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1 LEDC Cities These icons indicate that teacher s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. 1 of 25

2 2 of 25 Learning objectives What is the global pattern of urbanisation? Why is urbanisation happening in LEDCs? What problems do LEDC cities face? What are the solutions? How does land use vary in an LEDC city?

3 3 of 25 What is urbanisation?

4 4 of 25 What is urbanisation? The world is becoming mostly urban. % World MEDC LEDC Study the table. Which parts of the world are experiencing the most rapid growth in their populations?

5 5 of 25 Where are the world s largest cities? There are 17 megacities in the world these are cities with a population of over 10 million.

6 Where are the world s largest cities? The United Nations estimate that by 2015 the number of megacities will have increased to 21! new megacities are shown in orange Describe the distribution of megacities in How does this compare to 2015? 6 of 25

7 7 of 25 Learning objectives What is the global pattern of urbanisation? Why is urbanisation happening in LEDCs? What problems do LEDC cities face? What are the solutions? How does land use vary in an LEDC city?

8 Focus on Kenya 8 of 25 Describe the pattern of growth of Nairobi since 1901.

9 9 of 25 Why is urbanisation occurring so rapidly?

10 Rural-urban migration 10 of 25 This is the movement of people from the countryside to the city. It is influenced by PUSH and PULL factors.

11 11 of 25 Learning objectives What is the global pattern of urbanisation? Why is urbanisation happening in LEDCs? What problems do LEDC cities face? What are the solutions? How does land use vary in an LEDC city?

12 Problems facing LEDC cities 12 of 25 Over 60% of Nairobi s population live below the poverty line. Over people live in Kibera which is a shanty town on the Southern edge of Nairobi opposite the Motoine River. A shanty town is a spontaneous settlement that is often built illegally on unused land along roadsides or on the edge of a city.

13 Kibera 13 of 25

14 14 of 25 Favela Brazil

15 15 of 25

16 16 of 25 Issues in the Favela Built on steep, marshy, polluted, illegal land. Sanitation disease Healthcare Unemployment Crime No refuse collection or public services

17 Favelas - Possible solutions Self-help schemes City authorities would prefer to remove the shanty towns but this would cost a lot of money as they would have to provide housing and amenities. As a result the city authority has implemented self-help schemes. This involves the city authority giving the residents of the shanty town free building materials. The residents then provide the labour in order to build the new houses. Money that is saved by the government can then be spent on infrastructure such as roads, water supply, electricity etc. L2EwrI 17 of 25

18 18 of 25 Self Help Scheme Self-help schemes - These are small scale projects which allow local people to use their skills to help improve their local area. The Government has provided materials such as bricks, cement and glass to enable residents to improve their own homes. In Rocinha, self-help schemes have improved the area from slums to low quality housing where the majority of homes have basic services like electricity. There are now also many services in Rocinha including cafes and shops. Some people have been granted legal ownership of the land on which their houses are built.

19 19 of 25 Site and service scheme Site and service schemes - These are projects undertaken by the local authority to relocate residents from favelas. Brick houses are built with electricity, running water and sanitation pipes installed. People may be allowed to buy these houses. An example of such a scheme is 'The Favela Bairro Project' or 'Slum to Neighbourhood' project. Services in these areas also include refuse collection, schools and health centres.

20 20 of 25 Charities Charities - Charities help to improve life for people in shanty towns by providing money for self-help schemes. The Developing Minds Foundation builds schools and supports education programmes in Rio's favelas. Their aim is to improve the literacy rates of children so they can get a good job, improve their standard of living and have more life choices.

21 21 of 25 Crime - htw

22 22 of 25 1) Look at the diagram. For Nairobi, or any other developing city you have studied, describe the measures taken to improve the quality of life in shanty towns such as Kibera. (6)

23 23 of 25 Extension Task. Imagine that you are a resident in a favela for a day. Create a diary entry outlining: The current issues in your home and shanty town. The recent developments which help to deal with these issues. Your diary entry must include: A title A definition of a favela At least four different problems in your shanty town. What possible solutions there could be to these problems.

24 24 of 25

25 25 of 25 Transport As with most large cities many main roads and transport networks meet in the city centre as this is where the majority of offices, shops etc are, so this is where people work and therefore travel into most days. As a result traffic congestion is a major problem especially during rush hour in the morning and in the evening where main roads become one way (into the city in the morning and out of the city in the evening) in an attempt to try to ease the problem. Buses are available but are often overcrowded, dangerous and pickpockets usually operate. They are also regularly stuck in traffic. A metro (subway) system was opened in 2007 to help combat the congestion. It is rapidly expanding, air conditioned, quick and safe.

26 26 of 25 Shopping The CBD of developing countries will often resemble developed world cities in that they will have large shopping centres containing department stores and other high order shops such as jewellers and furniture stores. Rio de Janeiro's 'Shopping Leblon' and 'Shopping da Gavea' are two of the biggest shopping malls in the city. There are also some street markets e.g. Fiera Hippie although not as many as in other developing world cities. Street markets sell fruit, vegetables, handicrafts, artwork, music and clothes.

27 Environmental Quality In 2011, a World Health Organisation (WHO) study said that Rio de Janeiro is more polluted than many other developed world cities such as New York, London and Paris. Most of this is air pollution with the main pollutants being: Exhaust fumes from traffic Coal-fired power stations Residential wood burning for cooking and heating Burning rubbish in rubbish dumps There is also severe pollution of rivers from: Untreated run-off of water used by the population going back into rivers Rubbish dumped into and at the side of rivers potentially promoting disease Wastewater from industry being put back into rivers which also kills wildlife Harbour polluted from increase in boat traffic Some solutions to these include better laws to control dumping of industrial waste and the improvement of sanitation in shanty town areas. The state government has also committed funds to clean up beaches and lakes and also to provide improved sewage treatment facilities 27 of 25

28 Examination question 28 of 25 For a named example of an LEDC city, describe the problems created by rapid urban growth (6 marks).

29 29 of 25 Learning objectives What is the global pattern of urbanisation? Why is urbanisation happening in LEDCs? What problems do LEDC cities face? What are the solutions? How does land use vary in an LEDC city?

30 Is there a solution? 30 of 25 The Kenyan government is concerned about the growth of illegal settlements, but it is not practical to evict all the people as the scale of the problem is too big. What could be done in Kibera? Rubbish in Kibera

31 What has been done in Kibera? 31 of 25

32 Characteristics of shanty town housing 32 of 25

33 Solving the housing problem 33 of 25

34 Examination question 34 of 25

35 35 of 25 Learning objectives What is the global pattern of urbanisation? Why is urbanisation happening in LEDCs? What problems do LEDC cities face? What are the solutions? How does land use vary in an LEDC city?

36 Land use patterns in LEDC cities 36 of 25 How can this land use pattern be explained?

37 Differences in land use? 37 of 25 LEDC MEDC Choose one of the models and explain the land use pattern.

38 How much do you know? 38 of 25

39 39 of 25 Key ideas The world is becoming mostly urban. Urbanisation is now happening most rapidly in LEDCs. There will be 21 megacities by of them in LEDCs. Rural-urban migration is the result of push and pull factors. Shanty towns are one problem resulting from rapid urbanisation. It is difficult to manage rapid urbanisation. The pattern of land use in LEDC cities is different to that of most MEDC cities.

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