1 Samarbejd ikke med idioter Andreas Roepstorff Interacting Minds Centre Aarhus Universitet
5 En trialog og en undskyldning Skolen kan gøre en forskel! Den plastiske hjerne Læring er belønning er læring er belønning At fejle er menneskeligt, men at lære? Træning og testning Hjernen er ikke kun i hjernen Hvad gør det for talenter?
6 En trialog om skoler og hjerner Antoine Lutz: fransk, uddannet på eliteskole i ingeniørvidenskab, ph.d. i neurovidenskab, forsker i meditations virkning på hjernen i Madison, Wisconsin Micah Allen: amerikansk, uddannet i filosofi og psykologi, søn af en lærer, studerer ph.d. i neurovidenskab, forsker i neuroplasticitet i Danmark
7 En trialog om skoler og hjerner Det skolen lærer børn er helt forkert. Vi lærer kendsgerninger og objektivitet, men hjerneforskningen viser, at emotioner er altafgørende for at opfatte verden. Vi skal lære børn at være i balance med sig selv og at lære.. Min amerikanske skole var fuld af børn på ritalin, det blev brugt for at holde styr på eleverne, og forældrene var bekymrede for om deres børn kunne holde fokus. Der er noget helt galt med skolen. Det er afgørende at man lærer at forholde sig til andre. Her står debatten på, om man bruger for meget energi på rundkredspædagogik og på at lære at lære og alt for lidt på rent faktisk at lære noget...
8 Hvad kan vi lære fra hjerneforskningen om talenter? Ikke særlig meget... Der er meget lidt forskning på individuelle forskelle (men mere er på vej) Der er meget lidt forskning på børn og unge Der er meget lidt forskning på mere komplekse former for læring Det, der er, er filtret ind i forestillinger om alt mulig andet (det gode liv, den rette barndom, den bedste samfundsindretning etc.) Men der er interessante forståelsesmodeller på vej, der kan være gode at tænke med (måske)..
9 Skolen kan gøre en forskel
10 n WC1N 3BG, UK. 2 Developmental Neurocognition Laboratory, Department of Psychological Sciences, RESEARCH BirkbeckLETTER College, Verbal and non-verbal intelligence changes in the teenage brain 3 N O V E M B E R VO L N AT U R E illan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved Sue Ramsden 1, Fiona M. Richardson 1, Goulven Josse 1, Michael S. C. Thomas 2, Caroline Ellis 1, Clare Shakeshaft 1, Mohamed L. Seghier 1 & Cathy J. Price 1 33 børn undersøgt i 2004 (14,1 år og i Intelligence quotient (IQ) is a standardized measure of human intellectual (17,1 capacity år) that takes into account a wide range of cognitive skills 1. IQ is generally considered to be stable across the lifespan, with scores at one time point used to predict educational achievement and employment prospects in later years 1. Neuroimaging allows us to test whether unexpected longitudinal fluctua- og hjerneskanninger tions in measured IQ are related to brain development. Here we show that verbal and non-verbal IQ can rise or fall in the teenage years, with these changes in performance validated by their close correlation with changes in local brain structure. A combination of structuralderes and functional adfærd imaging ved showed det thatandet verbal IQ changed with grey matter in a region that was activated by speech, whereas non-verbal IQ changed with grey matter in a region that was activated 0,8) by finger movements. By using longitudinal assessments of the same individuals, we obviated the many sources of variation in brain structure that confound cross-sectional studies. This allowed us to dissociate neural markers for the two types of IQ and to show man that general typisk verbal betragte and non-verbal som abilities støj. are closely linked to the sensorimotor skills involved in learning. More generally, our results emphasize the possibility that an individual s intellectual capacity relative to their peers can decrease or increase in the teenage years. This would be encouraging to those whose intellectual potential may improve, and would be a warning that early achievers may not maintain their potential. An individual s områder. abilities and capacity to learn can be partly captured by the use of verbal and non-verbal (henceforth performance) intelligence tests. IQ provides a standardized method for measuring Undersøgt for adfærd (verbal og performance IQ) Som forventet, forudsiger deres adfærd ved det første undersøgelsestidspunkt en stor del af undersøgelsestidspunkt (p< 0.01, kor koef. 0,6 - Men der er en