Soil Test Interpretations and Fertilizer Recommendations

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1 Interpretations and Fertilizer Recommendations Department of Agronomy MF-586 Nutrient Management Development of sound nutrient management programs involves knowledge of a wide range of information. Soil test records are an important piece of required information, but other factors such as soil moisture conditions, land ownership/tenure, crop and cropping sequence, pest management, cultural practices, environmental issues, and other management items are vital for developing sound nutrient management programs. It is beyond the scope of this publication to detail the ramifications of all these factors, but they should not be overlooked when finalizing nutrient application programs. The following tables, equations and accompanying information are the most recent soil test interpretations for major crops for the most commonly deficient plant nutrients in Kansas. These interpretations are valid for interpreting soil test values from the KSU ing Laboratory and other laboratories utilizing the same soil testing procedures. Yield Goals Suggested recommended application rates are tied to yield goals for several nutrients. Yield records should be used to set individual realistic, but progressive, yield goals for each field. Appropriate yield goals for a specific field should be high enough to take advantage of high production years when they occur, but not so high as to jeopardize environmental stewardship and/or profitability when environmental conditions are not as favorable. Appropriate yield goals fall between the average yield obtained in a field over the past to 5 years and the highest yield ever obtained in a particular field. Soil Sampling Depth. Interpretations for the nitrate-n, sulfate-s and chloride-cl soil tests are based on a 0-4 inch soil profile sampling depth. All other nutrient interpretations are based on surface soil samples collected to a depth of six inches. We suggest collecting a sample from the 0 to 4 inch depth for N, S and Cl recommendations and a separate 0- to 6-inch sample for ph, P, K, Zn, Fe and B soil test determinations. For lime, the recommended lime rate should be adjusted to reflect the depth of lime incorporation, while no-till and perennial crops should assume a depth of inches. Appropriate Procedures The KSU soil test interpretations are based on the following soil test procedures: Soil ph : Water ph Buffer ph SMP Buffer (determines lime requirement) Nitrogen Available Nitrate-N Phosphorus: Bray P Extractable P Mehlich III Extractable P (ICP) interpreted the same as Bray P Olsen P multiply by.6 and interpret similarly to Bray P Potassium Ammonium Acetate Extractable Zinc, Iron and Boron DTPA Extractable Sulfur Calcium Phosphate Extractable Sulfate Chloride Mercury (II) Thiocyanate Extractable (Colorimetric) A downloadable version of these recommendations is available at Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service

2 Soil ph and Liming Interpretations A buffer ph will be determined and reported on all soils having a ph of less then 6.4. Options are provided for liming to various target ph s and information is provided for various areas of the state to aid in selection of an appropriate target ph, based on subsoil acidity and crops to be grown. Nitrogen Interpretations The nitrogen requirement for a specific crop and yield goal is adjusted by taking into account many field specific factors. The K-State nitrogen recommendation guidelines for all crops are directly adjusted for soil organic matter content. Twenty pounds of available N per acre is expected to be mineralized during the crop year for each.0 percent soil organic matter in the surface six inches for warm season crops (e.g. corn, grain sorghum), while 0 pounds nitrogen per acre is expected to be mineralized for each.0 percent soil organic matter for cool season crops (e.g. wheat). In addition, the previous crop, residual profile N, manure applications, irrigation water N content, grazing N removal and the tillage system utilized are additional factors used to refine suggested N application rates for specific crop situations. Detailed information for major crops is provided. Since nitrate (NO - -N) is mobile, we encourage use of a 0- to 4-inch soil sample to assess the profile N content (also for sulfate and chloride as they are mobile in soils as well). How and when N is applied can have a dramatic effect on how efficiently it will be utilized by the crop. For example, using delayed or split N applications on irrigated fields, particularly on sandy soils, often improves N use efficiency by reducing the potential for loss. Also, for high residue systems such as no-till, placing fertilizer N below the residue or dribbling N solution in concentrated bands on the soil surface offers the potential for improved N use efficiency for summer crops. Many factors other than application rate influence N use efficiency and should be taken into account when developing the overall nutrient management plan. Phosphorus and Potassium Interpretations. Kansas State University phosphorus and potassium recommendations provide two main options for producers, depending on circumstances for specific producers, fields and situations. Sufficiency fertility programs are intended to estimate the long-term average amount of fertilizer phosphorus required to, on the average, provide optimum economic return in the year of nutrient application while achieving about 90 to 95 percent of maximum yield. In some years greater amounts of nutrient are required for optimum yield and economic return, while in other years less than recommended amounts of nutrient would suffice. There is little consideration of future soil test values and soil test values will likely stabilize in the low, crop responsive range. Build-maintenance recommendations are intended to apply enough phosphorus or potassium to build soil test values to a target soil test value over a planned timeframe (typically 4 to 8 years) and then maintain soil test values in a target range in future years. If soil test values exceed the target range, no phosphorus or potassium is recommended with the exception of low starter applied rates if desired. Buildmaintenance fertility programs are not intended to provide optimum economic returns in a given year, but rather attempt to minimize the probability of phosphorus or potassium limiting crop yields while providing for near maximum yield potential. Secondary/Micronutrient Interpretations The KSU ing Lab offers soil tests and interpretations for sulfur, zinc, chloride, iron and boron. Detailed information is provided for interpreting soil test values for these nutrients and for recommending rates of application if they are deficient. To date in Kansas, we have not documented deficiencies of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), or molybdenum (Mo) and do not offer interpretations for these micronutrients.

