Process of Bone Renewal

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2 Table of Contents Bone Mass... 1 Process of Bone Renewal... 2 Importance of Bone Mass... 3 Bone Mass and Osteoporosis... 4 Improving Bone Health... 5 Total Body Water... 6 Proper Hydration... 7 Monitoring your Body Water... 8 Body Fat... 9 BMR / Muscle Mass Body Type Classifications Bone Mass Chart Body Water Chart Body Fat Chart Muscle Mass Chart NOTE: These recommendations are for informational purposes only and should not be considered or used as medical guidelines for weight loss, exercise, or dietary changes. Always consult with your physician before beginning any weight loss or exercise program or when making changes to your diet.

3 Bone Mass The 206 bones that make up the human skeletal system are a living, constantly changing part of our anatomy. Together they perform the following important tasks: Support structure for the body Protection of the brain and internal organs Production of red blood cells and leukocytes Storing of calcium and other vital minerals Most human bones are made of three parts - cortical, the outer smooth, hard surface; cancellous, the inner spongy portion that is strong and lightweight; and the innermost bone marrow, which produces blood cells. Like skin, bone constantly regenerates itself. Cells known as osteoclasts eat away at old bone tissue, while cells called osteoblasts lay down new bone at the site of old bone. This ongoing process keeps the skeletal structure strong. After the age of 35, this process of bone renewal by osteoblasts becomes less efficient as part of the normal aging process. A reduction of calcium in the blood and other health factors can accelerate bone loss, and some individuals may lose 1% or more of bone density every year after middle age, leading to an increase in the risk of bone fracture. 1

4 Process of Bone Renewal 2

5 Importance of Bone Mass The strength of bone tissue is determined by how dense its structure is, or how much open space exists in the spongy portion of the bone. Because bone strength is in proportion to bone mass per unit volume (density), bone mass is a useful indicator of overall bone health. Normal Bone Less open space Bone Mass = High Bone Strength = Good Abnormal Bone More open space Bone Mass = Low Bone Strength = Weak Microscopic view of healthy bone Microscopic view of osteoporosis Bones having low mass are weaker and present a higher risk of fracture. Factors such as age, diet and even the effects of certain drugs can influence bone mass over time. 3

6 Bone Mass and Osteoporosis Osteoporosis, which means porous bones, causes bones to become weak and brittle. Taking a fall, or even mild activities like lifting an object or coughing can cause a fracture. Bones weaken when you have low levels of calcium, phosphorous and other minerals in your bones. Osteoporosis can also accompany endocrine disorders or result from excessive use of drugs such as steroids. Since bone mass declines with age, the risk of bone fracture increases as you grow older. In the United States, osteoporosis causes more than 1.5 million fractures every year. About 10 million American men and women have osteoporosis and as many as 18 million more Americans may have low bone density. Bone mass peaks in the 20s or early 30s, then declines as you age : Normal Range 70-80: Pre-osteoporosis 60-70: High Risk of fracture LCD Examples of Bone Index 4

7 Improving Bone Health Osteoporosis is largely preventable for most people. You can maintain bone health by following these important steps: A balanced diet rich in calcium and vitamin D Regular exercise A healthy lifestyle with no smoking Calcium is an essential nutrient and a building block in bone tissue. Inadequate calcium is thought to contribute to the development of osteoporosis. Depending on your age, an appropriate calcium intake falls between 800 to 1300 mg a day. Foods high in Calcium 1 cup nonfat Milk mg 1 oz cheddar cheese mg 1 oz mozzarella cheese mg 1 cup low fat yogurt mg 1/2 cup tofu mg 1 cup soybeans mg 3 oz salmon mg 1 cup cooked broccoli...94 mg Vitamin D ( IU daily) helps your body absorb calcium and aids in bone renewal. You can get vitamin D from foods such as egg yolks, saltwater fish and liver as well as from vitamin D enriched products like milk and cereal. Vitamin D can also be formed by the body after exposure to sunlight. Magnesium ( mg daily) is also important for proper muscle activity and bone formation. Foods high in magnesium include nuts, molasses, whole grains and dark green, leafy vegetables. 5

8 Total Body Water In the human body, water is essential for the digestion of food, the transport of nutrients to the tissues, elimination of body wastes, circulation of blood and lymph fluids, as a lubricant in the joints and internal organs, and for regulation of body temperature. Insufficient water consumption or dehydration can increase blood viscosity and lead to a variety of health problems, including: Headaches or migraines Increased joint pain Poor digestion Higher cholesterol levels Dry skin and oversensitivity to cold Total body water varies with sex, weight, and age and in general tends to decrease as we age. The sensation of thirst decreases as we grow older, and can lead to chronic dehydration. Many people can also confuse thirst with hunger, and instead of drinking will eat, leading to weight gain. 6 Average Body Water Child.. 80% Adult.. 60% Elderly.. Below 50%