masse variation tilbage. Det vil Da forskerne ser nærmere efter, viser det sig at der er sammenhæng mellem ændringer i adfærd og i hjernestruktur. Disse ligger i relevante a shift of at least one population standard deviation (15) in the V measure, and 18% in the PIQ measure. However, only one participa had a shift of this magnitude in both measures, and, for that partic ant, one measure showed an increase and the other a decrease. T pattern is reflected in the absence of a significant correlation betwe the change in VIQ and the change in PIQ. The independence a Motor speech area Our participants were 33 healthy and neurologically norm adolescents with a deliberately wide and heterogeneous mix of abiliti (see Supplementary Information for details and the implications of ou sampling for the generalizability of our conclusions). They were fir tested in 2004 ( time 1 ) when they were yr old (mean, 14.1 yr Testing was repeated in 2007/2008 ( time 2 ) when the same indiv 2 2 duals were yr old (mean, 17.7 yr). See Table 1 for further detai of the participants. During the intervening years, there were no testin 0 0 sessions, and participants and their parents had no knowledge th they would be invited back for 2 further testing. On 2 both test occasion each participant had a structural brain scan using magnetic resonanc imaging (MRI) and had their Change IQ in measured VIQ using Change in the PIQ Wechsl Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) at time 1 and the Wechsl b Anterior cerebellum Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) at time 2 (see Supplementar Information for details). These two widely used, age-appropriate asses ments 5 produce strongly correlated results at a given time point, con sistent with them measuring highly similar constructs 6.Scoreso individual subtests are standardized against age-specific norms an then grouped to produce separate measures of verbal IQ (VIQ) an performance IQ (PIQ), with VIQ encompassing those tests most relate to verbal skills and PIQ being 2 more independent 2 of verbal skill 0 0 Nevertheless, VIQ and PIQ scores are very significantly correlated wit 2 2 each other across participants: in our sample, the correlations betwee 4 4 VIQ and PIQ were r at time 1 and r at time 2 (in bot 6 6 cases, n 5 33; P, 0.01). Full-scale IQ (FSIQ) is the composite of VI and PIQ and is regarded as the Change best in VIQ measure of Change general in PIQ intellectu capacity (the g factor) that has previously been shown to correlate wit brain size and cortical Figure thickness 1 Locationin of brain a wide regions variety whereof grey frontal, matter changed parietal withan VI Change in % GMD Change in % GMD Change in % GMD Change in % GMD
11 a shift of at least one population standard deviation (15) in th measure, and 18% in the PIQ measure. However, only one parti had a shift of this magnitude in both measures, and, for that pa ant, one measure showed an increase and the other a decrease pattern is reflected in the absence of a significant correlation be the change in VIQ and the change in PIQ. The independen LETT Functional P1 P2 b Our findings demonstrate considerable effects of Motor the speech area years, over and abov our sample during teenage ment. By obviating the many sources of between-su controlling for global changes in brain structure, analysis has allowed us to dissociate brain regions whe individual differences in verbal or non-verbal perform has proved difficult in previous studies using behav single point in time. We have also shown that the cha time in the IQ scores of teenagers cannot simply be m because they correlate with independently measure structure in regions that are plausibly related to th 2 2 verbal functions tested. Further studies are require generalizability of this finding; for example, the same 0 may be present throughout0 life or the adolescent ye study may be special in this regard. In addition, 2 consider the causes of the 2 identified changes both in brain structure and how they impact on education employment prospects. The 20 implication of20our presen Change in VIQ Change in PIQ individual s strengths and weaknesses in skills releva employment are still emerging or changing in the te Anterior cerebellum METHODS SUMMARY P3 This study was approved by the Joint Ethics Committe Neurology and the National Hospital for Neurology