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1 TITLE OF LESSON Physical Science Unit 1 Lesson 2 Systéme Internationale aka the Metric System Nature of Matter: How do tribes standardize their lives? TIME ESTIMATE FOR THIS LESSON One class period ALIGNMENT WITH STANDARDS California Sciences Introduction Necessary To: metric system, unit fractions method problem solving system, and conversions MATERIALS Kirinyaga by Mike Resnick Reading (Not provided by ESubjects you will need to purchase class sets) Scientific Notation Teacher Page Dialectical Journal Teacher Page Physical Science Textbook (the textbook your school uses) pen or pencil calculator (optional) meter stick metric rulers various objects (book, lamp, glass of water, etc) NOTE: You will need to assign student groups prior to class today. LESSON OBJECTIVES To introduce the metric system To introduce the unit fraction method problem solving system To have students practice conversion problems To introduce textbook usage FOCUS AND MOTIVATE STUDENTS 1) Homework Check Check that students have completed their Science binders and their list of steps scientists use and that their syllabus has been signed by the student and parent. Remind students to take notes during the class. 2) Agenda Have students copy the agenda you have posted. 3) Assign Groups If you have not already done so, assign students to groups of four. Tell them these will be their assigned groups for the rest of the quarter. They may work with other students in the room, when you direct them to. However, whenever they come to class from now on, they should automatically sit with these students. 4) Textbook Usage Have the students get out the school s textbook they are using for the unit. Ask them to work in groups to determine how their textbook is organized, or how the information in the textbook is divided. They should be able to come up with the fact that the textbook is divided into Table of Contents, units, chapters, headings, subheadings and information each in descending order. There should be an appendix, glossary and index at the end of the textbook. They can determine if the headings (e.g. unit or chapter titles) are in bold caps, bold, bold italics, italics or plain text. They should also be able to say something about how the figures and tables and graphs are labeled. Ask them to look for any other distinguishing features, such as bolding or highlighting of words within the text that would help them find pertinent information. 5) Discuss Have one member of each group share what they determined. Have them come to a class consensus on how their textbook is organized and why it is organized that way. Ask them what the glossary is used for. What is the index used for and how should they use it? Then tell them that it is important to 2003 ESubjects Inc. All rights reserved. 1
2 understand how a textbook is organized so that one can use it as a resource (e.g., so they can find information quickly within their textbook.) Tell them they will be working more with using their textbook in later lessons. ACTIVITIES INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP 1. Review and Discuss Write the words Units of Measurement on the board. Ask students to pick an object to use as a unit of measurement. It can be anything they choose including such things as hands, feet, book, pen or piece of paper. Ask them to measure the width of an object in the room, such as their desk using their unit of measurement. Then write their measurements on the board and compare them. Underline all the different units of measurement. Then ask a volunteer to write on the board a list of tools used to measure time, length, mass, and volume such as clocks, sun dial, hourglass for time; tape measure or car odometer for length, balance or scale for mass, graduated cylinder or measuring cup for volume. Ask students to compare their units of measurement with those most commonly used. Can they easily compare the length of the item they measured with another student who used another form of measurement? Answer should be no. Ask students why it is important to use standard units of measurement. Discuss. After you have taken the students answers make sure students understand the fact that standardized measurements allow people from all over the world to measure an item and come up with the same answer. Thus, everyone has the same sense of what the size is and if necessary make comparisons or trade items based on a standardized measurement. If the unit of measurement is not the same, there should be an easy conversion factor. Explain to students that if you are writing, they should be writing too. If they have not already started to take