3 Nitrogen Rate Recommendation Adjustments for Cool Season s Nitrogen Rate Recommendation Adjustments for Warm Season s Soil Organic Matter (SOM) Adjustment Lb N Adjustment = % SOM x 0 Manure N Inorganic N 00% of Manure Worksheet value Organic N 50% of Manure Worksheet value Profile N Test ( foot sampling depth, if possible) Default 0 Lb N if Profi le N Sample Not Collected Lb N = 0. x Sampling Depth (inches) x ppm Profi le Nitrate-N Tillage Adjustment Conventional Tillage No-Tillage Grazing Adjustment 40 Lb N per 00 Lb beef weight gain per acre 0 Lb N + 0 Lb N Soil Organic Matter (SOM) Adjustment Lb N Adjustment = % SOM x 0 Manure N Inorganic N 00% of Manure Worksheet value Organic N 00% of Manure Worksheet value Profile N Test ( foot sampling depth, if possible) Default 0 Lb N if Profi le N Sample Not Collected Lb N = 0. x Sampling Depth (inches) x ppm Profi le Nitrate-N Irrigation Water Nitrate N Lb N = ppm Nitrate-N in Water x 0.6 x Inches Irrigation Water Applied Previous Adjustment Corn, Wheat Sorghum, Sunflowers 0 Lb N 0 Lb N Previous Adjustment Corn, Wheat 0 Lb N Sorghum, Sunflowers, + 0 Lb N Soybeans 0 Lb N Fallow Without Profi le N Test With Profi le N Test Alfalfa Excellent Stand (> 5 plants/ft) Good Stand ( 5 plants/ft) Fair Stand (- plants/ft) Poor Stand (< plant/ft) - 0 Lb N 0 Lb N With Stand Destruction Tillage - 60 Lb N - 40 Lb N - 0 Lb N 0 Lb N Red Clover Excellent Stand - 40 Lb N Good Stand - 0 Lb N Poor Stand 0 Lb N Sweet Clover Excellent Stand - 55 Lb N Good Stand - 0 Lb N Poor Stand 0 Lb N For no-till production, reduce nitrogen credit adjustment by 50 percent "Estimating Manure Nutrient Availability," MF-56 Soybeans Fallow Without Profi le N Test With Profi le N Test Alfalfa Excellent Stand (> 5 plants/ft) Good Stand ( 5 plants/ft) Fair Stand (- plants/ft) Poor Stand (< plant/ft) - 40 Lb N - 0 Lb N 0 Lb N With Stand Destruction Tillage - 0 Lb N - 80 Lb N - 40 Lb N 0 Lb N Red Clover Excellent Stand - 80 Lb N Good Stand - 40 Lb N Poor Stand 0 Lb N Sweet Clover Excellent Stand - 0 Lb N Good Stand - 60 Lb N Poor Stand 0 Lb N For no-till production, reduce nitrogen credit adjustment by 50 percent "Estimating Manure Nutrient Availability," MF-56

4 Corn Nitrogen Recommendations Nitrogen Recommendations Fertilizer N Required At Various Yield and Soil Organic Matter Levels Assuming Profile N Test Is Not Used (includes 0 Lb N residual default) Yield Goal (Bu) Soil Organic Matter Content (%) Lb N N Rec, = (Yield Goal.6) (% SOM 0) Profi le N Manure N Other N Adjustments + Previous Adjustments Total N requirements presented include only Yield Goal and Soil Organic Matter Adjustments assuming profi le N test not used. N rate should also be adjusted for Previous, Manure and Other Appropriate N Rate Adjustments (see N rate adjustments for warm-season crops). Maximum fertilizer N recommendations are 0 Lb N for Dryland Corn production and 00 Lb N for Irrigated Corn production. A minimum fertilizer N application of 0 Lb N may be appropriate for early crop growth and development. Grain Sorghum Nitrogen Recommendations Fertilizer N Required At Various Yield and Soil Organic Matter Levels Assuming Profile N Test Is Not Used (includes 0 Lb N residual default) Yield Goal (Bu) Soil Organic Matter Content (%) Lb N N Rec = (Yield Goal.6) (% SOM 0) Profi le N Manure N Other N Adjustments + Previous Adjustments Total N requirements presented include only Yield Goal and Soil Organic Matter Adjustments assuming profi le N test not used. N rate should also be adjusted for Previous, Manure and Other Appropriate N Rate Adjustments (see N rate adjustments for warm-season crops). A minimum fertilizer N application of 0 Lb N may be appropriate for early crop growth and development. Wheat Nitrogen Recommendations Fertilizer N Required At Various Yield and Soil Organic Matter Levels Assuming Profile N Test Is Not Used (includes 0 Lb N residual default) Yield Goal (Bu) Soil Organic Matter Content (%) Lb N N Rec = (Yield Goal.4) (% SOM 0) Profi le N Other N Adjustments + Previous Adjustments + Tillage Adjustments + Grazing Adjustments Total N requirements presented include only Yield Goal and Soil Organic Matter Adjustments assuming profi le N test not used. N rate should also be adjusted for Previous, Tillage, Grazing and Other Appropriate N Rate Adjustments (see N rate adjustments for cool-season crops). A minimum fertilizer N application of 0 Lb N may be appropriate for early crop growth and development. 4