London, UK. All structural and functional scans at times 1 from the same Siemens 1.5T Sonata MRI scanner (Siemens M structural images were acquired using a T1-weighted modifi Figure 2 Functional activations in the regions identified by the structural Fourier transform sequence with 176 sagittal partitions an analysis. The motor speech region was more activated by articulation tasks , yielding a final resolution of 1 mm3 (repetition than by finger press tasks (x mm, y mm, z mm (MNI); time, 3.56 ms; inversion time, 530 ms). To pre-process the 66 t ; P, 0.05 familywise-error-corrected for multiple comparisons across participants 3 2 time points), we used SPM8 (http://www 2 2 the whole brain), and corresponds to the region identified in the structural with the DARTEL toolbox to segment and spatially normal analysis for VIQ. These effects were consistently observed at the same same template, with and without modulation. Modulated 0 0 coordinates for all individual subjects. In the three exemplar participants shown 2 measure of local brain volume, whereas unmodulated imag 2 here (P1, P2, P3), the Z-scores were 3.9, 3.5 and 3.0, respectively. The anterior tional scaling to correct for global grey matter, provide a me cerebellum region was more activated during finger presses than during have shown that the matter density. Previous studies 6 articulation at both the group level (peak at x 5 16 mm, y mm, brain structure and cognitive 6ability are better detected by z 5 24 mm (MNI); Z-score, 3.7; 216 voxels at P, corrected for multiple Coordinates for each voxel were 20converted to standard MN comparisons in extent) and the individual level (P1: x mm, smoothed using a Gaussian kernel Change with an in isotropic full-w Change in VIQ PIQ y mm, z 5 12 mm (MNI); Z-score, 3.7; P2: x 5 16 mm, y mm, maximum. The relationship between change in IQ and cha z 5 26 mm (MNI); Z-score, 3.3; P3: x mm, y mm, z 5 12 mm was investigated by entering the appropriate pre-processed (MNI); Z-score, 4.9). In all cases, the activation peaks were identified from1 Location unmodulated or white matter) within-subject Figure of braingrey regions where greyinto matter changed pair with whole-brain analyses and the peak effects for the correlation with structure area, Correlation in IQ (VIQ,between PIQ or FSIQ) and scan asdensity covariates. and PIQ. change inyear greyofmatter andthe ch Change in % GMD Structural Change in % GMD Disse ændringer ligger i relevante områder Verbal IQ korrelerer med ændringer i tæthed af grå substans i et område der også bruges under tale Performance IQ korrelerer med ændringer i tæthed af grå substans i et område der også bruges ved fingerbevægelser a Change in % GMD Anterior cerebellum Change in % GMD Motor speech area
12 66% af variansen i VIQ ved tidspunkt 2 blev forklaret af VIQ ved tidspunkt 1, 20 % yderligere blev forklaret ved ændringerne i GMD i motor regionen, 14 % kunne ikke forklares. 35 % af variansen i PIQ ved tidspunkt 2 blev forklaret af PIQ ved tidspunkt 1, 13 % yderligere blev forklaret ved ændringerne i GMD lillehjernen. 52 % kunne ikke forklares. Der skal flere studier til... Med andre ord: videnskaben har bevist, at børn udvikler sig. Der er grund til at tro, at skoler (også) bygger hjerner. Det er næppe ligemeget, hvordan man bygger dem...
13 Den plastiske hjerne
14 n a brain-imaging scan. 1 brief comms MH 15/1/04 5:28 pm Page 1 THE IMAGE BANK / GETTY 3 months to learn a classic three-ball cascade juggling routine. A second brain scan was a L c NATURE VOL JANUARY d (hmt/v5) and in the left posterior intraparietal sulcus between the first and the b Per cent change in green matter Scan 1 Scan 2 Scan 3 Figure 1 Transient changes in brain structure induced while learning to juggle. a c, Statistical parametric maps showing the areas with transient structural changes in grey matter for the jugglers group compared with non-juggler controls. a, Sagittal view; b, coronal view; c, axial view. The increase in grey matter is shown superimposed on a normalized T1 image. The left side (L) of the brain is indicated. A significant expansion in grey matter was found between the first and second scans in the mid-temporal area (hmt/v5) bilaterally Ændringer i grå substans efter (left: x, 43; y, 75; z, 2, with Z = 4.70; right: x, 33; y, 82; z, 4, with Z = 4.09) and in the left posterior intraparietal sulcus (x, 40; y, 66; z, 43 with Z = 4.57), which had decreased by the time of the third scan. Colour scale indicates Z scores, which correlate with the significance of the change. d, Relative grey-matter change in the peak voxel in the left hmt for all jugglers over the three time points. The tre måneders 22.1 brief comms MH 15/1/04 5:28 teknisk pm Page 2 træning box plot shows the standard deviation, range and the mean for each time point. brief communications 2004 Nature Publishing Group second s the third tionship sient stru juggling specific t jugglers over the s Our held view the adult for chang or patho indicate ticity is a As all motor sk consequ anticipat stimulus visual are motion areas (i executio the supp motor co Altho in grey m selective underlyi ations ar may be second scans. This expansion decreased in the third scan (Fig. 1). We found a close relationship in these regions between the transient structural grey-matter changes and the juggling performance. These findings were specific to the training stimulus, as the nonjugglers brain alter showed in response to environmen- no change in grey oes the structure of an adult human matter performed when they had become skilled performers (that is, when they could sustain brief communications Changes in grey matter induced by training Newly honed juggling skills show up as a transient feature on a brain-imaging scan. / GETTY synaptic bulk and neurites, or they might include increased cell genesis, for example, of glial or even neuronal cells 4.Imaging results need to be compared with histological data for identification of the structural basis at the microscopic level of temporary, trainingdependent structural changes in our brains. Bogdan Draganski*, Christian Gaser, Volker Busch*, Gerhard Schuierer, Ulrich Bogdahn*, Arne May* *Department of Neurology, and Institute of Neuroradiology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg 93053, Germany Proportion of tones responded to with lever press ncy time to er press (s) a b (Fig. 1a) (in two-tailed t-tests d.f. 7, P 0.1). These rats were a to press the lever in response to the and to the ambiguous tones that w it in frequency (Fig. 1b) (t 2.4 P 0.05). Both findings were still only the responses by the ra ambiguous tones were analysed tions: t 1.92, d.f. 7, P 0.09; t 2.42,d.f. 7,P 0.05). Overall, rats in unpredictabl were slower to respond and tende fewer responses to ambiguous ton the positive tone and to this tone
15 Natur - Kultur
16 Hjerne Natur - Kultur
17 Natur Hjerne - Kultur
18 plastic ORIGIN mid 17th cent. (in the sense [characteristic of molding] ): from French plastique or Latin plasticus, from Greek plastikos, from plassein to mold. noun a synthetic material made from a wide range of organic polymers such as polyethylene, PVC, nylon, etc., that can be molded into shape while soft and then set into a rigid or slightly elastic form. informal credit cards or other types of plastic card that can be used as money : he pays with cash instead of with plastic. adjective 1 made of plastic : plastic bags. looking or tasting artificial : long-distance flights with their plastic food she smiled a little plastic smile. 2 (of substances or materials) easily shaped or molded : rendering the material more plastic. (in art) of or relating to molding or modeling in three dimensions, or producing three-dimensional effects. (in science and technology) of or relating to the permanent deformation of a solid without fracture by the temporary application of force. offering scope for creativity : the writer is drawn to words as a plastic medium. Biology exhibiting adaptability to change or variety in the environment.
19 Læring er belønning er læring er belønning...
22 Fælles veje... Dopamin, en neurotransmitter, forbindes med hjernens belønningssystemer Mange former for misbrug synes at ramme dopaminsystemet Dopaminfrigivelse synes også at være forbundet med (reinforcement) læring og motorkontrol muligt motto: learning is addictive Det er dog ikke helt så simpelt...
23 Den subjektive engelske erfaring Kobling af læring og belønning virkede meget stærkt på naive danske børn i underskolen Målrettet læringsmiljø, der sætter massivt ind overfor børn med sprogproblemer (to-lærer system), tilsyneladende meget effektivt... Der er i praksis store problemer i det engelske system med overgangen til secondary school
