Why Do Monkeys Chatter?

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1 Why Do Monkeys Chatter? Topic 1: Birds and reptiles Key language wing feather flap up/down change direction evolve habitat predator claw U/V-shaped snout jaw saltwater venomous toxic venom prey squeeze to death First ideas See Introduction for suggestions on how to introduce the Factbook for the first time. Mixed ability teaching See Introduction for suggestions on how to use the activities identified by the and icons. Before reading Here are examples of how you might introduce some of the key language, writing new vocabulary on the board throughout: Flap your arms up and down like a bird and say Can you flap your arms up and down like a bird? Flap them up and down again. Do birds have arms? No, they have wings. And the wings have feathers. Who can draw a feather on the board? Draw a letter U on the board and turn it into a snout by adding eyes, a mouth and teeth. Say This is an alligator. Look at its long snout. It s a U-shaped snout because it looks like a U. Now draw a V and turn it into a snout. This is a crocodile. What letter does its snout look like? Do birds have snouts? No, they don t. Then draw a snake. Ask What is this? Can they be dangerous? Yes, some are venomous and it s dangerous if they bite you. Draw some dripping teeth. Then teach or revise predator, prey and habitat. Write the names of various animals that are familiar to the children on the board and ask them what sort of places or habitats they live in. Then write the two headings Predator and Prey and get the children to help you sort them into animals which eat other animals and animals that are eaten by other animals. Some may go in both groups. Reading Worksheet: Birds and reptiles Put the children into pairs and get them to decide who is Partner A and who is Partner B. Get the As to work together in small groups and the Bs to work together in small groups. They then read their pages and compare their answers to the questions their partners are going to ask them. If you like, go over the answers with the groups before telling the children to go back to their original partner. The children then ask and answer their questions in their original pairs. What you need One pair of the Birds and reptiles worksheets for every pair of children. Write in gapped answers for the children to complete before photocopying. Photocopy the MC version and follow the MC instructions. Materials for poster making. Answers: Partner A: a) The feathers close together. b) The feathers separate to let air through. c) Its tail feathers. d) Because their habitat did not have many predators. Partner B: a) It has a U-shaped snout. b) Saltwater. c) The beaked sea snake. d) Yes. 41

2 The As read all the pages in small groups and then think of good questions to ask the Bs about reptiles, while the Bs read all the pages in small groups and then think of good questions to ask the As about birds. You will probably have to give them quite a lot of help. Make sure that the answers are in the Factbook. If you like, go over the questions (and answers) with the groups before telling the children to go back to their original partner. The children then ask and answer their questions in their original pairs. After reading Poster-making: The As now read together about reptiles and the Bs now read together about birds. The As take it in turns to read about reptiles to each other and the Bs take it in turns to read about birds to each other. In pairs, the Bs make posters about birds, choosing Why do birds have feathers? or Can all birds fly? as their subject. They can draw pictures and write captions in English. In pairs, the As make posters about reptiles, choosing What is the difference between an alligator and a crocodile? or Which is the most venomous snake? and How a python swallows an animal as their subject. They can draw pictures and write captions in English. The children do further research on the Internet and include extra information on their poster. Additional activities Simplified questions and answers (page 55): See Introduction for suggestions on how to use these. Native animals: Ask the children to brainstorm the birds and reptiles that are native to your region. Ask them to describe their habitats. 42

3 Name Worksheet: Birds and reptiles Partner A: You are going to read about birds on pages 4 and 5 of the Factbook. Your partner is going to read about reptiles. 1. Work in small groups. Your partners are going to ask you these questions so you need to find the answers. a) What happens when a bird flaps its wings down? b) What happens when a bird flaps its wings up? c) What does an eagle use to help it slow down or change direction? d) Some birds cannot fly. Why did they evolve like that? 2. Find your partner and ask your partner these questions: a) Does an alligator have a U-shaped snout or a V-shaped snout? b) Does a crocodile usually live in freshwater or saltwater? c) Which is the most venomous snake in the world? d) Can a python swallow an animal? 43