5 Sunflower Nitrogen Recommendations Fertilizer N Required At Various Yield and Soil Organic Matter Levels Assuming Profile N Test Is Not Used (includes 0 Lb N residual default) Yield Goal (Lb) Soil Organic Matter Content (%) Lb N, , , , , N Rec = (Yield Goal 0.075) (% SOM 0) Profi le N Manure N Other N Adjustments + Previous Adjustments Total N requirements presented include only Yield Goal and Soil Organic Matter Adjustments assuming profi le N test not used. N rate should also be adjusted for Previous, Manure and Other Appropriate N Rate Adjustments (see N rate adjustments for warm-season crops). A minimum fertilizer N application of 0 Lb N may be appropriate for early crop growth and development. Oats Nitrogen Recommendations Fertilizer N Required At Various Yield and Soil Organic Matter Levels Assuming Profile N Test Is Not Used (includes 0 Lb N residual default) Yield Goal (Bu) Soil Organic Matter Content (%) Lb N N Rec = (Yield Goal.) (% SOM 0) Profi le N Other N Adjustments + Previous Adjustments + Tillage Adj Total N requirements presented include only Yield Goal and Soil Organic Matter Adjustments assuming profi le N test not used. N rate should also be adjusted for Previous, Tillage, Grazing and Other Appropriate N Rate Adjustments (see N rate adjustments for cool-season crops). A minimum fertilizer N application of 0 Lb N may be appropriate for early crop growth and development. Corn/Sorghum Silage Nitrogen Recommendations Fertilizer N Required At Various Yield and Soil Organic Matter Levels Assuming Profile N Test Is Not Used (includes 0 Lb N residual default) Yield Goal (Ton) Soil Organic Matter Content (%) Lb N N Rec, = (Yield Goal 0.67) (% SOM 0) Profi le N Manure N Other N Adjustments + Previous Adjustments Total N requirements presented include only Yield Goal and Soil Organic Matter Adjustments assuming profi le N test not used. N rate should also be adjusted for Previous, Manure and Other Appropriate N Rate Adjustments (see N rate adjustments for warm-season crops). Maximum fertilizer N recommendations are 0 Lb N for Dryland Corn production and 00 Lb N for Irrigated Corn production. A minimum fertilizer N application of 0 Lb N may be appropriate for early crop growth and development. 5

6 Brome, Fescue and Bermuda Grass Nitrogen Recommendations N Required At Various Yield Goals Yield Goal (Ton) Production (Lb N) New Seeding (Lb N) Total N requirements presented only include Yield Goal Adjustments. These Total N requirements should be modifi ed for other appropriate adjustments. Liming Recommendations Lime Recommendations (Lb ECC) Buffer ph Target ph = 6.8 Target ph = 6.0 Target ph = lb ECC/acre , ,000, ,500,50, ,50,5, ,50 4,5, ,50 5,5,65 5.8,500 6,50, ,50 7,65, ,000 9,000 4, ,000 0,75 5,50 Based on 6.67 inch soil depth. Soil Depth is the depth of incorporation through rotation. For No-Till systems, alfalfa and grass assume inch depth of incorporation ( / of rate for 6-7 inch depth). When lime recommendation exceeds 0,000 lb ECC, we suggest applying one-half rate, incorporate, wait to 8 months and then retest. Target ph of 6.8 = [ 5,60 (6,60 Buffer ph) + (Buffer ph Buffer ph 9)] Depth (inches) All crops in Southeast Kansas east of Flinthills & south of Highway 56 Alfalfa and clover in Northeast Kansas Lime Rec if ph < 6.4 Target ph of 6.0 = [,80 (,80 Buffer ph) + (Buffer ph Buffer ph 96)] Depth (inches) All crops in Northeast Kansas except alfalfa and clover All crops in Central and Western Kansas Lime Rec if ph < 5.8 Target ph of 5.5 = [6,405 (,590 Buffer ph) + (Buffer ph Buffer ph 98)] Depth (inches) Cash fl ow/lime availability problem areas in Central and Western Kansas Lime Rec if ph < 5.5 6

7 Phosphorus and Potassium Recomendations Phosphorus and Potassium Removal Values Unit P K O Alfalfa & Clover ton 60 Bermudagrass ton 40 Bromegrass ton 40 Fescue, tall ton 40 Corn bushel Corn silage ton Grain sorghum bushel Sorghum silage ton Wheat bushel Sunfl owers pound Oats bushel Soybeans bushel Native grass ton Phosphorus Managment Model for Kansas Production and Manure Management Nutrient Recommendation Manure Allocation No Application 00 % 95 % Relative Yield (%) 50 % Sufficiency Recommendation Build Recommendation Maintenance Recommendation Starter Statement Starter Statement 0 ppm Critical Value 0 ppm Upper Build VL L M H VH 0 ppm 0 ppm 0 ppm Responsive Range Maintenance Range 50 ppm Bray P (ppm) Upper Manure Limit Manure Management Range EX Environmental Risk Range 7

8 Corn P and K Recommendations Phosphorus Sufficiency Recommendations for Corn Potassium Sufficiency Recommendations for Corn Bray P Yield Goal (Bu) Yield Goal (Bu) Exch. K (ppm) - - Lb P (ppm) - Lb K O Removal Removal Corn Suffi ciency P Rec = [ 50 + (Exp Yield 0.) + (Bray P -.5) + (Exp Yield Bray P -0.0) ] If Bray P is greater than 0 ppm, then only a NP or NPKS starter fertilizer suggested If Bray P is less than 0 ppm, then the minimum P Recommendation = 5 Lb P Corn Suffi ciency K Rec = [ 7 + (Exp. Yield 0.) + (Exch K ) + (Exp Yield Exch K ) ] If Exch K is greater than 0 ppm then only a NPK or NPKS starter fertilizer is suggested If Exch K is less than 0 ppm then the minimum K Recommendation = 5 Lb K O Phosphorus Build-Maintenance Corn Recommendations 5 Bray P (ppm) - Lb P - Lb P - Lb P Potassium Build-Maintenance Corn Recommendations 5 Exch. K (ppm) - Lb K O - Lb K O - Lb K O Phosphorus Build-Maintenance Rec = {(0 Current P ) 8 } + P Removal In Potassium Build-Maintenance Rec = {(0 Current K ) 9 } + K O Removal In P & K recommendations are for the total amount of broadcast and banded nutrients to be applied. At low to very low soil test levels applying at least 5 to 50% of total as a band is recommended. Application of a NP, NPK or NPKS starter fertilizer may be benefi cial regardless of P or K soil test level, especially for cold/wet soil conditions and/or high surface crop residues. Do not exceed N + K O guidelines for fertilizer placed in direct seed contact. removal numbers provided for comparitive purpose only 0. lb P and 0.6 lb K O per bushel of harvested corn. If crop removal exceeds nutrient 4 Recommended amounts of P and K O are based on crop nutrient removal at the indicated yields (0. lb P /bu and 0.6 lb K O/bu). 5 Four, six and eight year timeframes below are examples only. Build programs can be over longer timeframe, however, build-maintenance recommendations should not be less than crop suffi ciency based fertility programs.