notes, have them take out a sheet of paper and take notes with you Review and Discuss Write the words Systéme Internationale aka the Metric System on the board. Ask students Does anyone know anything about the metric system, its origin, or some examples? Why is it important that all scientists use the same units of measurements? Allow for a few responses. Make sure students understand that the metric system measurement is used for consistency sake. When scientists share data and results it is easier if they have the same units. Communication is easier when all scientists are speaking the same language, so to speak. Thus, establishing a norm allows scientists to communicate more effectively. Ask students if they know why scientists chose the metric system of measurement instead of the one we use in the US. Allow for a few responses, then discuss. Students should be able to come up with the fact that the SI unit of measurement is based on units of ten. Therefore, conversion and calculations are easier. One can move the decimal place from left to right to do conversions. Mini Lecture Introduce students to the following historical background: In 1960, the international scientific community adopted a subset of the metric system to use as a standard for all science measurement. This was based on seven base units which could be combined with the prefixes to establish a measurement system. Some examples of the base units are on display in France (in a museum). For example, there is a meter stick and a kilogram example. Graphic Organizer Make a chart on the board. Have students fill in the unit column. Remind them to write this chart in their notes as well. Metric System Base Units Quantity Unit Symbol Length meter m Mass kilogram* kg* Time second s Electric current ampere A Thermodynamic temperature kelvin K Amount of substance mole mol Luminous intensity candela cd * Note: the unit for mass is kilogram, not gram. This is because the standard (in the museum) is a kilogram weight. * Note: Volume, area, pressure, weight, force, and speed are not considered SI base units and therefore are not included in the chart ESubjects Inc. All rights reserved. 2
3 5. Review and Discuss Put one of the following objects on each group s desk (book, lamp, glass of water, clock, ice cube, etc.) Ask groups What SI unit would you use in measurement of data collection for the object on your desk? Answers should include meter for book (or more precisely centimeter), ampere for the lamp, cm 3 for the glass of water (liter is an acceptable answer but it must be explained to students that liter is a metric unit, not an SI unit and volume can be calculated by V=H*L*D and 1 ml = 1cm 3 ) Review Scientific Notation Briefly review scientific notation, use the Scientific Notation Teacher Page, if necessary and have the students practice changing numbers to scientific notation. 6. Conversions/Graphic Organizer Ask students how to convert 1 hour into minutes. They should all know that there are 60 minutes in an hour, thus, 1 hr = 60 min. This is what scientists call a conversion factor. Ask if they can give you other examples. They should be able to come up with some of the following: 1 min = 60 sec 1 yr = 365 days 1 day = 24 hrs 1 ft = 12 in 1 yd = 3 ft 1 quart = 2 pints 2 cups = 1 pint Ask students how they would do the following conversions: Problem 1: If an experiment takes 15 minutes, how many seconds passed? 15 min x 60s = 900 s 1 min Remind students that the units min cancel each other out leaving seconds, the desired unit. Problem 2: How old in seconds is a 14 year old? 14 years x 365 day x 24 hour x 60 min x 60 s = 441,504,000 s 1 year 1 day 1 hour 1 min Ask them to write this number in scientific notation: x 10 8 s Problem 3: If you have a box that is 1.2 meters long, how long would it be in millimeters? How long in kilometers? 1.2 m x 1000mm = 1,200 mm 1.2 m x 1km = km 1m 1000m Review and Discuss Explain to the students that solving problems this way is referred to as the unit fraction method. The formula for this method can be simplified to: given (want/know). Tell students this is how they should set up conversion problems. Conversions Continued Measure the length of the book with a meter stick. Write the value on the board (ex. L= 0.25m) Ask students if that value can be expressed in other terms (ex. L=25 cm). Explain that the metric system units can be modified using the prefix system. Write the following chart on the board. Ask the students to fill in the value and the symbol columns and add this chart to their notes. The numbers in the chart are listed in scientific notation and in normal values. Make sure students understand that these prefixes can be used for converting any of the units of measurement found in the metric system, such as meters, kilograms, seconds, etc. The difference is you re not converting from, for example, kilogram to meters, but from kilograms to micrograms. Prefixes for Large Measurements Prefixes for Small Measurements Prefix Value Symbol Prefix Value Symbol tera 1 x or T deci 1 x 101 or 0.1 d giga 1 x 10 9 or G centi 1 x 102 or 0.01 c 2003 ESubjects Inc. All rights reserved. 3
