1 The Panama Canal expansion s impact on global logistics.
2 Altering the course to expand our opportunities The modern concept of trade in goods goes beyond transportation. In 2015 along with the expansion of the Panama Canal, the opportunities of globalization and competitiveness will also expand. To meet future demands we must change the direction of our current decisions. INFRASTRUCTURE AND TRANSPORT SERVICES MANAGEMENT AND COORDINATION OF PUBLIC AGENCIES ROLE OF THE PRIVATE SECTOR GREEN LOGISTICS
3 Global Trade Outlook LOOKING AHEAD The expansion of the Panama Canal will bring new development opportunities for Latin America and the Caribbean 100 years ago the construction of the Panama Canal transformed global trade, creating a new communication and transportation route between the east and the west. To date, more than one million ships have passed through the Canal. Last year, 14,000 vessels crossed the Canal, about half are Panamax vessels. In 2015, the Panama Canal expansion will allow the passage of post-panamax vessels, increasing transit capacity, vessels crossing the canal will transport more than 12,000 containers compared to the current Again, Panama and its Canal will change the course of global trade. The use of more efficient equipment with lower operating costs and the ability to use more direct routes between major origins and destinations will reduce transportation costs while broadening the opportunities for other countries and ports in the region. Increased traffic will give a strong boost to Panamanian economy, and the effect can multiply in the Latin American and Caribbean economy, if the region can develop productive activities that add value to the load attracted to the Panama Canal. That is why today, more so than 100 years ago, Latin America and the Caribbean have the opportunity to benefit and take advantage of globalization of supply chains. This is why today we are in Panama City, within the framework of the Annual Meeting, for the Canal expansion changes the rules of the game of global logistics. COMPETITIVENESS OF SUPPLY CHAINS Globalization poses a great challenge for competitiveness and productivity During the past 30 years, a number of institutional changes have created a more favorable environment for the globalization of productive activity: trade liberalization, increased foreign investment and the expansion of capital markets. In the last 30 years, our countries have also taken measures enabling them to open to the world, eliminating the vast majority of tariff barriers, promoting trade liberalization, liberalizing regulations for the arrival of foreign capital, modernizing customs
4 procedures and homogenizing regulations at the regional and sub-regional levels. Our countries have also advanced in extensive negotiations and signed free trade agreements with countries within and outside the region. I. Today, if we have sufficient infrastructure conditions and an appropriately competitive environment, it is economically viable to develop strategic global supply chains. - Globalization has accelerated mainly due to the decrease in transportation costs caused by containerization and the introduction of information and communication technologies. - Productive activity has globalized and production inputs come from different countries, adding complexity and dynamism to trade - Today you can enjoy the economies associated with specialization and large-scale production. How can we in Latin America and the Caribbean take advantage of the growth in trade and of globalization in a highly competitive environment? The latest report of the World Economic Forum revealed that reducing barriers to supply chains may increase Global GDP up to 6 times more than removing import tariffs. If two of the main barriers are improved, border administration, and transportation and telecommunications infrastructure, and the services associated with them, to half the level of global best practices, global GDP would increase by 4.7% (U.S. $ 2.6 billion) and world exports to 14.5% (U.S. $ 1.6 billion). The above estimates are conservative; they only considered two of the four main barrier categories for supply chains. Reducing these barriers would have a direct impact on households, because lowering domestic transportation costs would also reduce the final prices of certain products for end consumers as well as reduce marketing and export costs for producers. Today, with the expansion of the Panama Canal the link between trade and transportation is increasingly evident; as is the link between the countries competitiveness and their logistics infrastructure. WHERE ARE WE? ALTERING THE COURSE Today in Latin America and the Caribbean sophisticated goods are produced, with higher added value, and they are competing for a global market. While the diversification of production has been on the agenda since the 80 s, we must also recognize that our countries have increased by % the number of products exported in the past 25 years. Our countries however, have not increased their infrastructure stock to keep the pace with how the economies have diversified. The region lags behind in infrastructure and logistics services. This lag is reflected in logistics costs ranging between 18 and 35 percent of the final value of the product in LAC. For small and medium businesses these costs reach 40%. In the OECD countries, logistics costs represent between 8 and 10 percent. Inventories for companies in the region are twice the OECD countries (15% of GDP).