9 Wheat P and K Recommendations Phosphorus Sufficiency Recommendations for Wheat Potassium Sufficiency Recommendations for Wheat Bray P Yield Goal (Bu) 9 Yield Goal (Bu) Exch. K (ppm) - Lb P (ppm) - Lb K O Removal Wheat Suffi ciency P Rec = [ 46 + (Yield Goal 0.4) + (Bray P.) + (Yield Goal Bray P 0.0) ] If Bray P is greater than 0 ppm, then only a NP or NPKS starter fertilizer suggested If Bray P is less than 0 ppm, then the minimum P Recommendation = 5 Lb P Wheat Suffi ciency K Rec = [ 6 + (Yield Goal 0.4) + (Exch K 0.48) + (Yield Goal Exch K 0.008) ] If Exch K is greater than 0 ppm then only a NPK or NPKS starter fertilizer is suggested If Exch K is less than 0 ppm then the minimum K Recommendation = 5 Lb K O Removal Phosphorus Build-Maintenance Wheat Recommendations 5 Bray P (ppm) - Lb P - Lb P - Lb P Potassium Build-Maintenance Wheat Recommendations 5 Exch. K (ppm) - Lb K O - Lb K O - Lb K O Phosphorus Build-Maintenance Rec = {(0 Current P ) 8 } + P Removal In Potassium Build-Maintenance Rec = {(0 Current K ) 9 } + K O Removal In P & K recommendations are for the total amount of broadcast and banded nutrients to be applied. At low to very low soil test levels applying at least 5 to 50% of total as a band is recommended. Application of a NP, NPK or NPKS starter fertilizer may be benefi cial regardless of P or K soil test level, especially for cold/wet soil conditions and/or high surface crop residues. Do not exceed N + K O guidelines for fertilizer placed in direct seed contact. removal numbers provided for comparitive purpose only 0.50 lb P and 0.0 lb K O per bushel of harvested wheat. If crop removal exceeds nutrient 4 Recommended amounts of P and K O are based on crop nutrient removal at the indicated yields (0.50 lb P /bu and 0.0 lb K O/bu). 5 Four, six and eight year timeframes below are examples only. Build programs can be over longer timeframe, however, build-maintenance recommendations should not be less than crop suffi ciency based fertility programs.

10 Grain Sorghum P and K Recommendations Phosphorus Sufficiency Recommendations for Grain Sorghum Bray P Yield Goal (Bu) Potassium Sufficiency Recommendations for Grain Sorghum Yield Goal (Bu) Exch. K (ppm) - Lb P (ppm) - Lb K O Removal G. Sorghum Suffi ciency P Rec = [ 50 + (0.6 Yield Goal) + (Bray P.5) + (Yield Goal Bray P 0.008) ] If Bray P is greater than 0 ppm, then only a NP or NPKS starter fertilizer suggested If Bray P is less than 0 ppm, then the minimum P Recommendation = 5 Lb P G. Sorghum Suffi ciency K Rec = [ 80 + (0.7 Yield Goal) + (Exch K 0.66) + (Yield Goal Exch K 0.00) ] If Exch K is greater than 0 ppm then only a NPK or NPKS starter fertilizer is suggested If Exch K is less than 0 ppm then the minimum K Recommendation = 5 Lb K O Removal Phosphorus Build-Maintenance Grain Sorghum Recommendations 5 Bray P (ppm) - Lb P - Lb P - Lb P Potassium Build-Maintenance Grain Sorghum Recommendations 5 Exch. K (ppm) - Lb K O - Lb K O - Lb K O Phosphorus Build-Maintenance Rec = {(0 Current P ) 8 } + P Removal In Potassium Build-Maintenance Rec = {(0 Current K ) 9 } + K O Removal In P & K recommendations are for the total amount of broadcast and banded nutrients to be applied. At low to very low soil test levels applying at least 5 to 50% of total as a band is recommended. Application of a NP, NPK or NPKS starter fertilizer may be benefi cial regardless of P or K soil test level, especially for cold/wet soil conditions and/or high surface crop residues. Do not exceed N + K O guidelines for fertilizer placed in direct seed contact. removal numbers provided for comparitive purpose only 0.40 lb P and 0.6 lb K O per bushel of harvested grain sorghum. If crop removal exceeds nutrient 4 Recommended amounts of P and K O are based on crop nutrient removal at the indicated yields (0.40 lb P /bu and 0.6 lb K O /bu). 5 Four, six and eight year timeframes below are examples only. Build programs can be over longer timeframe, however, build-maintenance recommendations should not be less than crop suffi ciency based fertility programs. 0

