Floating Point (IEEE Standard) : Used to better approximate real valued decimal numbers to a prescribed number of decimal places

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1 ECE2049: Embedded Computing in Engineering Design A Term Fall 2016 Lecture #5: Getting to know the Hardware: The MSP430F5529 Architecture & Memory Map Reading for Today: MSP430F55xx User Guide Ch 6.1,6.3,, Davies Ch Reading for Next Class: Davies Ch 4, , MSP430F55xx User Guide Ch 12 Homework #1 (on Web): Due Tomorrow 9/2 (at beginning of class) Homework #2 (soon): Due Friday 9/9 in class Lab #0 (on web): Report due Tuesday 9/6/16 in class Last class: Finished integer numbers and started up fix point, floating point conventions. This class: Specifics of the MSP430F5529 architecture & memory organization >> MSP430 family uses a Von Neumann architecture. >> Its memory is byte addressable and 'F5529 has 8 (+2) KB RAM, 128KB Flash, and many on-chip peripherals (System-on-a-Chip) Floating Point (IEEE Standard) : Used to better approximate real valued decimal numbers to a prescribed number of decimal places Single Precision (32 bits): S EEEEEEEE FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF Value = (-1) S 2 (E-127) * (1.F) Ex: What floating point value is represented by CAAA0000h? CAAA0000h = b = S= 1; E = b = 95h = 149; 1.F = b = Value = (-1) * 2 ( ) * = Ex: Represent as a Single Precision number

2 The MSP430, like Intel 80x86 family processors, is Little Endian --> Each location in computer memory typically holds 1 byte. Storing a 16-bit word takes 2 bytes. The lease significant byte of each 16 bit word is stored first (in the lower memory address) then the more significant byte -- > Low Byte, High Byte --> For double words the lower word is stored first then the upper word Ex: How is decimal = h is stored in memory at address 02400h Little Endian Address Byte Value 02403h 02402h 02401h 02400h 00h 01h 00h 04h A memory dump from CCS shows addresses left to right starting with address 02400h 0x02400 = << Bytes appear out of order when read L to R Many other RISC processors are Big Endian. The higher byte (big end) is stored first then the lower byte. BIG Endian Address Byte Value 02403h 02402h 02401h 02400h 04h 00h 01h 00h A memory dump from a big endian processor would also show addresses left to right starting with address 02400h 0x02400= << But bytes appear in order when read L to R >> Network byte order is Big Endian! >> ****Endianness DOES NOT affect order of array elements!*****

3 Getting to know the MSP430 Hardware In a Programming course Typically its all about the code >> Learn syntax of a high level language & logical and algorithmic approaches to solving some (common) problems >> Use a very high level view of a computer >> Developing SW for embedded systems requires much more in depth knowledge of target microprocessor General Microprocessor System HW Architecture:

4 CPU = Central Processing Unit = Core or brains of computer Memory = Stores binary information Peripherals = Everything else that's not memory... >> Input/Ouput devices -- Provide interfaces to outside world... >> CPU, Memory, Peripherals connected through data lines, address lines & control lines General Purpose (PC-style) Computing Hardware/Software Hierarchy Applications Operating System = User Interface System SW = Interface to HW (HAL) HW Layer = CPU, Mem., peripherals

5 >> Gets squashed in an embedded system... >> Most microprocessor/microcontrollers are use one of the following architectures Von Nuemann (or IAS or Princeton) Architecture -- first used for IAS Computer (~1952) Harvard Architecture -- first used by Harvard Mark I (~1944) Harvard Architecture Separate memory address spaces for code and data

6 Von Nuemanm Architecture Single memory address spaces for code and data >> MSP430 family uses Von Neumann architecture

7 >> MSP 430 family contains over 100 versions of this CPU with various memory/ peripheral configurations -- Really a System on a Chip >> We'll be using MSP430F KB Flash memory > Code storage -- 8 KB RAM (+2 KB RAM associated with USB) > Data storage -- LCD controller bit Hardware multiplier, Serial interfaces (UART), analog to-digital converter (ADC) and a slew of other peripherals -- Multiple timers, comparator, USB controller, DMA, general IO ports... Memory Organization >> Memory = group of sequential locations where binary data is stored -- In MSP430, each memory location holds 1 byte -- Each byte has unique address which CPU uses to read to and write from that location (think mailbox ) -- Multibyte data is stored Little Endian! (low byte, high byte)

8 >> 2 types of memory: Volatile and Non-volatile RAM = 8 KB (+2 KB) = DATA memory = Volatile >> Read and Write = retrieving or writing DATA to/from RAM (under programmer control) (MSP430F5529 has a RAM retention low power mode) FLASH = 128 KB = CODE memory (primarily!) = Non-volatile >> Fetch = retrieving of instruction from CODE (Flash) memory (automatic CPU function) >> Flash is writable under program control -- time required to write much longer than time required to read -- Must be erased in multi-byte segments (e.g 512 bytes)

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