4 Name Worksheet: Birds and reptiles Partner B: You are going to read about reptiles on pages 6 and 7 of the Factbook. Your partner is going to read about birds. 1. Work in small groups. Your partners are going to ask you these questions so you need to find the answers. a) Does an alligator have a U-shaped snout or a V-shaped snout? b) Does a crocodile usually live in freshwater or saltwater? c) Which is the most venomous snake in the world? d) Can a python swallow an animal? 2. Find your partner and ask these questions: a) What happens when a bird flaps its wings down? b) What happens when a bird flaps its wings up? c) What does an eagle use to help it slow down or change direction? d) Some birds cannot fly. Why did they evolve like that? 44

5 Worksheet: Birds and reptiles Partner A: Name 1. Read about birds on pages 4 and 5, and about reptiles on pages 6 and 7 of the Factbook. Work in small groups. Think of some questions to ask your partners about reptiles. Write them here. a. b. c. 2. Find your partner. Ask and answer your questions. Partner B: Name 1. Read about birds on pages 4 and 5, and about reptiles on pages 6 and 7 of the Factbook. Work in small groups. Think of some questions to ask your partners about birds. Write them here. a. b. c. 2. Find your partner. Ask and answer your questions. 45

6 Topic 2: Mammals Key language mammal lay eggs rare lung warm-blooded suckle hatch from an egg First ideas See Introduction for suggestions on how to introduce the Factbook for the first time. Mixed ability teaching See Introduction for suggestions on how to use the activities identified by the and icons. What you need A pair of the worksheets The platypus and the echidna for every pair of children. A map of the world. Optional: milk and eggs. Before reading Here are examples of how you might introduce some of the key language, writing new vocabulary on the board throughout: Show the children the milk or draw a carton of milk on the board, and ask them what kind of animals produce milk. Say We call them mammals. Tell the children that mammals also have hair, even if it is only a little, and that mammal mothers produce milk for their babies, who suckle from them. They are also warm-blooded (they produce their own body heat), breathe with lungs and almost always give birth to live young. Ask the children to brainstorm all the mammals they can think of in English and write the names on the board. Then show the children your eggs or draw some on the board, and ask them to brainstorm animals that lay eggs (and whose babies hatch from their eggs). Reading Read pages 8 and 9 of the Factbook, pausing to discuss and explain the concepts, for example, by showing the children where Australia and New Guinea are on the map and then pointing to other countries and asking Do any mammals which can lay eggs live here? Alternatively, play the CD (track 26) instead of reading, pausing where necessary. The children could then reread the sections to themselves or in small groups. Ask some of the more confident children to read a short section aloud to the class. After reading Worksheet: The platypus and the echidna Put the children into pairs and ask them to decide who is Partner A and who is Partner B. Then ask all the As to work together in small groups and all the Bs to work together in small groups. Hand out the worksheets. The children try to fill in the missing words and they also draw pictures of the animals in the spaces provided. Encourage them to refer to the Factbook for help with their drawings and to check their answers. (The text is similar to but not the same as the text in the Factbook.) 46 Answers: The platypus and the echidna Some unusual mammals live in Australia and New Guinea, but they are very rare. They are called the platypus and the echidna. Most mammals don t lay eggs, but these two animals do. After the eggs hatch, the mothers feed (or suckle) the babies with their milk.

7 Then ask them to check their answers again with their original partner. The children will find that they have different gaps from their partner and that the missing words appear on their partner s worksheet. Make sure Partner B knows that feed or suckle is correct. Also accept any alternative answers that make sense. Finally, read the text aloud to the children. The children take it in turns to read to their partner. They will need help with the pronunciation of the proper names. Additional activities Simplified questions and answers (page 55): See Introduction for suggestions on how to use these. Animal classification: Encourage the children to research animal classification, perhaps by visiting the website mentioned in the Factbook. Native mammals: Ask the children to brainstorm the mammals that are native to your region. Ask them to describe their habitats. The platypus This animal has adapted to live in water. It has webbed feet and waterproof fur. It also has a bill like a duck and a flat tail. The echidna This animal looks like a porcupine and an anteater. It eats ants and termites with its beak. 47