11 Soybean P and K Recommendations Bray P Phosphorus Sufficiency Recommendations for Soybeans Yield Goal (Bu) Potassium Sufficiency Recommendations for Soybeans Yield Goal (Bu) Exch. K (ppm) Lb P (ppm) - Lb K O Removal Removal Soybeans Suffi ciency P Rec = [ 56 + (0.5 Yield Goal) + (Bray P.8) + (Yield Goal Bray P 0.057) ] If Bray P is greater than 0 ppm, then only a NP or NPKS starter fertilizer suggested (not in direct seed contact) If Bray P is less than 0 ppm, then the minimum P Recommendation = 5 Lb P Soybeans Suffi ciency K Rec = [ 60 + (0.68 Yield Goal) + (Exch K 0.46) + (Yield Goal x Exch K ) ] If Exch K is greater than 0 ppm then only a NPK or NPKS starter fertilizer is suggested (not in direct seed contact) If Exch K is less than 0 ppm then the minimum K Recommendation = 5 Lb K O Phosphorus Build-Maintenance Soybeans Recommendations 5 Bray P (ppm) - Lb P - Lb P - Lb P Potassium Build-Maintenance Soybeans Recommendations 5 Exch. K (ppm) - Lb K O - Lb K O - Lb K O Phosphorus Build-Maintenance Rec = {(0 Current P ) 8 } + P Removal In Potassium Build-Maintenance Rec = {(0 Current K ) 9 } + K O Removal In P & K recommendations are for the total amount of broadcast and banded nutrients to be applied. At low to very low soil test levels applying at least 5 to 50% of total as a band is recommended. Application of a NP, NPK or NPKS starter fertilizer may be benefi cial regardless of P or K soil test level, especially for cold/wet soil conditions and/or high surface crop residues. Do not place fertilizer in direct seed contact. removal numbers provided for comparitive purpose only 0.80 lb P and.4 lb K O per bushel of harvested soybeans. If crop removal exceeds nutrient 4 Recommended amounts of P and K O are based on crop nutrient removal at the indicated yields (0.80 lb P /bu and.4 lb K O/bu). 5 Four, six and eight year timeframes below are examples only. Build programs can be over longer timeframe, however, build-maintenance recommendations should not be less than crop suffi ciency based fertility programs.

12 Sunflower P and K Recommendations Bray P Phosphorus Sufficiency Recommendations for Sunflower Yield Goal (Lb) Potassium Sufficiency Recommendations for Sunflower Yield Goal (Lb),000,500,000,500,000 Exch. K,000,500,000,500,000 (ppm) Lb P (ppm) - Lb K O Removal Sunfl ower Suffi ciency P Rec = [ 4 + (Yield Goal 0.0) + (Bray P.) + (Yield Goal Bray P ) ] Removal If Bray P is greater than 0 ppm, then only a NP or NPKS starter fertilizer suggested (not in direct seed contact) If Bray P is less than 0 ppm, then the minimum P Recommendation = 5 Lb P Sunfl ower Suffi ciency K Rec = [ 80 + (Yield Goal 0.008) + (Exch K 0.6) + (Yield Goal Exch K ) ] If Exch K is greater than 0 ppm then only a NPK or NPKS starter fertilizer is suggested (not in direct seed contact) If Exch K is less than 0 ppm then the minimum K Recommendation = 5 Lb K O Phosphorus Build Sunflowers Recommendations 5 Bray P Yield (Lb) Yield (Lb) Yield (Lb),000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (ppm) - Lb P - Lb P - Lb P Potassium Build-Maintenance Sunflowers Recommendations 5 Exch. K Yield (Lb) Yield (Lb) Yield (Lb),000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (ppm) - Lb K O - Lb K O - Lb K O Phosphorus Build-Maintenance Rec = {(0 Current P ) 8 } + P Removal In Potassium Build-Maintenance Rec = {(0 Current K ) 9 } + K O Removal In P & K recommendations are for the total amount of broadcast and banded nutrients to be applied. At low to very low soil test levels applying at least 5 to 50% of total as a band is recommended. Application of a NP, NPK or NPKS starter fertilizer may be benefi cial regardless of P or K soil test level, especially for cold/wet soil conditions and/or high surface crop residues. Do not place fertilizer in direct seed contact. removal numbers provided for comparitive purpose only 0.05 lb P and lb K O per pound of harvested sunfl ower. If crop removal exceeds nutrient 4 Recommended amounts of P and K O are based on crop nutrient removal at the indicated yields (0.05 lb P /lb and lb K O/lb). 5 Four, six and eight year timeframes below are examples only. Build programs can be over longer timeframe, however, build-maintenance recommendations should not be less than crop suffi ciency based fertility programs.

13 Oats P and K Recommendations Phosphorus Sufficiency Recommendations for Oats Potassium Sufficiency Recommendations for Oats Bray P Yield Goal (Bu) Yield Goal (Bu) Exch. K (ppm) - Lb P (ppm) - Lb K O Removal Oats Suffi ciency P Rec = [ 47 + (Yield Goal 0.5) + (Bray P.) + (Yield Goal Bray P 0.0)] If Bray P is greater than 0 ppm, then only a NP or NPKS starter fertilizer suggested If Bray P is less than 0 ppm, then the minimum P Recommendation = 5 Lb P Oats Suffi ciency K Rec = [ 6 + (Yield Goal 0.) + (Exch K 0.48) + (Yield Goal Exch K 0.007)] If Exch K is greater than 0 ppm then only a NPK or NPKS starter fertilizer is suggested If Exch K is less than 0 ppm then the minimum K Recommendation = 5 Lb K O Removal Phosphorus Build Oats Recommendations 5 Bray P (ppm) - Lb P - Lb P - Lb P Potassium Build-Maintenance Oats Recommendations 5 Exch. K (ppm) - Lb K O - Lb K O - Lb K O Phosphorus Build-Maintenance Rec = {(0 Current P ) 8 } + P Removal In Potassium Build-Maintenance Rec = {(0 Current K ) 9 } + K O Removal In P & K recommendations are for the total amount of broadcast and banded nutrients to be applied. At low to very low soil test levels applying at least 5 to 50% of total as a band is recommended. Application of a NP, NPK or NPKS starter fertilizer may be benefi cial regardless of P or K soil test level, especially for cold/wet soil conditions and/or high surface crop residues. Do not exceed N + K O guidelines for fertilizer placed in direct seed contact. removal numbers provided for comparitive purpose only 0.5 lb P and 0.0 lb K O per bushel of harvested oats. If crop removal exceeds nutrient 4 Recommended amounts of P and K O are based on crop nutrient removal at the indicated yields (0.5 lb P /bu and 0.0 lb K O/bu). 5 Four, six and eight year timeframes below are examples only. Build programs can be over longer timeframe, however, build-maintenance recommendations should not be less than crop suffi ciency based fertility programs.

