2 Transportation Energy Data Book Quick Facts Petroleum The U.S. produces 10 million barrels of petroleum per day (M bpd), or 12% of the world s 85.35M bpd. The U.S. consumes 18.6 M bpd, or 21% of the world s 88.3 M bpd. U.S. transportation petroleum use is 67% of total U.S. petroleum use. U.S. transportation petroleum use is 126% of total U.S. petroleum production. Petroleum comprises 92% of U.S. transportation energy use. Cars and light trucks account for 63% of U.S. transportation petroleum use. Medium trucks (Class 3-6) account for 4% of U.S. transportation petroleum use. Heavy trucks (Class 7-8) account for 17% of U.S. transportation petroleum use. Energy U.S. transportation energy use accounts for 28% of total U.S. energy use. In 2011, 98% of ethanol consumed in the U.S. is consumed as ethanol in gasohol (E10). Cars and light trucks account for 59% of U.S. transportation energy use. Medium trucks account for 5% of U.S. transportation energy use. Heavy trucks account for 17% of U.S. transportation energy use. Light Vehicle Characteristics There are 111,290 cars and 120,847 light trucks in the U.S. (232,137 total light vehicles). U.S. cars: o 7,586,000 cars were sold in o The average age of a U.S. car is 11.4 years; the average car lifetime is 16.9 years. o The average fuel economy for the U.S. car fleet (all cars on the road today) is 24.9 mpg. o Cars comprise 50% of new light vehicle sales. U.S. light trucks: o 7,693,000 light trucks were sold in o The average age of a U.S. light truck is 11.3 years; the average light truck lifetime is 15.5 years. o The average fuel economy for the U.S. light truck fleet (all light trucks on the road today) is 18.5 mpg. o Light trucks comprise 50% of new light vehicle sales. There were 8,716,720 fleet vehicles in 2013: 4,438,330 cars and 4,278,390 trucks. U.S. car registrations account for 16% of total world car registrations. U.S. truck and bus registrations account for 38% of total world truck and bus registrations. The average U.S. household vehicle travels 11,300 miles per year (2009 NHTS). Heavy Truck Characteristics 10,659,000 heavy trucks were registered in the U.S. in In 2002 (the last time a survey was conducted), heavy trucks accounted for 80% of medium and heavy truck fuel use. Note: Data are for calendar year 2012 or 2013 unless otherwise noted.
3 ORNL-6990 (Edition 33 of ORNL-5198) Center for Transportation Analysis Energy and Transportation Science Division TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 33 Stacy C. Davis Susan W. Diegel Oak Ridge National Laboratory Robert G. Boundy Roltek, Inc. July 2014 Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 33 can be found online at: cta.ornl.gov/data Prepared for the Vehicle Technologies Office Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of Energy Prepared by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee Managed by UT-BATTELLE, LLC for the U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725
4 DOCUMENT AVAILABILITY Reports produced after January 1, 1996, are generally available free via the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge: Website: Reports produced before January 1, 1996, may be purchased by members of the public from the following source: National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA Telephone: ( ) TDD: Fax: Website: Reports are available to DOE employees, DOE contractors, Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) representatives, and International Nuclear Information System (INIS) representatives from the following source: Office of Scientific and Technical Information P.O. Box 62 Oak Ridge, TN Telephone: Fax: Website: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.