5 Under these conditions, it is very difficult for the region to compete in global markets. The logistics performance lag in the region represents a comparative disadvantage versus other regions, and it is making the comparative advantage, natural to Latin America and the Caribbean, like the proximity to markets, disappear. Perishable products are even less competitive in domestic markets, mainly due to high internal transportation costs. High importing and exporting costs, waiting times in ports, delays in the procedural management take away efficiency and effectiveness to supply chains. To close the competitiveness gap in Latin America and the Caribbean with the large emerging economies like China and India, the region must change its course. We need to modernize our infrastructure, reduce logistics costs, improve processes, enhance institutional coordination and public agencies, and encourage the development and role of the private sector. WHAT ARE WE DOING? Expand the opportinities By supporting Latin America and Caribbean governments logistics programs, the Bank has realized that to change the course and implement a logistics agenda, having integrated institutional frameworks and stopping the tendency to act in silos is key. The Bank supports national logistics plans, comprehensive policy management and specific investment projects in Colombia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Mexico, Peru and Panama. In Mesoamerica, for example, the Bank is conducting regional studies as a stepping stone in the development of a Regional Logistics Agenda supported by national plans. To increase competitiveness of products and services in the region, the Bank promotes an agenda that recognizes the importance of an integrated approach to logistics. This view considers the development of infrastructure and worldclass logistics services; better management and highlevel coordination of public agencies; demands proactive
6 Innovation plays a key role in logistics: from finding ways of collaboration between companies to reduce logistics costs (reduce inventories, sharing suppliers and distribution systems), public-private partnerships to develop logistics platforms, using intelligent transportation systems that improve efficiency in the operation of transportation networks, to overcoming the challenges posed to urban logistics. participation of the private sector and emphasizes the adoption of green and sustainable logistical practices. But the Bank s action is not limited to this, it is essential to seek the improvement of the movement of goods and the provision of logistics services in the domestic arena, the Bank promotes mechanisms for better coordination between national, state and municipal agencies. The Inter-American Development Bank wants to support this change in course; and to change the course, we must have better infrastructure, better information for decision making, better coordination between the public and private sectors. But logistics is a day-to-day endeavor performed by people, in their jobs, as COO or as the Head of ministerial unit. We need to strengthen the capacity of our human resources, promote innovation and ensure continuity in our institutions. The Panama Canal expansion will change the rules of global logistics and the best way to compete in this globalized world and to take advantage of opportunities is to have a workforce with specific knowledge of logistics management; public and private workforces convinced that supply chains are global. It depends on each and every one of us that our countries products are competitive, and to achieve this, we must ensure that domestic transportation and storage costs do not compromise our products position in the global market.
7 INFRASTRUCTURE AND TRANSPORT SERVICES I. Global trade requires both infrastructure and associated services to move in the same direction a. In Latin America and the Caribbean there is a significant lag in the availability of infrastructure (roads, ports, airports and railways) b. Particularly in providing world class logistic services (ground logistics, logistics platforms, outsourcing and intermodal transport). c. Problems in connectivity (land, sea and air) and the air, port and inland terminal operations, limit the consolidation of a network infrastructure and logistics services d. Inefficiency in transportation / distribution of goods reflects in higher transportation costs for the end user and consumer e. These constraints call for optimizing the performance of the existing (and planned) infrastructure as well as transportation and logistics services; f. Increasing the stock of infrastructure; g. And improving connectivity to help reduce the economic gap between regions / countries and increase the export potential of the region. II. Modern logistics infrastructure and efficient transport services generate reliability, flexibility and the opportunity for supply chains to adapt to current requirements but, a. The main challenges revolve around reducing the inefficiency of logistics services in ports, trucking service, at border crossings and intermodal terminals. b. Fully utilizing existing infrastructure and maintaining it, before building new ones (i.e. extracting more from existing assets c. When building new infrastructure think in corridors or networks, not in isolated projects. d. Recognize the importance of the incentive to logistics services operators and of world class quality transportation e. Recognize the multimodal nature of cargo transportation and promote the integration of the transportation chain III. The Panama Canal expansion brings itself changes in the dynamics of trade and logistics. a. The east coast of the United States is preparing to compete and accept new larger vessels. b. Inland ports, logistics platforms and integrated complexes are being developed, that allow adaption to new dynamics c. AL cannot sit back and allow the expansion of the Panama Canal -and the availability of lower cost shipping- to only
8 generate an increase in trade flows between Asia and the U.S. and Europe. IV. To achieve quality logistics infrastructure and efficient services, the public sector (its different actors) and the private sector must agree on an agenda that maximizes the benefits to the region a. It is important to understand the real challenges and limitations of the current infrastructure in each country, and to identify strengths and competitive advantages in the provision of logistics infrastructure b. There needs to be an agreement on a strategy that allows successful private-public partnerships to finance infrastructure (i.e Regulatory environment, Banking Capacity, Infrastructure Funds, Alternative sources of funding). c. The development of infrastructure and the provision of logistics services require public-public coordination (among public agencies) and public-private, not only in financing and development but also in prioritizing and planning i. This highlights the critical role of Public Investment Planning (PIP) and the need to think about infrastructure as a system or network particularly for logistics linking the demand of infrastructure with its supply ii. Coordination among the different levels of jurisdiction (i.e. central / federal, state, and municipal levels) under the same umbrella and advancing in the same direction.