14 Corn Silage P and K Recommendations Phosphorus Sufficiency Recommendations for Corn Silage Bray P Yield Goal (Ton) 4 Potassium Sufficiency Recommendations for Corn Silage Yield Goal (Ton) Exch. K (ppm) - Lb P (ppm) - Lb K O Removal Corn Silage Suffi ciency P Rec = [ 56 + (Yield Goal.) + (Bray P.8) + (Yield Goal Bray P 0.056) ] If Bray P is greater than 0 ppm, then only a NP or NPKS starter fertilizer suggested If Bray P is less than 0 ppm, then the minimum P Recommendation = 5 Lb P Corn Silage Suffi ciency K Rec = [ 74 + (Yield Goal.50) + (Exch K 0.567) + (Yield Goal Exch K 0.05) ] If Exch K is greater than 0 ppm then only a NPK or NPKS starter fertilizer is suggested If Exch K is less than 0 ppm then the minimum K Recommendation = 5 Lb K O Removal Phosphorus Build Corn Silage Recommendations 5 Bray P (ppm) - Lb P - Lb P - Lb P Potassium Build-Maintenance Corn Silage Recommendations 5 Exch. K (ppm) - Lb K O - Lb K O - Lb K O Phosphorus Build-Maintenance Rec = {(0 Current P ) 8 } + P Removal In Potassium Build-Maintenance Rec = {(0 Current K ) 9 } + K O Removal In P & K recommendations are for the total amount of broadcast and banded nutrients to be applied. At low to very low soil test levels applying at least 5 to 50% of total as a band is recommended. Application of a NP, NPK or NPKS starter fertilizer may be benefi cial regardless of P or K soil test level, especially for cold/wet soil conditions and/or high surface crop residues. Do not exceed N + K O guidelines for fertilizer placed in direct seed contact. removal numbers provided for comparitive purpose only. lb P and 8.7 lb K O per ton of harvested corn silage. If crop removal exceeds nutrient 4 Recommended amounts of P and K O are based on crop nutrient removal at the indicated yields (. lb P /ton and 8.7 lb K O/ton). 5 Four, six and eight year timeframes below are examples only. Build programs can be over longer timeframe, however, build-maintenance recommendations should not be less than crop suffi ciency based fertility programs.

15 Sorghum Silage P and K Recommendations Bray P Phosphorus Sufficiency Recommendations for Sorghum Silage Yield Goal (Ton) 5 Potassium Sufficiency Recommendations for Sorghum Silage Yield Goal (Ton) Exch. K (ppm) - Lb P (ppm) - Lb K O Removal Removal Sorghum Silage Suffi ciency P Rec = [ 48 + (.9 Yield Goal) + (Bray P.8) + (Yield Goal Bray P ) ] If Bray P is greater than 0 ppm, then only a NP or NPKS starter fertilizer suggested If Bray P is less than 0 ppm, then the minimum P Recommendation = 5 Lb P Sorghum Silage Suffi ciency K Rec = [ 7 + (.8 Yield Goal) + (Exch K 0.56) + (Yield Goal Exch K 0.09) ] If Exch K is greater than 0 ppm then only a NPK or NPKS starter fertilizer is suggested If Exch K is less than 0 ppm then the minimum K Recommendation = 5 Lb K O Phosphorus Build Sorghum Silage Recommendations 5 Bray P (ppm) - Lb P - Lb P - Lb P Potassium Build-Maintenance Sorghum Silage Recommendations 5 Exch. K (ppm) - Lb K O - Lb K O - Lb K O Phosphorus Build-Maintenance Rec = {(0 Current P ) 8 } + P Removal In Potassium Build-Maintenance Rec = {(0 Current K ) 9 } + K O Removal In P & K recommendations are for the total amount of broadcast and banded nutrients to be applied. At low to very low soil test levels applying at least 5 to 50% of total as a band is recommended. Application of a NP, NPK or NPKS starter fertilizer may be benefi cial regardless of P or K soil test level, especially for cold/wet soil conditions and/or high surface crop residues. Do not exceed N + K O guidelines for fertilizer placed in direct seed contact. removal numbers provided for comparitive purpose only. lb P and 8.7 lb K O per ton of harvested sorghum silage. If crop removal exceeds nutrient 4 Recommended amounts of P and K O are based on crop nutrient removal at the indicated yields (. lb P / ton and 8.7 lb K O / ton). 5 Four, six and eight year timeframes below are examples only. Build programs can be over longer timeframe, however, build-maintenance recommendations should not be less than crop suffi ciency based fertility programs.