4 mega 1 x 10 6 or M milli 1 x 103 or kilo 1 x 10 3 k micro 1 x 106 or or hecto 1 x 10 2 or 100 h nano 1 x 109 or deka 1 x 10 1 or 10 da pico 1 x or m µ n p 10. Group Work Write the problems listed below on the board, but do not show answers that are given here for your edification. In groups, ask students to assign roles (see Group Roles below). Have students work on the problems you wrote on the board. Students should be challenged to complete as many conversion problems as possible. The teacher should work his/her way around the room observing the students working on the problems. Students should be rewarded with a smiley sticker or stamp for each correct problem. All math problems done in class will receive a similar reward. This way all students will receive some reward regardless of their pace. Walk around the room checking on students progress. Help students who are struggling. Remember ALL WORK MUST BE SHOWN. Explain to students that if they do not finish the problems in class, they must finish them for homework tonight. Give students until five minutes before the bell rings to finish their worksheet ml = 0.245L mg = 0.065g mm = km kg = 577,000 g cm = mm L = 4,500cm 3 (1mL = 1cm 3 ) yards = 1.68m (1 yard = 36 inches, 1 meter = 39 inches) days = 3,888,000s (1 day = 24 hours, 1 hour = 60 minutes, 1 minutes = 60 seconds) 9. 5 lbs = 2,268g (1 pound = kg) ounce = g (1ounce= 28.35g) Extra credit: How tall are you in meters and how much are you in grams? Answers will vary. Example: 6.0 ft = 1.85 m (1 ft = 12 in, 1 meter = 39 inches) 200 lb = 9,1000 g (1 kg = 2.2 lb, 1 kg = 1000 g) 11. Novel Hand out copies of the novel Kirinyaga by Mike Resnick. Tell students that the goal of reading this novel is to analyze tribes. They will be looking at a traditional tribe in the book, but later in this unit they will be comparing a family in the period table to a tribe. Therefore, they should look carefully at the tribe described in the book in order to obtain a clear impression of a tribe. 12. Homework Review Tell the students that they will be required to read a portion of the book Kirinyaga each week and write a dialectical journal. Using the Teacher Page Dialectical Journal as your guide, explain what a dialectical journal is. You may want to photocopy the sample at the bottom of the teacher page for the students to reference. Tell students to set up a dialectical journal, they will fold a piece of paper in half. On the left hand side of the page, they title the column, Note Taking. On the right hand side of the page, they title the column, Note Making. Explain that the left hand column is where they will write the sentence/s or phrase/s from the text that they believe illustrate a significant idea. In the right hand column they should explain in their own words what is significant about the ideas represented in those sentence/s or phrase/s. They should NOT restate in their own words what the sentence from the book said! Their assignment tonight is to read the Prologue One Perfect Morning with Jackals, and write a dialectical journal with at least three entries. NOTE: For the independent reading of Kirinyaga the students will be required to write two types of journals, the dialectical journal, which lists particular passages and explains their importance, and journals in which the students are required to answer a specific question about the reading for the week. These will be titled Dialectical Journals and Weekly Kirinyaga Journals, respectively ESubjects Inc. All rights reserved. 4
5 HOMEWORK 1) Finish conversation problems. 2) Read Kirinyaga, Prologue and write Dialectical Journal 1 with at least three entries. GROUP ROLES Facilitator Your job is to help the group to stay focused on the assignment. Make sure all members of the group understand how to solve the problems on their own. Manager Your job is to make sure all members of the group have the materials they need to complete the assignment. Time Keeper Your job is to help students complete the assignment in the amount of time given. Notetaker All group members should be writing their own work to solve the problems. DOCUMENTATION FOR PORTFOLIO None 2003 ESubjects Inc. All rights reserved. 5
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