9 ROLE OF THE PRIVATE SECTOR I. The private sector has several roles as an investor and a developer of infrastructure and as a user and provider of infrastructure services. a. As an investor and developer, the private sector along with the public sector invests in logistics infrastructure, and implements infrastructure projects. b. As a user and provider of services, the private sector innovates, coordinates, educates itself, transfers knowledge, and internalizes the externalities of the production and distribution processes. c. In its dual role, it is also very able to identify opportunities where key aspects for logistics developments can come together. Amongst them: i. Identify the existing infrastructure that leverages new investments (i.e. the Zaragoza PLAZA case) ii. Identify (geographical) areas with easy access for efficient transportation (i.e. multimode access), and proximity to final consumers where they can establish logistics platforms that attract a critical mass of supply and demand of logistics services. iii. Encourage partnerships between private-private agents to maximize the benefits of co-locations (i.e. Economies of scale, complementarity, optimization of transportation costs) iv. Identify comparative advantages in adding value. (I.e. Panama goes from being a container transshipment place to a place where value is added to products). v. In the case of AL, the private sector plays a key role (in the medium and long term) to make the region move toward adding value as a principle, taking advantage of the decreased logistics costs and transit times, accessibility to major markets, and connectivity to international markets. II. Barriers to supply chains are more significant to small and medium enterprises. (Info WEF Enabling Trade Report 2012) a. In Latin America, 99% of the private sector are small and medium enterprises and employ 67% of the employees. (OECD Latin America Outlook, 2012)
10 b. Their contribution to the GDP and productivity is low; productivity of large companies in the region is six times that of SMEs, in OECD countries the difference is 2.4 times. (OECD Latin America Outlook, 2012) c. Transaction costs disproportionately affect SMEs generating trade barriers (traditionally they have a very small share in exports i.e. 3% in France) even when they generate jobs significantly (in the U.S. almost all net jobs are created by SMEs). d. There is evidence that if the barriers for supply chains are minimized, sales of SMEs can increase by 60-80% (i.e. EBay) e. Most procedure simplification programs, and trade facilitation reforms (i.e. Authorized Economic Operators) benefit large producers, not SMEs. III. Private companies must find a way to improve the efficiency of their supply chains, this means preparing for the challenges, and getting organized to improve benefits. a. There are areas of shared responsibility between the private sector and the public sector in order to improve logistics performance. b. Provide a constant supply of professionals with expertise in logistics services and supply chain management c. Coordinate efforts to develop logistics zones (Colon Free Zone), Logistics Platforms (Spain), Logistics Hubs (Rotterdam, Singapore) d. Create spaces and generate opportunities so that new companies can also take advantage of improvements in logistics efficiency (size, cost, storage, inventory management, shipment frequency and time). e. Improving distribution systems (i.e. achieving co-location) to reduce transportation costs, carbon footprint, lead times, inventory shortages, and product damage during consolidation and separation of cargo. IV. Within this, one of the major roles of the private sector is to continuously innovate and provide creative and sustainable solutions to the challenges of global supply chains a. One of the main challenges of the private sector is creating virtuous circles: Competition creates innovation which in turn attracts talent and resources, which in turn attracts more competition (i.e. Silicon Valley) (Logistics Clusters) b. The sophistication of modern logistics makes it necessary to train the workforce to take on current challenges. c. The existence of logistics developments makes knowledge transfer easier; spillover effects are generated and an onthe-job-training