5 Users of the Transportation Energy Data Book are encouraged to comment on errors, omissions, emphases, and organization of this report to one of the persons listed below. Requests for additional complementary copies of this report, additional data, or information on an existing table should be referred to Ms. Stacy Davis, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Stacy C. Davis Oak Ridge National Laboratory National Transportation Research Center 2360 Cherahala Boulevard Knoxville, Tennessee Telephone: (865) FAX: (865) Website Location: cta.ornl.gov/data Jacob W. Ward Vehicle Technologies Office Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Department of Energy, EE-2G Forrestal Building 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W. Washington, D.C Telephone: (202) FAX: (202) Website Location: vehicles.energy.gov Spreadsheets of the tables in the Transportation Energy Data Book can be found on the web at: cta.ornl.gov/data
6 Find useful data and information in other U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Data Books. Vehicle Technologies Market Report: cta.ornl.gov/vtmarketreport Biomass Energy Data Book: cta.ornl.gov/bedb Buildings Energy Data Book: Hydrogen Data Book: hydrogen.pnl.gov/cocoon/morf/hydrogen/article/103
7 v TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD... xix ACKNOWLEDGMENTS... xxi ABSTRACT... xxiii INTRODUCTION...xxv CHAPTER 1 PETROLEUM Table 1.1 Proved Reserves of Crude Oil and Natural Gas, Table 1.2 World Crude Oil Production, Table 1.3 World Petroleum Production, Table 1.4 World Petroleum Consumption, Figure 1.1 World Oil Reserves, Production and Consumption, Table 1.5 World Oil Reserves, Production and Consumption, Figure 1.2 World Natural Gas Reserves, Production and Consumption, Table 1.6 World Natural Gas Reserves, Production and Consumption, Table 1.7 U.S. Petroleum Imports, Table 1.8 Imported Crude Oil by Country of Origin, Table 1.9 Crude Oil Supplies, Figure 1.3 Oil Price and Economic Growth, Figure 1.4 Costs of Oil Dependence to the U.S. Economy, Figure 1.5 Refinery Gross Output by World Region, 2003 and Table 1.10 U.S. Refinery Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, Table 1.11 U.S. Refinery Yield of Petroleum Products from a Barrel of Crude Oil, Table 1.12 United States Petroleum Production, Imports and Exports,
8 vi Table 1.13 Figure 1.6 Figure 1.7 Petroleum Production and Transportation Petroleum Consumption in Context, United States Petroleum Production and Consumption All Sectors, United States Petroleum Production, and Transportation Consumption, Table 1.14 Consumption of Petroleum by End-Use Sector, Table 1.15 Highway Transportation Petroleum Consumption by Mode, Table 1.16 Nonhighway Transportation Petroleum Consumption by Mode, Table 1.17 Transportation Petroleum Use by Mode, CHAPTER 2 ENERGY Figure 2.1 World Consumption of Primary Energy, Table 2.1 U.S. Consumption of Total Energy by End-Use Sector, Table 2.2 Distribution of Energy Consumption by Source, 1973 and Table 2.3 Alternative Fuel and Oxygenate Consumption, Table 2.4 Ethanol Consumption, Table 2.5 Domestic Consumption of Transportation Energy by Mode and Fuel Type, Table 2.6 Transportation Energy Use by Mode, Table 2.7 Highway Transportation Energy Consumption by Mode, Table 2.8 Nonhighway Transportation Energy Consumption by Mode, Table 2.9 Off-Highway Transportation-Related Fuel Consumption from the Nonroad Model, Table 2.10 Fuel Consumption from Lawn and Garden Equipment, Table 2.11 Highway Usage of Gasoline and Diesel, Table 2.12 Passenger Travel and Energy Use,
9 vii Table 2.13 Energy Intensities of Highway Passenger Modes, Table 2.14 Energy Intensities of Nonhighway Passenger Modes, Figure 2.2 Energy Intensity of Light Rail Transit Systems, Figure 2.3 Energy Intensity of Heavy Rail Systems, Figure 2.4 Energy Intensity of Commuter Rail Systems, Table 2.15 Energy Intensities of Freight Modes, CHAPTER 3 ALL HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND CHARACTERISTICS Table 3.1 World Production of Cars and Trucks, Table 3.2 Car Registrations for Selected Countries, Table 3.3 Truck and Bus Registrations for Selected Countries, Table 3.4 U.S. Cars and Trucks in Use, Figure 3.1 Vehicles per Thousand People: U.S. (Over Time) Compared to Other Countries (in 2002 and 2012) Table 3.5 Vehicles per Thousand People in Other Countries, 2002 and Table 3.6 Vehicles per Thousand People in the United States, Table 3.7 Shares of Highway Vehicle-Miles Traveled by Vehicle Type, Table 3.8 Cars in Operation by Age, 1970, 2001, and Table 3.9 Trucks in Operation by Age, 1970, 2001, and Table 3.10 U.S. Average Vehicle Age, Table 3.11 New Retail Vehicle Sales, Table 3.12 Car Scrappage and Survival Rates, 1970, 1980 and 1990 Model Years Table 3.13 Light Truck Scrappage and Survival Rates Table 3.14 Heavy Truck Scrappage and Survival Rates