8 Name Worksheet: The platypus and the echidna Partner A: Write the missing words and draw pictures. Look at page 8 of the Factbook. Some unusual mammals live in Australia and New Guinea, but they are very. They are called the platypus and the echidna. Most mammals don t lay, but these two animals do. After the eggs hatch, the mothers the babies with their milk. The platypus This animal has adapted to live in water. It has It also has a bill like a and a flat tail. feet and waterproof fur. The echidna This animal with its beak. like a porcupine and an anteater. It eats ants and termites 48

9 Name Worksheet: The platypus and the echidna Partner B: Write the missing words and draw pictures. Look at page 8 of the Factbook. Some unusual mammals in Australia and New Guinea, but they are very rare. They are called the platypus and the echidna. Most mammals don t lay eggs, but these two animals do. After the eggs, the mothers feed (or suckle) the babies with their milk. The platypus This animal has adapted to live in water. It has webbed feet and like a duck and a flat. fur. It also has a bill The echidna This animal looks with its beak. a porcupine and an anteater. It eats ants and termites 49

10 Topic 3: Primates Key language primate chatter squawk communicate relative sense of smell adult male range First ideas See Introduction for suggestions on how to introduce the Factbook for the first time. Mixed ability teaching See Introduction for suggestions on how to use the activities identified by the and icons. Before reading Here are examples of how you might introduce some of the key language, writing new vocabulary on the board throughout: Display your pictures of primates. Ask What can these animals do? Are they intelligent? What are their hands and feet like? What can they do with them? These animals can all do clever things with their hands and brains. They are primates. Have they got voices? What sort of sounds does a monkey make? Show me. Yes, it sounds like chattering. And what about if they are frightened? Yes, they squawk. What do you think the other monkeys do when one squawks in fear? They communicate, don t they? One monkey can tell another there is danger. Now why do you think these ones have long pointed noses? Do you think they are good at smelling things? Do you think they have a good sense of smell? What you need Pictures of primates. A set of the three worksheets Lemurs, Why do monkeys chatter? and Biruté Galdikas and the orang-utans for every group of three children. Partially complete the worksheet making it into a gap fill exercise before photocopying. After reading Worksheets: Lemurs, Why do monkeys chatter?, Birut é Galdikas and the orang-utans Put the children into groups of three and decide who is A, B and C. Then ask all the As to sit together, the Bs to sit together and the Cs to sit together. Give out the worksheets, showing the children how they can fold the pictures under so that when they go back to their groups and talk to their partners, their partners will be able to see the pictures. The children work in twos and threes to find the information and practise talking about their animals, using their completed worksheets to help them. Encourage them to get ideas from the pictures as well as the texts and to practise pointing to the pictures and talking about them. Go over the answers with each group and help with pronunciation problems. Then ask the children to go back into their original groups and take it in turns to show each other the pictures on the worksheets and to talk about their animals. The children could then read their partner s sections to themselves or in small groups, or you could read all the sections to the class. Alternatively, play the CD (tracks 27 and 30) instead of reading, pausing where necessary. Ask some of the more confident children to read a short section aloud to the class. 50 Suggested answers: Partner A: 1. They have long, pointed noses and round eyes. They are good at smelling things. 2. Madagascar and the Comoros Islands. 3. Off the East coast of Africa. 4. Tropical rainforests and places like deserts. Partner B: 1. To tell other monkeys about food or danger. 2. They cry and squawk. 3. It s an island between the USA and South America. 4. They chatter to their relatives in a different way than to other monkeys.