16 Brome and Fescue P and K Recommendations Phosphorus Sufficiency Recommendations for Brome and Fescue Bray P Yield Goal (Ton) Potassium Sufficiency Recommendations for Brome and Fescue Yield Goal (Ton) Exch. K (ppm) - Lb P (ppm) - Lb K O Removal Brome/Fescue Suffi ciency P Rec = [ 44 + (6. Yield Goal) + (Bray P.) + (Yield Goal Bray P 0.5) ] If Bray P > 0 ppm then basic P Recommendation = 0 If Bray P < 0 ppm then the minimum P Recommendation = 5 Lb P Brome/Fescue Suffi ciency K Rec = [ 4 + (5.85 Yield Goal) + (Exch K 0.5) + (Yield Goal Exch K 0.045) ] If Exch K > 0 ppm then basic K Recommendation = 0 If Exch K < 0 ppm then the minimum K Recommendation = 5 Lb K O Removal P & K recommendations are for the total amount of broadcast and banded nutrients to be applied. At low to very low soil test levels applying at least 5 to 50% of total as a band is recommended. removal numbers provided for comparitive purpose only lb P and 40 lb K O per ton of harvested forage. If crop removal exceeds nutrient New Brome and Fescue P and K Recommendations Phosphorus Sufficiency Recommendations for Brome and Fescue Potassium Sufficiency Recommendations for Brome and Fescue Bray P Yield Goal (Ton) Yield Goal (Ton) Exch. K (ppm) Lb P (ppm) - Lb K O Removal Removal New Brome/Fescue Suffi ciency P Rec = [ 68 + (. Yield Goal) + (Bray P.4) + (Yield Goal Bray P 0.56) ] If Bray P > 0 ppm then basic P Recommendation = 0 If Bray P < 0 ppm then the minimum P Recommendation = 5 Lb P New Brome/Fescue Suffi ciency K Rec = [ 9 + (5 Yield Goal) + (Exch K 0.7) + (Yield Goal Exch K 0.6) ] If Exch K > 0 ppm then basic K Recommendation = 0 If Exch K < 0 ppm then the minimum K Recommendation = 5 Lb K O P & K recommendations are for the total amount of broadcast and banded nutrients to be applied. At low to very low soil test levels applying at least 5 to 50% of total as a band is recommended. removal numbers provided for comparitive purpose only lb P and 40 lb K O per ton of harvested forage. If crop removal exceeds nutrient 6

17 Bermuda Grass P and K Recommendations Bray P Phosphorus Sufficiency Recommendations for Bermuda Potassium Sufficiency Recommendations for Bermuda Yield Goal (Ton) Exch. K Yield Goal (Ton) (ppm) Lb P (ppm) - Lb K O Removal Bermuda Suffi ciency P Rec = [ 64 + (5. Yield Goal) + (Bray P.56) + (Yield Goal Bray P 0.) ] If Bray P > 5 ppm then basic P Recommendation = 0 If Bray P < 5 ppm then the minimum P Recommendation = 5 Lb P Bermuda Suffi ciency K Rec = [ 75 + (6. 5 Yield Goal) + (Exch K 0.5) + (Yield Goal Exch K 0.04) ] If Exch K > 50 ppm then basic K Recommendation = 0 If Exch K < 50 ppm then the minimum K Recommendation = 5 Lb K O Removal P & K recommendations are for the total amount of broadcast and banded nutrients to be applied. removal numbers provided for comparitive purpose only lb P and 40 lb K O per ton of harvested forage. If crop removal exceeds nutrient New Bermuda Grass P and K Recommendations Phosphorus Sufficiency Recommendations for Bermuda Potassium Sufficiency Recommendations for Bermuda Bray P Yield Goal (Ton) Exch. K Yield Goal (Ton) (ppm) - Lb P (ppm) - Lb K O Removal Removal Bermuda Suffi ciency P Rec = [ 64 + (9. Yield Goal) + (Bray P.56) + (Yield Goal Bray P 0.65) ] If Bray P > 5 ppm then basic P Recommendation = 0 If Bray P < 5 ppm then the minimum P Recommendation = 5 Lb P Bermuda Suffi ciency K Rec = [ 05 + (5 Yield Goal) + (Exch K 0.7) + (Yield Goal Exch K 0.) ] If Exch K > 50 ppm then basic K Recommendation = 0 If Exch K < 50 ppm then the minimum K Recommendation = 5 Lb K O P & K recommendations are for the total amount of broadcast and banded nutrients to be applied. removal numbers provided for comparitive purpose only lb P and 40 lb K O per ton of harvested forage. If crop removal exceeds nutrient 7

18 Alfalfa and Clover P and K Recommendations Phosphorus Sufficiency Recommendations for Alfalfa, 5 Potassium Sufficiency Recommendations for Alfalfa Bray P Yield Goal (Ton) Exch. K Yield Goal (Ton) (ppm) - Lb P (ppm) - Lb P Removal Alfalfa/Clover Suffi ciency P Rec = [ 7 + (4.56 Yield Goal) + (Bray P.9) + (Yield Goal Bray P 0.8) ] If Bray P > 5 ppm then P Recommendation = 0 If Bray P < 5 ppm then the minimum P Recommendation = 5 Lb P Alfalfa/Clover Suffi ciency K Rec = [ 84 + (5.4 Yield Goal) + (Exch K 0.56) + (Yield Goal Exch K 0.05) ] If Exch K > 50 ppm then basic K Recommendation = 0 If Exch K < 50 ppm then the minimum K Recommendation = 5 Lb K O, 4, 5 Phosphorus Build Alfalfa Recommendations Bray P 8 Removal (ppm) - Lb P - Lb P - Lb P Potassium Build-Maintenance Alfalfa Recommendations,4 Exch. K (ppm) - Lb K O - Lb K O - Lb K O Phosphorus Build-Maintenance Rec = {(5 Current P ) 8 } + P Removal In Potassium Build-Maintenance Rec = {(50 Current K ) 9 } + K O Removal In P & K recommendations are for the total amount of broadcast and banded nutrients to be applied removal numbers provided for comparitive purpose only lb P and 60 lb K O per ton of harvested alfalfa or clover. If crop removal exceeds nutrient Recommended amounts of P and K O are based on crop nutrient removal at the indicated yields ( lb P / ton and 60 lb K O/ton). 4 Four, six, and eight year timeframes below are examples only. Build programs can be over longer timeframe, however, build-maintenance recommendations should not be less than crop suffi ciency based fertility programs. 5 Nitrogen fertilizer is not recommended, however, the amount of N supplied by common P fertilizers is not detrimental to alfalfa production