10 viii CHAPTER 4 LIGHT VEHICLES AND CHARACTERISTICS Table 4.1 Summary Statistics for Cars, Table 4.2 Summary Statistics for Two-Axle, Four-Tire Trucks, Table 4.3 Summary Statistics on Class 1, Class 2a, and Class 2b Light Trucks Table 4.4 Sales Estimates of Class 1, Class 2a, and Class 2b Light Trucks, Table 4.5 New Retail Car Sales in the United States, Table 4.6 Table 4.7 New Retail Sales of Trucks 10,000 Pounds GVW and Less in the United States, Production Sales, Production Shares, and Production-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Cars, Selected Model Years Table 4.8 Definition of Car Sport Utility Vehicles in Model Year Table 4.9 Table 4.10 Production, Production Shares, and Production-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks, Model Years Production and Production-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Cars, Light Trucks and Light Vehicles, Model Years Table 4.11 Light Vehicle Production Shares, Model Years Figure 4.1 Light Vehicle Production Shares, Model Years Table 4.12 Table 4.13 Table 4.14 Table 4.15 Production-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Cars, Model Years Production-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks, Model Years Production-Weighted Curb Weight of New Domestic and Import Cars, Model Years Average Material Consumption for a Domestic Light Vehicle, Model Years 1995, 2000, and Table 4.16 New Light Vehicle Dealerships and Sales, Table 4.17 Conventional Refueling Stations,
11 ix Table 4.18 Fuel Economy and Carbon Dioxide Emissions Standards, MY Table 4.19 Fuel Economy and Carbon Dioxide Targets for Model Year Table 4.20 Table 4.21 Car Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy Estimates, Light Truck Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy Estimates, Table 4.22 Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Fines Collected, Table 4.23 The Gas Guzzler Tax on New Cars Table 4.24 List of Model Year 2013 Cars with Gas Guzzler Taxes Table 4.25 Tax Receipts from the Sale of Gas Guzzlers, Table 4.26 Fuel Economy by Speed, PSAT Model Results Table 4.27 Fuel Economy by Speed, 1973, 1984, 1997, and 2012 Studies Figure 4.2 Fuel Economy by Speed, 1973, 1984, 1997, and 2012 Studies Table 4.28 Driving Cycle Attributes Figure 4.3 City Driving Cycle Figure 4.4 Highway Driving Cycle Figure 4.5 Air Conditioning (SC03) Driving Cycle Figure 4.6 Cold Temperature (Cold FTP) Driving Cycle Figure 4.7 High Speed (US06) Driving Cycle Figure 4.8 New York City Driving Cycle Figure 4.9 Representative Number Five Driving Cycle Table 4.29 Comparison of U.S., European, and Japanese Driving Cycles Attributes Table 4.30 Example of Differing Results Using the U.S., European, and Japanese Driving Cycles Table 4.31 Summary Statistics on Demand Response Vehicles,
12 x CHAPTER 5 HEAVY VEHICLES AND CHARACTERISTICS Table 5.1 Summary Statistics for Class 3-8 Single-Unit Trucks, Table 5.2 Summary Statistics for Class 7-8 Combination Trucks, Table 5.3 New Retail Truck Sales by Gross Vehicle Weight, Table 5.4 Truck Statistics by Gross Vehicle Weight Class, Table 5.5 Truck Harmonic Mean Fuel Economy by Size Class, 1992, 1997, and Table 5.6 Truck Statistics by Size, Table 5.7 Percentage of Trucks by Size Ranked by Major Use, Table 5.8 Percentage of Trucks by Fleet Size and Primary Fueling Facility, Table 5.9 Share of Trucks by Major Use and Primary Fueling Facility, Figure 5.1 Distribution of Trucks over 26,000 lbs. by Vehicle-Miles Traveled Figure 5.2 Share of Heavy Trucks with Selected Electronic Features, Table 5.10 Effect of Terrain on Class 8 Truck Fuel Economy Table 5.11 Figure 5.3 Figure 5.4 Fuel Economy for Class 8 Trucks as Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination Class 8 Truck Fuel Economy as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination and Percentage of Total Distance Traveled as a Function of Speed Class 8 Truck Percent of Total Fuel Consumed as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination Table 5.12 Class 8 Truck Weight by Component Table 5.13 Gross Vehicle Weight vs. Empty Vehicle Weight Figure 5.5 Distribution of Class 8 Trucks by On-Road Vehicle Weight, Table 5.14 Value of Goods in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002, 2007, and 2012 Commodity Flow Surveys Table 5.15 Tons of Freight in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002, 2007, and 2012 Commodity Flow Surveys