9 Proper Hydration Experts believe that most adults go through life in a basically dehydrated state because our thirst sensation isn t a very good early-warning indicator. By the time we feel thirsty, we re already dehydrated and our blood is thicker (higher viscosity). Signs of dehydration include concentrated (dark colored) urine, dry lips or mouth, restlessness, slightly mottled skin and decreased tissue elasticity. You may be more susceptible to dehydration when you have insufficient water intake, are under stress or ill, or have a poor diet high in fat or sugar. Drinking 12 cups or three quarts of water each day (more for athletes or people who exercise) is usually recommended to maintain a normal hydration level. It s especially important to drink some water at bedtime because heart attacks often occur in the morning when we are dehydrated and the blood is thicker than during the day. Regular exercise and certain foods (such as omega-3 fatty acids) can also help reduce blood viscosity. 7

10 Monitoring your Body Water BCA makes it easy to keep track of your total body water (hydration level) throughout the day or when you want to know if you are dehydrated. With some BCA models, you can also compare the change in body water between two consecutive measurements, which is helpful in seeing what effect your daily activity or diet has on hydration level. BCA will alternately display current results and previous results, along with net change in body water. BEFORE Results from previous measurement 8 Increase or decrease in body water since last measurement

11 Body Fat Your overall weight is a combination of lean body mass and body fat mass. For health, the important thing isn't how much you weigh, but how much of your weight is fat - your body fat percentage. The risks of excess fat include heart disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer. A proper diet and regular exercise are your best defense against excess body fat. Age Excellent Average Fair to Poor Body Fat Recommendations - Male 10.8%-14.9% 12.8%-16.5% 14.5%-18.0% 16.1%-19.4% 17.5%-20.5% 18.6%-21.5% 19.8%-22.7% 20.2%-23.2% 20.3%-23.5% 18.9%-22.0% 18.9%-22.1% 19.7%-22.7% 21.0%-24.0% 22.6%-25.6% 24.3%-27.3% 26.6%-29.7% 27.4%-30.7% 27.6%-31.0% 15.0%-18.9% 16.6%-20.2% 18.1%-21.4% 19.5%-22.5% 20.6%-23.5% 21.6%-24.4% 22.8%-25.5% 23.3%-26.1% 23.6%-26.6% 22.1%-24.9% 22.2%-25.3% 22.8%-26.3% 24.1%-27.6% 25.7%-29.2% 27.4%-30.8% 29.8%-33.0% 30.8%-33.9% 31.1%-34.3% %-23.3% 20.3%-24.4% 21.5%-25.2% 22.6%-26.1% 23.6%-26.9% 24.5%-27.6% 25.6%-28.6% 26.2%-29.3% 26.7%-29.8% Body Fat Recommendations - Female Age Excellent Average Fair to Poor 25.0%-29.6% 25.4%-29.8% 26.4%-30.5% 27.7%-31.5% 29.3%-32.8% 30.9%-34.1% 33.1%-36.2% 34.0%-37.3% 34.4%-38.0%

12 MUSCLE MASS BMR / Muscle Mass BMR, or Basal Metabolic Rate, is the rate at which the body burns calories while at rest. If you burn the same number of calories that you eat, your body weight will remain constant. For every 3,500 calories you burn in excess of your dietary intake, you will lose one pound of fat. Muscle mass is the total weight (or percent by weight) of muscle tissue in the body. While fat essentially stores calories for use by the body, muscles burn calories in order to function. This means that higher muscle mass increases your ability to burn calories. Weight loss by diet alone may result in a loss of muscle, and this will slow your BMR, making it even more difficult to keep the weight off. However, exercise increases your BMR for hours even after exercise, and can increase the amount of muscle in the body. With more muscle mass, you become more efficient at burning the calories you consume in your diet. BCA calculates your ideal muscle mass (based on total weight) and displays the difference - a minus result means you need to gain muscle mass for better health. 10 BMR (Viewed in Body Fat Mode on some BCA Models)

13 Body Type Classifications 1 Low bone mass, overweight 2 Low bone mass, average weight 3 Low bone mass, lean 4 Average bone mass, overweight 5 Average bone mass, average weight 6 Average bone mass, lean 7 High bone mass, overweight 8 High bone mass, average weight 9 High bone mass, lean Boxes 1-3 indicate lower than average bone mass. Low bone mass can be caused by insufficient calcium and Vitamin D in your diet or lack of regular exercise. 1 Low body water, overweight 2 Low body water, average weight 3 Low body water, lean 4 Average body water, overweight 5 Average body water, average weight 6 Average body water, lean 7 High body water, overweight 8 High body water, average weight 9 High body water, lean Boxes 1-3 indicate lower than average body water (dehydration). This can be caused by insufficient water consumption, excessive fluid loss, or overexposure to sun and heat. 11

14 Body Type Classifications 1 Muscular 2 Ideal athletic 3 Very lean 4 Athletic 5 Average 6 Slim 7 Overweight 8 Moderate fat 9 High fat (obese) Boxes 1-3 indicate a lean or athletic body type while boxes 7-9 represent excess body fat and suggest a course of diet and exercise. 1 Low muscle mass, overweight 2 Low muscle mass, avg. weight 3 Low muscle mass, lean 4 Avg. muscle mass, overweight 5 Avg. muscle mass, avg. weight 6 Avg. muscle mass, lean 7 High muscle mass, overweight 8 High muscle mass, avg. weight 9 High muscle mass, lean Boxes 1-3 indicate a lower than average result and suggest you should add muscle by exercising. Increased muscle also raises your metabolism, helping to keep you trim and healthy. 12

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