DYNAMIC & CYCLIC BEHAVIOUR OF BALLAST IN THE LONG TERM AS DETERMINED IN CEDEX S TRACK BOX

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1 París, 5 de diciembre de 2013 DYNAMIC & CYCLIC BEHAVIOUR OF BALLAST IN THE LONG TERM AS DETERMINED IN CEDEX S TRACK BOX V. Cuéllar, P. Mira, J. ESTAIRE & F. Pardo de Santayana (Laboratorio de Geotecnia, CEDEX) M. Rodríguez (ADIF, Spain), A. Pieringer (RailOne, Germany) R. Garburg (D.B., Germany), E. Bongini (SNCF, France) RIVAS: 7 European Framework Programme

2 Spanish railway net managed by ADIF High speed lines with UIC gage: Conventional Spanish lines adapted for high speed: Conventional lines: FEVE: km 614 km km km Almost all built with ballast (salvo estações, acesos except except railway stations, urban acceses, tunnels and viaducts High speed railway net

3 Slab- ballast transition zones zonessobre balasto.

4 CEDEX s Track Box - Main characteristics - Testing facility: 21m x 5m x 4m - Real high speed line cross sections - Scale 1:1 - Accelerated testing: one working week one operation year

5 CEDEX s Track Box Slight influence of boundary conditions in the central track - Three testing zones 7m long with 13 sleepers each

6 CEDEX s Track Box - Loading system - 3 pairs of 2 cylinders separated 1,5 m - To simulate curved sections and mixed traffic with axle forces up to 500 kn

7 CEDEX s Track Box - Cross sections - Model 1: granular subballast - Model 2: bituminuos subballast : cm thickness

8 CEDEX s Track Box - Instrumentation: 120 sensors - Internal: 47 in each testing zone - External

9 CEDEX s Track Box - Instrumentation - Internal - External: Set of moving sensors being used in the different testing zones

10 CEDEX s Track Box - Loads applied by the load system Real high speed lines with granular subballast and bituminous subballast

11 Basic principles supporting CEDEX s Track Box tests Generation of load time histories inducing the same track effects that real trains Same track stiffness, K, (kn/mm): Ratio between the wheel load, Q (kn), and the track settlement, (0) (mm), at a track point Global track parameter Same track settlements: Elastic length Define lenght of settlement bulbs

12 CEDEX s Track Box Simulation of vertical loads moving horizontally Rail deflections δ(t) induced at a track point by a vertical load Q travelling with a horizontal velocity v : Equivalent to the rail deflections induced by a stationary vertical load time history K = track stiffness

13 CEDEX s Track Box Simulation of vertical load moving horizontally Stationary vertical load time history simulating the effect of a vertical load moving horizontally

14 CEDEX s Track Box Comparison real section track box Sleeper reaction time histories: real line 3 cylinder effect Sleeper 0 Sleeper 1 Physical model 2 Sleeper 2 Bogie, 3 m, 165 kn per axle, 300 km/h Winkler track behaviour K = 125 kn/ mm L = 0,700 m Sleeper 3

15 CEDEX s Track Box Comparison real section track box Sleeper reaction time histories: Sleeper 0 Real line, theoretical curve 3 cylinder effect, theoretical curve 3 cylinder effect, experimental curve (shear band measurements) Sleeper 1 Sleeper 2

16 CEDEX s Track Box Type of tests: - Static load tests - Quasi-static load tests - Dynamic load tests

17 Static load test protocol Static load tests Objective: determination of track stiffness - in consecutive sleepers - contribution of different layers

18 Static load tests Static load test results Load (kn) Rail deflection (mm)

19 Static load tests Static load test results K: track stiffness (kn/mm) Track stiffness variations between consecutive sleepers

20 Static load tests Static load test results Contribution of rail pad + ballast layer : 70-80% Contribution of rest of layers: %