24 At fejle er menneskeligt, men at lære...
25 Prædiktiv kodning - Context - Predicative - Anticipation - Model construction - Central principle in brain organisation Friston, K. (2002). Beyond phrenology: what can neuroimaging tell us about distributed circuitry? Annu Rev Neurosci, 25,
26 Author's personal copy Bayesiske maskiner... J. Hohwy et al. / Cognition 108 (2008) Hierarchy Prediction error X H X I Prediction Explaining away The cognitive system is order For any pair of levels, the higher that predict the driving bottom lower level. The higher level will for a yet higher level. The lowe higher level for a yet lower leve levels, as in empirical Bayes (for ing study of face perception, see gels, & Hirsch, 2005). Perceptua hierarchically organised attribu made at different levels (Friston for theories of visual processin in particular (e.g., Freeman, 2005 archical, the crucial point here c implications of hierarchical leve provide formal constraints on t make them empirical Bayes mo 2.4. Updating hypotheses/percept S Hohwy, Roepstorff Friston, Cognition, 2008 Fig. 1. Simplified schematic of a pair of cortical levels based on generative models. An open representational system like the brain (indicated with the black box) must perform perceptual inference about the environmental causes (S) of its sensory input (I). Higher level models or In a hierarchical setting, that ors are not extracted directly fro tics, nor are they free paramete on interaction with the world a diction errors at all levels of a hi archal nature of these models is because priors on lower levels a by, and accountable to, higher l powerful and ubiquitous infere
27 Prædiktiv kodning og binokulær Author's personal copy rivalisering 692 J. Hohwy et al. / Cognition 108 (2008) Inhibition F H Prediction error Prediction X I F Explaining away I H Fig. 3. Simplified schematic of rivalry using generative models and predictive coding for a system consisting of just one pair of levels: even though one hypothesis (F) about the environmental cause leaves only little prediction error from that stimulus (thin light arrow from I F ), a large unexplained signal is left unexplained from the other stimulus (thick light arrow from I H ). Hohwy, Roepstorff Friston, Cognition, 2008 the two (face or house) wells. Theoretically, there are two mechanisms that can cause the state of the brain to switch ply, the well that is currently occupied increases its freeenergy so that the brain s state is expelled to the other well
28 bistable and excitable systems with sub-threshold inputs. Usually, the inputs constitute a weak periodic signal, which have a greater effect when noise enables the input to surpass threshold. However, in our case we are not dealexplanations for the inputs, rather than by direct competition between the inputs. For some relatively compatible pairs of stimuli, conjoint hypotheses may have a relatively high prior, which would Hvad sker der, når man ikke kan lære? Hohwy, Roepstorff Friston, Cognition, 2008
29 Prædiktiv kodning - Context - Predicative - Anticipation - Model construction - Central principle in brain organisation Friston, K. (2002). Beyond phrenology: what can neuroimaging tell us about distributed circuitry? Annu Rev Neurosci, 25,
30 Optimalt forbundne hjerner... A Camera B 1 Prop. (2 nd interval) Contrast difference C First Second Joint Decision? Correct Correct Wrong First interval Second interval Individual decision made Individual decisions declared Collective decision required? Feedback Bahrami, Olsen, Latham, Roepstorff, Rees, Frith Science 2010
31 Interaction 43(S) A (0:02:42.1) B (0:02:43.7) A (0:02:46.2) B (0:02:47.2) A (0:02:47.3) B (0:02:48.5) Interaction 44(F) B (0:02:58.3) A (0:02:59.4) A (0:03:00.3) B (0:03:04.6) A (0:03:13.6) B (0:03:16.3) A (0:03:18.0) we take yours because I saw nothing I didn t see anything either I saw I took a bet [way to go! [way to go! mine was also just a bet there ((laughs)) I don t know I don t know either I saw something both in the left corner and in the center on the right in both of them okay, I think it was over in the left side, but oehm I ll pass no! we ruin the scores now we must yeah, now we must pull ourselves together Linguis'c!expression.and. assessment.of.confidence N.=.16.pairs. Data:.1470.short.interac'ons.. approx..20.hours.of.video
33 Coordina'ng.effects.of.stable.symbolic.paKerns ! 9 "#$%"&&''!()**!%!)**!+,-.!! 0 Fussaroli,.Bahrami,.Olsen,.Roepstorff,.Rees,.Frith,.in.press,.PSychological.Science 1 2 For Review Only Hypothesis:!The.more.stable.the.relevant.symbolic.paKerns,.the.higher.the.coopera've.benefit