culture is promoted. d. The growth of e-commerce enhances the importance of the last mile concept in the distribution and negative consequences in cities (For example: congestion, pollution) by which the private sector is called to provide sustainable solutions. e. Sustainability is a concept that involves the environment and society, the private sector has adopted these concepts through their social responsibility corporate programs. f. Many of them are based on generating innovative solutions for supply chains to become more sustainable (i.e. reverse logistics, zero-carbon footprints, eco-packaging and labeling, inventory management)
11 GREEN LOGISTICS I. The growing tendency to positively evaluate the practices of corporate social responsibility (sustainable practices in social and environmental terms) has popularized the notion of the Triple Bottom Line. a. International agreements and preferences of consumers towards more sustainable products have exerted strong pressure on corporate social responsibility practices. b. The Triple Bottom Line measures not only economic benefits but also how responsible a company is in its corporate practices regarding the social and environmental aspects. c. Sustainability, green logistics and corporate priorities must be aligned. d. Green logistics involves adopting strategies and practices in managing supply chains that reduce externalities imposed on the environment and the carbon footprint in the distribution process. e. The actions focus on material handling, waste management, packaging and freight. II. However, there are paradoxes to be resolved when adopting green logistics practices. a. Logistics efficiency aims to lower costs (traditionally transportation and inventory management costs) but in many cases the strategies adopted disagree with environmental considerations. b. Time is essential in logistics and is increasingly a requirement, reducing it creates efficiencies and profit but overall, profit in time was obtained through the use of more polluting means of transportation (road and air versus maritime and railroad) and less energy efficient. c. Reliability is crucial in the logistics industry and has been built from the use of the most polluting means of transportation. d. Modern logistics systems are based on the reduction of inventories. As a result, inventories are more and more in transit contributing to congestion and pollution. Environmental costs
12 are being externalized and taken on by the environment and society. e. The use of information technologies in logistics (particularly those related to e-commerce) generates positive effects but at the same time distribution depends on road or air transportation. III. Sustainability is a process spanning from supply of inputs for production to distribution channels of finished products (last mile) passing through the processes of production, packing, packaging, transport, and vehicle occupancy, among others. a. Where and how to get the inputs for the production process? b. Production processes, are they sustainable? c. How to reduce the carbon footprint in the distribution process? d. How to adopt the concept of Reverse Logistics? IV. Significant opportunities for global supply chains. a. Consumers increasingly give preference (they are willing to pay a premium) for products and processes labeled as green which creates opportunities to reduce the environmental and social impact of supply chains. b. There is already evidence (and experience) that green logistics improve the performance of the logistics chain. c. Opportunities exist in: i. Product design and production processes ii. Product distribution iii. Material handling during production and packaging iv. Reverse logistics processes V. Challenges to implementing the principles of sustainability and green logistics a. Internalize externalities, that is to say environmental and social costs of the supply chain and not just to see it as an internal cost reduction. b. How to measure outcomes and internalize them (e.g. Performance assessment based on indicators associated with sustainability) c. Understanding an integrated view of the supply chain d. The carbon footprint is increasingly becoming a key factor for competitiveness (in part due to consumer preferences).