11 After reading Poster-making: The children could make posters based on their worksheets. They could either copy the pictures from the Factbook or the worksheet or find some in other books or on the Internet. They could then copy out sentences from their worksheets after you have corrected them. Additional activities Simplified questions and answers (page 55): See Introduction for suggestions on how to use these. Partner C: 1. She was born in Germany, but grew up in Canada. 2. Orang-utans. 3. They like to be alone. 4. In the forests of Borneo. 51

12 Name Worksheet: Lemurs Partner A: Work with other Partner As. Read about lemurs on page 11 of the Factbook and answer the questions in the boxes. 1 What do lemurs look like? What are they good at? 2 Which islands do lots of lemurs live on? 3 Where are the islands? 4 What kinds of habitats do the lemurs live in? Practise talking about lemurs. Don t forget you can talk about the map and the pictures. Fold Africa Comoros Islands Madagascar 52

13 Name Worksheet: Why do monkeys chatter? Partner B: Work with other Partner Bs. Read about why monkeys chatter on page 10 of the Factbook and answer the questions in the boxes. 1 Why do monkeys chatter? 2 What sort of noises do they make? 3 Where is Puerto Rico? 4 What is special about the rhesus macaque monkeys on an island near Puerto Rico? Practise talking about why monkeys chatter. Don t forget you can talk about the map and the pictures of the rhesus macaque monkeys. Fold Canada USA Mexico Puerto Rico South America 53

14 Name Worksheet: Biruté Galdikas and the orang-utans Partner C: Work with other Partner Cs. Read about Biruté Galdikas and the orang-utans on page 16 of the Factbook and answer the questions in the boxes. 1 Where was Biruté Galdikas born and where did she grow up? 2 What animal has she studied for over 34 years? 3 What did she discover about orang-utans? 4 Where do the orang-utans live? Practise talking about Biruté Galdikas and the orang-utans. Don t forget you can talk about the map, the picture of Biruté and the orang-utans and the picture of the male orang-utan who is all alone in the forest. Fold Canada Germany Borneo 54

15 Simplified questions and answers Q: Why do birds have feathers? A: Feathers help birds to fly. Wing feathers are a light but solid surface that can push against the air. Q: Can all birds fly? A: No, there are some birds that cannot fly. They don t need to because their habitat does not have many predators. Q: What is the difference between an alligator and a crocodile? A: Alligators have wide, round, U-shaped snouts, but crocodiles have longer, V-shaped snouts. Alligators prefer freshwater, but crocodiles usually live in saltwater habitats. Q: Which is the most venomous snake? A: The beaked sea snake has a really nasty bite, but its habitat is very remote so people are not often bitten by it. Q: Can mammals lay eggs? A: Not usually, but there are some very rare mammals which only live in Australia and New Guinea which lay eggs. Q: Is a dolphin a mammal? A: Yes it spends all its time in water, but has lungs and breathes through blowholes in the top of its head. Q: Why do monkeys chatter? A: Monkeys chatter to communicate with other monkeys about food or danger. Q: Where do lemurs come from? A: Nearly all lemurs live on Madagascar and the Comoros Islands. 55

16 It s quiz time! ideas and answers You will find a quiz on pages of the Factbook. Here are some ways you could use the quiz: Take each activity in turn, with the children working in pairs or threes, checking the answers as a class before going on to the next activity either immediately or in a future lesson. The children work in small mixed ability teams to complete as many of the answers in the entire quiz as they can before checking the answers as a class and seeing which team has won keeping this as light-hearted as possible, of course! The children work in pairs or threes to complete as many of the answers in the entire quiz as they can before checking the answers as a class. The children work individually on the entire quiz and then compare their answers in pairs or threes before checking them as a class. Exploit the quiz as extension activities for your fast finishers. Answer key Activity 1 1. A beaked sea snake. 2. A platypus 3. Lemurs 4. Emperor penguins 5. Crocodiles 6. Orang-utans Activity 2 Reptiles: crocodile, python Birds: eagle, emu, penguin Mammals: dolphin, echidna, monkey The monkey is also a primate. Activity 3 1. F Dolphins are mammals. 2. T 3. T Activity 4 2. c) 3. a) 4. d) Activity 5 Students own answers 56

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