34 Biology Please (2010), cite thisdoi: /j.cub article in press as: Campbell-Meiklejohn et al., How the Opinion of Others Affects Our Valuation of Objects, Current Biology (2010), doi: /j.cub Current Biology 20, 1 6, July 13, 2010 ª2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved DOI /j.cub Current Biology 20, 1 6, July 13, 2010 ª2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved How the Opinion of Others DOI /j.cub How the Opinion of Others Affects Our Valuation of Objects Affects Our Valuation of Objects Report Report Daniel K. Campbell-Meiklejohn, 1,2, * Dominik R. Bach, 1 Andreas Roepstorff, 2 Raymond J. Dolan, 1 and Chris D. Frith 1,2 and that they desired but did not yet own. On test day, each subject rated each song on a scale of 1 ( low ) to 10 ( high ) for desirability and read descriptions (and also viewed Please cite 1 this article in press as: Campbell-Meiklejohn et al., How the Opinion of Others Affects Our Valuation of Objects, Current Daniel Wellcome K. Campbell-Meiklejohn, Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, 1,2, * Dominik 12 Queen Square, R. Bach, pictures) 1 of two and expert that music they reviewers desired before butrating dideach Biology (2010), doi: /j.cub not yet own. On test day, each London WC1N 3BG, UK Andreas Roepstorff, 2 Raymond J. Dolan, 1 reviewer from 1 (not at all) to 7 (very much) for how much they Current Biology 2 Niels Bohr Vol 20 Project No 13 Interacting Minds, Centre of Functionally would trust that reviewer subject torated pick a song each that song they (the onsubject) a scale of 1 ( low ) to 10 ( high ) 2 and Chris Integrative D. Neuroscience, Frith 1,2 Århus University, would like. Subjects for then desirability performed the andtaskread described descriptions in (and also viewed Århus, Denmark Figure 1 while being scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fmri). After scanning, subjects rated the songs Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, 12 Queen Square, pictures) of two expert music reviewers before rating each London WC1N 3BG, UK and reviewers again. reviewer The mean fromsong 1 (not desirability at all) rating to 7 was (very much) for how much they Biology (2010), doi: /j.cub NielsSummary Bohr Project Interacting Minds, Centre of Functionally before would the experiment trust that and reviewer toafter pickthea song that they (the subject) experiment. The mean reviewer rating was on Social Influence on Object Value in the Brain Integrative Neuroscience, Århus University, would like. Subjects then performed the task3described in The opinions of others can easily affect how much we value a scale from 1 ( very unlikely ) to 7 ( very likely ) that the 8000things. Århus, WeDenmark investigated what happens in our brain when we reviewer would Figure choose a1song while thatbeing the subject scanned would like). with functional magnetic reso- reviewer s imaging rating was (fmri) After 1.1, scanning, and the subjects rated the songs agree with others about the value of an object and whether or The mean malenance not there is evidence, at the neural level, for social conformity through which we change object valuation. Using perceived both reviewers as capable of choosing music that mean female reviewer s rating was Thus subjects and reviewers again. The mean song desirability rating was Summary functional magnetic resonance imaging we independently the subject would 7.4 like before the experiment and after the modeled (1) learning reviewer opinions about a piece of To obtain a measure experiment. of influencethe for each mean subject, reviewer carriedrating was on music, (2) reward value while receiving a token for that out linear regressions to determine B The opinions of others can easily affect how much we value a scale from 1 ( very inf : the number of music, and (3) their interaction in 28 healthy adults. We standard deviations by which behavioral ratings unlikely ) of songsto 7 ( very likely ) that the things. showwe that investigated agreement withwhat two expert happens reviewers in our on music brain when increased we or decreased reviewer after the would experiment choose with net a song reviewer that the subject would like). agreechoice withproduces others activity aboutin the a region valueofof ventral an object striatumand that whether opinion of orthat song The (mean B inf male = 0.091, reviewer s standard deviation rating was , and the also responds when receiving a valued object. It is known [SD] = 0.17; see Figure S1 available online). Net reviewer not there that theis magnitude evidence, of activity at in the theneural ventral striatum level, reflects for social opinion conformity the value through of reward-predicting which we change stimuli [1 8]. object We show valuation. that reviewers Usingpreferred perceived the subject s bothsong reviewers and the number as capable of of choosing music that was themean difference female betweenreviewer s the number of rating times that was Thus subjects social influence on the value of an object is associated times that reviewers preferred the alternative. functional magnetic resonance imaging we independently the subject would like. with the magnitude of the ventral striatum response to modeled receiving (1) it. learning This findingreviewer provides clear opinions evidence that about sociala fmri piece Results of To obtain a measure of influence for each subject, we carried music, influence (2) reward mediates very value basic while value signals receiving in known a token reinforcement learning circuitry [9 12]. Influence at such a low using whole-brain cluster-corrected analysis with standard Unless for that otherwiseout stated, linear all fmri regressions analysis was completed to determine by B inf : the number of music, and (3) their interaction in 28 healthy adults. We standard deviations by which behavioral ratings of songs level could contribute to rapid learning and the swift spread FMRIB software library (FSL)  default settings (cluster definition: music Z > 2.3 and increased cluster probability or decreased threshold: after p < the 0.05). experiment with net reviewer showofthat valuesagreement throughout a with population. two expert reviewers on choice produces