NH 4 NO KOH + Co 3 (PO 4 ) 2 K 3 PO 4 + Co(OH) KNO 3 KNO 2 + O O 2 + CS 2 CO 2 + SO BaF 2 + K 3 PO 4 Ba 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + KF 76. Al + H 2 SO 4 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + H 2

8 77. List the reactants and products for the following equation: _1_WO 3 + _3_H 2 _1_W + _3_H 2 O 78. What is meant by Atoms are conserved in chemical reactions (Law of Conservation of Mass)? 79. Predict the products of the following reactions and identify what type of reaction it is. AgNO 3 + Cu Type of reaction: 2H 2 O + Type of reaction: 80. Define physical property: 81. Define chemical property: Classify each of the following as being a physical (P) or chemical (C) property. 82. Blue color 83. Density 84. Flammability 85. Melting point 86. Hardness 87. Odor 88. Sour taste 89. Reacts with acid to form H Define physical change and give examples. 91. Define chemical change and give examples. 92. Is dissolving a physical or a chemical change? Explain why this is. 93. Explain how a chemical change occurs when a piece of paper is burned. 94. What is the result of a chemical change? 95. Compare/contrast endothermic and exothermic reactions in regards to heat energy. 96. Identify the following examples below as endothermic or exothermic. Instant cold pack Drain cleaner Meal, Ready to Eat (MRE)

9 Unit 5: Acids & Bases 97. Predict the product(s) of the following acid-base neutralization reaction. HCl + NaOH What two products are formed from an acid/base reaction? 99. What is the ph scale and what does it measure? 100. List the characteristics of acids and bases List common tests used to indicate acids and bases List the formula and name for common acids and bases. Chapter 22-Nuclear Reactions Review Questions: 103. Compare/contrast fission and fusion. (Include what happens inside the sun.) 104. Why does nuclear decay occur? 105. What is Carbon-14 used for? 106. Long term exposure to radiation is known to cause.

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