13 xi Table 5.16 Growth of Ton Miles in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002, 2007, and 2012 Commodity Flow Surveys Table 5.17 Average Miles per Shipment in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002, 2007, and 2012 Commodity Flow Surveys Table 5.18 Summary Statistics on Transit Buses and Trolleybuses, CHAPTER 6 ALTERNATIVE FUEL AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES AND CHARACTERISTICS Table 6.1 Estimates of Alternative Fuel Highway Vehicles in Use, Table 6.2 Alternative Fuel Transit Vehicles, Table 6.3 E85 Flex-Fuel Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year Table 6.4 Non-E85 Alternative Fuel Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year Table 6.5 Hybrid and Plug-In Vehicle Sales, Table 6.6 Electric Drive Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year Table 6.7 Electric Drive Medium/Heavy Trucks and Buses Available by Manufacturer, Table 6.8 Number of Alternative Refuel Sites by State and Fuel Type, Figure 6.1 Clean Cities Coalitions Figure 6.2 Top Ten Natural Gas Producing Countries, Table 6.9 Properties of Conventional and Alternative Liquid Fuels Table 6.10 Properties of Conventional and Alternative Gaseous Fuels CHAPTER 7 FLEET VEHICLES AND CHARACTERISTICS Figure 7.1 Fleet Vehicles in Service as of January 1, Table 7.1 New Light Fleet Vehicle Registrations by Vehicle Type, Model Year Table 7.2 Average Length of Time Commercial Fleet Vehicles are in Service, Table 7.3 Average Annual Vehicle-Miles of Travel for Commercial Fleet Vehicles,
14 xii Figure 7.2 Average Miles per Domestic Federal Vehicle by Vehicle Type, Table 7.4 Federal Government Vehicles, Table 7.5 Federal Fleet Vehicle Acquisitions by Fuel Type, FY Table 7.6 Fuel Consumed by Federal Government Fleets, FY Table 7.7 Federal Government Vehicles by Agency, FY CHAPTER 8 HOUSEHOLD VEHICLES AND CHARACTERISTICS Table 8.1 Population and Vehicle Profile, Table 8.2 Vehicles and Vehicle-Miles per Capita, Table 8.3 Average Annual Expenditures of Households by Income, Table 8.4 Annual Household Expenditures for Transportation, Table 8.5 Household Vehicle Ownership, Census Table 8.6 Table 8.7 Table 8.8 Demographic Statistics from the 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995 NPTS and 2001, 2009 NHTS Average Annual Vehicle-Miles, Vehicle Trips and Trip Length per Household 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995 NPTS and 2001, 2009 NHTS Average Number of Vehicles and Vehicle Travel per Household, 1990 NPTS and 2001 and 2009 NHTS Table 8.9 Trip Statistics by Trip Purpose, 2001 and 2009 NHTS Figure 8.1 Figure 8.2 Average Vehicle Occupancy by Vehicle Type, 1995 NPTS and 2009 NHTS Average Vehicle Occupancy by Trip Purpose, 1977 NPTS and 2009 NHTS Table 8.10 Average Annual Miles per Household Vehicle by Vehicle Age Table 8.11 Self-Reported vs. Odometer Average Annual Miles, 1995 NPTS and 2001 NHTS Figure 8.3 Share of Vehicle Trips by Trip Distance, 2009 NHTS Figure 8.4 Share of Vehicle Trips to Work by Trip Distance, 2009 NHTS
15 xiii Table 8.12 Share of Vehicles by Annual Miles of Travel and Vehicle Age, 2009 NHTS Table 8.13 Household Vehicle Trips, 2009 NHTS Figure 8.5 Average Daily Miles Driven (per Driver), 2009 NHTS Table 8.14 Table 8.15 Figure 8.6 Figure 8.7 Daily Vehicle Miles of Travel (per Vehicle) by Number of Vehicles in the Household, 2009 NHTS Daily and Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel and Average Age for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS Daily Vehicle Miles of Travel for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS Table 8.16 Means of Transportation to Work, 1980, 1990, 2000 and Table 8.17 Characteristics of U.S. Daily per Vehicle Driving vs. Dwelling Unit Type and Density Table 8.18 Housing Unit Characteristics, Table 8.19 Workers by Commute Time, 1990, 2000, and Table 8.20 Bicycle Sales, Figure 8.8 Walk and Bike Trips by Trip Purpose, 2009 NHTS Table 8.21 Long-Distance Trip Characteristics, 2001 NHTS CHAPTER 9 NONHIGHWAY MODES Table 9.1 Nonhighway Energy Use Shares, Table 9.2 Summary Statistics for U.S. Domestic and International Certificated Route Air Carriers (Combined Totals), Table 9.3 Summary Statistics for General Aviation, Table 9.4 Tonnage Statistics for Domestic and International Waterborne Commerce, Table 9.5 Summary Statistics for Domestic Waterborne Commerce,