21 Axle load, kn Static load tests Stiffness after tamping and stabilization ( gross t) Tamping machine Rail deflection, mm

22 Static load tests Stiffness of a sleeper with under sleeper pad (USP) TS1 without USP TS3 with USP TS1 track system TS3 track system

23 Static load tests Stiffness of a sleeper with under sleeper pad (USP) TS3 track system with H.I 78 ballast in BTS C 2 1 B A H.E TS3 track system with ballast in B2M state H.I 74 C 2 B A H.E

24 Static load tests New static test protocol for determining dynamic track stiffness assuming non linear behaviour of the track

25 Quasi static load tests Objective: behaviour of ballast in long term Fatigue tests - Protocol 1) Ballast tamping 2) Simulation of train passing bys (10 6 axle loads) One train every 2s Tamping machine

26 Quasi static load tests Eurostar passenger train with 2 locomotives and 20 bogie wagons with 160 kn axle loads Loads 160 kn Frequencies 5 30 Hz

27 Quasi static load tests Freight vehicle with 42 bogie wagons and 225 kn axle loads (120 km/h) Loads 225 kn Frequencies Hz

28 Quasi static load tests Results: ballast fatigue curve => permanent settlements

29 Quasi static load tests Results: ballast fatigue curve => exponential law

30 Results: ballast fatigue curve type Quasi static load tests

31 Track deflection amplitude Quasi static load tests Rail pad deflection amplitude

32 Quasi static load tests Sleeper velocity Sleeper acceleration

33 Dynamic load tests Dynamic loads: due to geometric irregularities in the rail m = 712 kg K=120 kn/mm D=0,30 Important - Unsprung wheel-set mass (directly associated to the vehicle horizontal axles) - Track stiffness Less important: - Wheel-rail contact stiffness - Vehicle box stiffness

34 Dynamic load tests Piezoelectric shakers: +/- 20 kn/axle load with f max =300 Hz

35 Single-sided PSD track irregularity (m 2 /(rad/m)) Determination of dynamic loads Dynamic load tests Power Spectral Density Irregularity 1,E-04 1,E-05 1,E-06 Representative load-time history in a point generated by a vertical load travelling along the settlement bulb length 1,E-07 1,E-08 1,E-09 1,E-10 1,E-11 1,E-12 1,E-13 0, Wavenunber (rad/m) ORE B176 low ORE B176 high psd_0_150 v = 120 km/h

36 Dynamic load tests Determination of dynamic loads from a freight train Loads: +10 2,5 kn Frequency: Hz

37 IL(dB) Dynamic load tests Test with new sleeper with undersleeper pad Result: Velocity insertion losses (IL) over the whole range of frequencies 20 IL DFT GeoE137 SPvsGS f(hz)

38 Dynamic load tests Test: Combination of static & dinamic loads Piezoelectric shakers: +/- 20 kn/axle load with f max =300 Hz

39 Dynamic load tests Test: Combination of static & dynamic loads Result: ballast fatigue curve Shake down of dynamic loads

40 Quasi-static load time history response Low frequency (5Hz) cyclic load time history 1st cycle 2nd cycle n cycle cicl h sh p q t Cyclic load failure or shakedown concept Static failure Cyclic failure or shakedown t p Suiker & Borst viscoplastic like model

41 Laboratory cyclic tests

42 Laboratory cyclic tests Confinement pressure: 30 kpa Deviatoric stress: kpa

43 París, 5 de diciembre de 2013 DYNAMIC & CYCLIC BEHAVIOUR OF BALLAST IN THE LONG TERM AS DETERMINED IN CEDEX S TRACK BOX V. Cuéllar, P. Mira, J. ESTAIRE & F. Pardo de Santayana (Laboratorio de Geotecnia, CEDEX) M. Rodríguez (ADIF, Spain), A. Pieringer (RailOne, Germany) R. Garburg (D.B., Germany), E. Bongini (SNCF, France)

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