19 New Alfalfa and Clover P and K Recommendations Phosphorus Sufficiency Recommendations for Brome and Fescue Bray P Yield Goal (Ton) Potassium Sufficiency Recommendations for Brome and Fescue Yield Goal (Ton) Exch. K (ppm) - Lb P (ppm) - Lb K O Removal Removal New Alfalfa/Clover Suffi ciency P Rec = [ 84 + ( Yield Goal) + (Bray P.7) + (Yield Goal Bray P 0.48) ] If Bray P > 5 ppm then basic P Recommendation = 0 If Bray P < 5 ppm then the minimum P Recommendation = 5 Lb P New Alfalfa/Clover Suffi ciency K Rec = [ 05 + (5 Yield Goal) + (Exch K 0.7) + (Yield Goal Exch K 0.) ] If Exch K > 50 ppm then basic K Recommendation = 0 If Exch K < 50 ppm then the minimum K Recommendation = 5 Lb K O P & K recommendations are for the total amount of broadcast and banded nutrients to be applied. removal numbers provided for comparitive purpose only lb P and 60 lb K O per ton of harvested alfalfa or clover. If crop removal exceeds nutrient For More Information For additonal information about nutrient management, see the following publications, available from your local K-State Research and Extension office, or on the World Wide Web at Best Management Practices for Phosphorous, MF- Chloride in Kansas: Plant, Soil, and Fertilizer Considerations, MF-570 Estimating Manure Nutrient Availability, MF-56 Phosphorus and Water Quality in Kansas, MF-46 Sulphur in Kansas, MF-64 Water Quality Protection: Best Management Practices for land, MF-46 9

20 Secondary and Micronutrients Chloride Wheat, Corn and Sorghum Chloride Profile Soil Chloride Recommendation ppm Lb Lb Cl < 4 < 0 0 Boron, > 6 > 45 0 Alfalfa, Corn, Sorghum and Soybeans Boron Recommendation Boron DTPA Extr. B Recommendation ppm Lb B < >.0 0 Recommendations are for southeast Kansas. Test is not well calibrated DO NOT BAND APPLY BORON Zinc Corn, Sorghum and Soybeans Zinc Recommendation Zn Rate, =.5 (.5 ppm DTPA Zn) If DTPA Zn >.0 ppm then Zn Rec = 0 If DTPA Zn <=.0 ppm then Minimum Zn Rec = Wheat, Sunflowers and Oats Zinc Recommendation Zn Rate = 0 Broadcast application intended to build Zn soil test level to non-responsive range and correct soil defi ciency for several years If applied as banded starter at planting, application of about lb Zn will correct crop defi ciency for that crop year. Soil defi ciency will likely remain. May desire to apply Zinc depending on incorporation opportunity in rotation Alfalfa, Brome, Fescue, Bermuda and Others Zn Recommendation Zn Rate = 0 Sulfur Wheat Sulfur Recommendation (Lb) = (0.6 Y Goal) (.5 % OM) Profi le Sulfur Other Sulfur Credits Corn and Grain Sorghum Sulfur Recommendation (Lb) = (0. Y Goal) (.5 % OM) Profi le Sulfur Other Sulfur Credits Corn and Forage Sorhum Silage Sulfur Recommendation (Lb) = (. Y Goal) (.5 % OM) Profi le Sulfur Other Sulfur Credits Sunfl ower Sulfur Recommendation (Lb) = (0.005 Y Goal) (.5 % OM) Profi le Sulfur Other Sulfur Credits Brome, Fescue & Bermuda Grass Sulfur Recommendation (Lb) = (5.0 Y Goal) (.5 % OM) Profi le Sulfur Other Sulfur Credits Alfalfa Sulfur Recommendation (Lb) = (6.0 Y Goal) (.5 % OM) Profi le Sulfur Other Sulfur Credits Soybean Sulfur Recommendation (Lb) = (0.4 Y Goal) (.5 % OM) Profi le Sulfur Other Sulfur Credits Default Profi le Sulfur = 5 lb S Dale F. Leikam Extension Specialist Nutrient Management Ray E. Lamond Extension Specialist Soil Fertility, ing Dave B. Mengel Head Department of Agronomy Brand names appearing in this publication are for product identification purposes only. No endorsement is intended, nor is criticism implied of sim i lar products not mentioned. Publications from Kansas State University are available on the World Wide Web at: Contents of this publication may be freely reproduced for educational purposes. All other rights reserved. In each case, credit Dale F. Leikam, Ray E. Lamond, and David B. Mengel, Interpretaions and Fertilizer Recommendations, Kan sas State Uni ver si ty, September 00 Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Co op er a tive Ex ten sion Ser vice MF-586 September 00 It is the policy of Kansas State University Agricultural Ex per i ment Sta tion and Co op er a tive Extension Service that all per sons shall have equal op por tu ni ty and access to its ed u ca tion al programs, ser vic es, activities, and materials without regard to race, color, religion, national origin, sex, age or disability. Kan sas State University is an equal opportunity organization. Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension Work, Acts of May 8 and June 0, 94, as amend ed. Kansas State Uni ver si ty, County Ex ten sion Councils, Extension Districts, and United States De part ment of Ag ri cul ture Co op erating, Marc A. Johnson, Director.

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