13 MANAGEMENT AND COORDINATION OF PUBLIC AGENCIES I. There is a private aspect to freight logistics (firms are responsible for organizing supply chains and service providers, but there is also a public perspective, geared towards assuring the general efficiency of the national logistics system, and enabling the environment for efficient logistics performance. The public sector must act in three spheres: a. At the macro level (national level) creating a country vision, leading a freight logistics agenda, identifying gaps and defining an action plan b. At the micro level strengthening logistics corridors and supporting key logistics chains in the country measuring the logistics performance and understanding the determinants of logistics costs b. Make decisions based on evidence, supported by data and analysis that allows countries to select critical and cost-efficient investment projects c. Focus on removing barriers to the development of industries (low-hanging fruit, and high risk high reward) The Singapore model which contained relevant public sector participation allowed this country to become a Global Hub, home to businesses, innovation and talent. - The model was phased and adaptive. Since the beginning, the key objective was to attract capital and talent, complementing and maximizing the client countries comparative advantages. c. At the regional level assuring public agencies integrate and have the capabilities to support the development of a regional logistics agenda A close collaboration between the public and private sector is crucial in all three. II. The public sector has a significant role in providing infrastructure and transport services regulation, determining land use, generating the incentives for private job generation, promoting human capital development and adopting regulatory measures to enhance investment climate. Some key tools are: a. Design mechanisms to prioritize actions (regulations, investments) that improve the efficiency of supply chains, which include feedback between public and private agents
14 - As the economic and social conditions changed, the strategy was modified to maximize the positive impact, with an active role of the government in adapting regulations and providing high quality infrastructure. III. The government challenge is to establish the competitiveness of the economy - enhancing its productivity - as a policy priority; key tools are the provision of freight logistics hard and soft infrastructure and incentives to the efficient production and distribution of goods, innovation and human capital development. a. Government institutions coordination being multisectoral, Fright logistics require a high level well-coordinated action plan, including transport, infrastructure, trade, customs. Science and innovation and private sector development agencies. Balancing agencies short-term priorities with forward-looking integrated strategic vision is one of the most challenging pre-requisites that require high-level leadership. b. Sustainability, capacity and coordination. Logistics agenda requires important capabilities in the public sector. Making those capabilities permanent and sustainable across time will enable the development of leadership and will ease coordination across institutions sharing a single goal. c. Border management (transport facilitation and customs processes) is crucial to improve the efficiency of the supply chains; it requires close coordination of a large number of public agencies. d. The coordination between control agencies (customs, immigration, security, sanitary) is a prerequisite to take advantage of the improvements in infrastructure and technological advances in supply chain management. e. The nature of modern logistics implies that the supply chain is moving as goods do: this is why the corridor concept is key to enhance logistics performance. Corridors can run between ports to production centers, or between two cites. f. This implies that a territorial approach is very much needed, coordinating different jurisdictional levels of public agencies (federal, state and municipal). IV. A coordinated national logistics agenda is the tool that the public sector has to compete in this Game Change, and will make the country logistics infrastructure more competitive and to boost service reliability and efficiency. a. To successfully do so, it becomes necessary a coordinated national investment policy
15 b. Data and information that supports the decision making process and public management is a critical input; they can be provided by Logistics Observatories (the IDB has developed a Regional Observatory, a sub-regional Mesoamerica observatory and is supporting the establishment of national logistics observatories). c. Effective coordination and joint activities between public agencies and territorial planning (economic activity occurs in the territory), with a clear command structure and leadership. d. There should be a focal point within the government (at high-level) responsible for such coordination. Its mandate must be to coordinate a strategic vision and the national logistics investment agenda and supervise all public actions affecting the efficiency of supply chains. A mechanism to implement it is through the creation of Vice-ministers or specific agencies with a clear mandate and resources. e. The importance of developing authorities in port logistics nodes, with their ability to influence the planning of logistics corridors that link them, should be clearly recognized. f. While coordination of a national agenda is crucial for policy effectiveness, it is also necessary to look at logistics with a regional perspective, incorporating coordination mechanisms between countries. V. The private sector - particularly shippers - must be the best ally of the public sector to reduce the barriers to logistics efficiency. a. A significant number of companies benefit from the existence of logistical barriers and generate significant resistance to reforms. b. The companies have accepted and have become accustomed to the existence of barriers and fail to quantify the benefits from eliminating them, particularly because they usually transfer costs to final consumers. c. It is difficult to coordinate the incentives of all stakeholders in the supply chain, and generally benefits are accrued if all agents are coordinated. d. Thus, it is necessary to define mechanisms for coordination, dialogue, and prioritization with the private sector. e. Examples of joint tasks between the public and the private sector are training, R&D and specialized human capital development using the Logistics Council mechanism or a Competitiveness Council as the prefer dialogue vehicle.
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