16 xiv Table 9.6 Recreational Boat Energy Use, Table 9.7 Class I Railroad Freight Systems in the United States Ranked by Revenue Ton Miles, Table 9.8 Summary Statistics for Class I Freight Railroads, Table 9.9 Intermodal Rail Traffic, Table 9.10 Summary Statistics for the National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak), Table 9.11 Summary Statistics for Commuter Rail Operations, Table 9.12 Summary Statistics for Rail Transit Operations, CHAPTER 10 TRANSPORTATION AND THE ECONOMY Figure 10.1 Transportation Services Index, January 1990 January Table 10.1 Gasoline Prices for Selected Countries, Table 10.2 Diesel Fuel Prices for Selected Countries, Figure 10.2 Gasoline Prices for Selected Countries, 1990 and Figure 10.3 Diesel Prices for Selected Countries, 1990 and Table 10.3 Prices for a Barrel of Crude Oil and a Gallon of Gasoline, Table 10.4 Retail Prices for Motor Fuel, Table 10.5 Refiner Sales Prices for Propane and No. 2 Diesel, Table 10.6 Refiner Sales Prices for Aviation Gasoline and Jet Fuel, Table 10.7 Federal Excise Taxes on Motor Fuels, Table 10.8 Federal and State Alternative Fuel Incentives, Table 10.9 Federal and State Advanced Technology Incentives, Table Average Price of a New Car, Table Average Price of a New Car (Domestic and Import), Table Car Operating Cost per Mile,
17 xv Table Fixed Car Operating Costs per Year, Table Personal Consumption Expenditures, Table Consumer Price Indices, Table Transportation-Related Employment, 2000 and Table U.S. Employment for Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Parts Manufacturing, CHAPTER 11 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS Table 11.1 World Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1990 and Table 11.2 Table 11.3 Numerical Estimates of Global Warming Potentials Compared with Carbon Dioxide U.S. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases, based on Global Warming Potential, Table 11.4 Total U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions by End-Use Sector, Table 11.5 Table 11.6 U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Consumption by End-Use Sector, U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion in the Transportation End-Use Sector Table 11.7 Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Mode, 1990 and Figure 11.1 GREET Model Figure 11.2 GREET Model Feedstocks and Fuels Figure 11.3 Well-to-Wheel Emissions for Various Fuels and Vehicle Technologies Table 11.8 Table 11.9 Production-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Cars, Model Years Production-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks, Model Years Table Average Annual Carbon Footprint by Vehicle Classification, 1975 and Table Direct Carbon Dioxide Emissions from a Gallon of Fuel
18 xvi CHAPTER 12 CRITERIA AIR POLLUTANTS Table 12.1 Total National Emissions of the Criteria Air Pollutants by Sector, Table 12.2 Total National Emissions of Carbon Monoxide, Table 12.3 Emissions of Carbon Monoxide from Highway Vehicles, Table 12.4 Total National Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides, Table 12.5 Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides from Highway Vehicles, Table 12.6 Total National Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds, Table 12.7 Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Highway Vehicles, Table 12.8 Total National Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM 10), Table 12.9 Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM 10) from Highway Vehicles, Table Total National Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM-2.5), Table Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM-2.5) from Highway Vehicles, Table Tier 3 Non-Methane