activity in a region of ventral striatum Peaks are that specified opinion as coordinates of that (x, song y, z) in Montreal (meanneuro- logical Institute (MNI) space (mm). A summary of all fmri acti- B inf = 0.091, standard deviation Results and Discussion also responds when receiving a valued object. It is known [SD] = 0.17; see Figure S1 available online). Net reviewer vations can be found in Table S1. that the Of the magnitude few studies that of have activity lookedinatthe social ventral influencestriatum the Object reflects Reward opinion was the difference between the number of times that the value brain [13 16], of reward-predicting none have unambiguously stimuli shown[1 8]. where inwe the show Subjects that randomly reviewers received a token preferred for one song theonsubject s each trial song and the number of human value system the social influence of others opinions (subject s preference or an alternative). Receiving a token for social caninfluence be detectedon when the an value object isofreceived. an object Agreement is associated the preferred song times compared thatto reviewers receiving one preferred for the alternative elicited tomore blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) the alternative. with between the magnitude one s own opinion of and thenormative ventral opinion striatum modulates response receiving activityit. in This the ventral finding striatum provides , analogous clearto evidence the dopamine-mediated reward signal observed in this region during 14, 10, 28; , 22) (Figure 2A), left lateral prefrontal cortex that activity social in the ventral fmristriatum Results (peak MNI coordinates [mm]: influence reinforcement mediates learning very [9 12]. basic It has value beensignals proposedinthat known (peakrein- forcement changeslearning ventral striatum circuitry activity [9 12]. also predict Influence subsequent at such 236, a34). low using whole-brain cluster-corrected analysis with standard 246, 40, 4), Unless and posterior otherwise cingulate stated, cortex all (peak fmri 22, analysis was completed by conformity, it had previously not been possible to distinguish such activity from that associated with social conflict Subjects also learned whether or not two reviewers shared Agreement with Expert Reviewers level could contribute to rapid learning and the swift spread FMRIB software library (FSL)  default settings (cluster definition: HavingZ the > 2.3 sameand preference clusterasprobability both threshold: p < 0.05). of values . Wethroughout independentlyamanipulated population. object reward, opinions their preference. of others about its value (social agreement), and their interaction in the same task and subjects. We delineated basic neural (peak 210, 8, 212) compared to when both reviewers pre- reviewers elicitedpeaks greaterare BOLDspecified activity in left asventral coordinates striatum (x, y, z) in Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) space (mm). A summary of all fmri acti- Results and Discussion signals that track changes of object value caused by the opinions of others. definition threshold vations (Z > 2.0) can revealed be found bilateral in activation TableinS1. the ferred the alternative (Figure 2B). Slightly reducing the cluster Of the few studies that have looked at social influence ventral in striatum the Object with a mirrored Reward peak on the right (peak 8, Subjects and Ratings 8, 212). This finding supports a role of the ventral striatum in brain [13 16], none have unambiguously shown where in the Subjects randomly received a token for one song on each trial One week prior to scanning, subjects submitted a list of 20 processing of agreement with others  and extends this human songs value that could system be purchased the social frominfluence an online music of others store role opinions to agreement (subject s with just two preference expert individuals. or ananalysis alternative). Receiving a token for can be detected when an object is received. Agreement of the same contrast the using preferred a mask of song object compared reward generates to receiving one for a significant the alternative elicited more blood oxygenation level-dependent agreement (BOLD) (right peak 6, 14, 26; left peak 26, 16, 2) (see ventral striatum signal in a group analysis of *Correspondence: peak activation in the ventral striatum (peak 28, 10, 210), between one s own opinion and normative opinion modulates activity in the ventral striatum , analogous tocurbio the dopamine-mediated reward signal observed in this region during 14, 10, 28; , 22) (Figure 2A), left lateral prefrontal cortex 8124 activity in the ventral striatum (peak MNI coordinates Supplemental [mm]: Experimental Procedures). This could mean that there was some low-level reward from sharing a preference with reviewers even if object values did not change to Figurereinforcement 1. Task Displays and learning Timing [9 12]. It has been proposed that (peak 246, 40, 4), and posterior cingulate cortex (peak 22, Please cite this article in press as: Campbell-Meiklejohn et al., How the Opinion of Others Affe Figu (A) O High part nally the a (B) R High both ence alter sam tion Figu (C) U [R SP whe than the o (D) R A S activ subj subj tive. are map onto brain Influence of Reviewers o The magnitude of an o magnitude of BOLD ac These value signals can We therefore explored w
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