Organic Gases and Nitrogen Oxide Standards Table Tier 3 Particulate Matter Emission Standards for Light Gasoline Vehicles, MY 2017 and Beyond Table Tier 3 Evaporative Emission Standards Table Table Light-Duty Vehicle, Light-Duty Truck, and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicle Tier 2 Exhaust Emission Standards Light-Duty Vehicle, Light-Duty Truck, and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicle Tier 2 Evaporative Emission Standards Table Heavy-Duty Highway Compression-Ignition Engines and Urban Buses Exhaust Emission Standards Table Heavy-Duty Highway Spark-Ignition Engines Exhaust Emission Standards Table Heavy-Duty Highway Compression-Ignition and Spark-Ignition Engines Evaporative Emission Standards
19 xvii Table California Car, Light Truck and Medium Truck Emission Certification Standards Table Aircraft Exhaust Emission Standards Table Nonroad Compression-Ignition Engines Exhaust Emission Standards Table Nonroad Large Spark-Ignition Engines Exhaust and Evaporative Emission Standards Table Locomotives Exhaust Emission Standards Table Table Table Table Table Marine Compression-Ignition (CI) Engines Exhaust Emission Standards Marine Spark-Ignition Engines and Vessels Exhaust Emission Standards Nonroad Recreational Engines and Vehicles Exhaust Emission Standards Gasoline Sulfur Standards Highway, Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine (NRLM) Diesel Fuel Sulfur Standards APPENDIX A. SOURCES & METHODOLOGIES... A 1 APPENDIX B. CONVERSIONS... B 1 APPENDIX C. MAPS... C 1 GLOSSARY... G 1 INDEX... I 1
21 xix FOREWORD Welcome to this 33rd edition of the Transportation Energy Data Book. Twenty-four editions of this Data Book have been produced by Stacy Davis; DOE is grateful for the dedication, consistency, and skill she has brought to this effort. I would like to bring to your attention some of the data that are new in this edition: Tables 3.8 and 3.9 have 2013 data on the cars and trucks in operation by age. Tables have been changed significantly due to changes in the source data. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) changed the vehicle classifications, combining wagons with the rest of the cars and dropping the small, medium, large categories of cars, pickups, sportutilities, and vans. The fuel economy displayed in those tables has been adjusted by the EPA to provide the best estimate of real-world performance. Figure 5.1, which is the distribution of trucks over 26,000 lbs. by vehicle-miles traveled, now includes a graph on all trucks in additional to the <2-year old trucks. Tables show data from the newly released 2012 Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) in comparison with previous CFS data. Tables 6.3 and 6.4 were split from one table in last year s edition because there are so many alternative fuel vehicles in model year Table 6.7 names the model year 2014 electric-drive medium/heavy trucks and buses. Figure 6.2 shows the top ten natural gas-producing countries, along with the natural gas reserves of those countries. Figure 11.2 displays data on greenhouse gas emissions from the latest GREET model. Tables and present information on the Tier 3 emission standards which were finalized in April I hope you find value in this data book. Stacy and I welcome suggestions on how to improve it. Jacob W. Ward Analysis Manager, Vehicle Technologies Office U.S. Department of Energy
23 xxi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to express their gratitude to the many individuals who assisted in the preparation of this document. First, we would like to thank Jacob Ward and the Vehicle Technologies Office staff for their continued support of the Transportation Energy Data Book project. We would also like to thank Mark Robbins for the cover. This book would not have been possible without the dedication of Debbie Bain, who has masterfully prepared the manuscript since This book would not be possible without the leadership, guidance, and vision of Phil Patterson, who began this book in the 1970 s. We hope to continue this report into the future with the same level of excellence. The authors and the transportation research community will be forever grateful for his efforts.
25 xxiii ABSTRACT The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 33 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.