# Stiffness Methods for Systematic Analysis of Structures (Ref: Chapters 14, 15, 16)

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1 Stiffness Methods for Systematic Analysis of Structures (Ref: Chapters 14, 15, 16) The Stiffness method provides a very systematic way of analyzing determinate and indeterminate structures. Recall Force (Flexibility) Method Convert the indeterminate structure to a determinate one by removing some unknown forces / support reactions and replacing them with (assumed) known / unit forces. Using superposition, calculate the force that would be required to achieve compatibility with the original structure. Unknowns to be solved for are usually redundant forces Coefficients of the unknowns in equations to be solved are "flexibility" coefficients. Displacement (Stiffness) Method Express local (member) force-displacement relationships in terms of unknown member displacements. Using equilibrium of assembled members, find unknown displacements. Unknowns are usually displacements Coefficients of the unknowns are "Stiffness" coefficients. Additional steps are necessary to determine displacements and internal forces Can be programmed into a computer, but human input is required to select primary structure and redundant forces. Directly gives desired displacements and internal member forces Easy to program in a computer Example: Overall idea: Express F M in terms of displacements of I and J Assemble ALL members and enforce EQUILIBRIUM to find displacements. StiffnessMethod Page 1

2 Member and Node Connectivity: Degrees of Freedom ( Kinematic Indeterminacy) StiffnessMethod Page 2

3 Global and Local (member) co-ordinate axes In order to relate: Global displacements with Local (member) deformations, and Local member forces back to Global force equilibrium, we need to be able to transform between these 2 co-ordinate axes freely: Transformation of Vectors (Displacements or Forces) between Global and Local coordinates StiffnessMethod Page 3

4 Local (Member) Force-Displacement Relationships These LOCAL (member) force-displacement relationships can be easily established for ALL the members in the truss, simply by using given material and geometric properties of the different members. StiffnessMethod Page 4

5 ASSEMBLY of LOCAL force-displacement relationships for GLOBAL Equilibrium The member forces that were expressed in the LOCAL coordinate system, cannot be directly added to one another to obtain GLOBAL equilibrium of the structure. They must be TRANSFORMED from LOCAL to GLOBAL and then added together to obtain the global equilibrium equations for the structure which will allow us to solve for the unknown displacements. StiffnessMethod Page 5

6 ASSEMBLY of LOCAL force-displacement relationships for GLOBAL Equilibrium Now ALL the member force-displacement relationships can be ASSEMBLED (Added) together to get Global equilibrium: Note that "q" are forces on members, so to get forces on nodes we must take "-q". Each one of the 10 equations above must sum to ZERO for global equilibrium. StiffnessMethod Page 6

7 Solution of unknown displacements at "free dofs" and reactions at "specified dofs" Rearranging: StiffnessMethod Page 7

8 MATLAB Code for 2D Truss Analysis using the Stiffness Method Input File StiffnessMethod Page 8

9 MATLAB Code for 2D Truss Analysis using the Stiffness Method (Continued) Calculation of Local and Global Element Stiffness Matrices StiffnessMethod Page 9

10 Example Support at node 1 settles down by 25mm. Determine the force in member 2. AE = 8x10 6 N Screen clipping taken: 4/9/2014 9:37 AM Screen clipping taken: 4/9/2014 9:37 AM Screen clipping taken: 4/9/2014 9:37 AM Kglobal = Kglobal = Solution: Displacements: Reactions: Displacement of member 2 Force in Member 2 StiffnessMethod Page 10

11 Inclined Support Conditions Sometimes, the support conditions are not oriented along global x-y axis. In these cases, one must transform specific components of the global equilibrium equations to match the orientation of the inclined supports so that the boundary conditions can be enforced correctly. Example 4m 3m Degrees of freedom 3 and 4 need to be rotated to 3'' and 4'' StiffnessMethod Page 11

12 Example Find displacements and reactions. Assume EA = 1 K G K G ' Solution: StiffnessMethod Page 12

13 Effect of Temperature Changes and Fabrication Errors Changes in lengths of truss members due to temperature or fabrication errors can also be accommodated in the analysis by applying equivalent nodal forces that would result from these changes. If a member has change in length L (either due to fabrication error or due to temperature L= α T L) then the equivalent nodal forces that will need to be applied to the truss will be: StiffnessMethod Page 13

14 Example Member 2 is too short by 0.01 m. Determine the force in member 2. AE = 8x10 6 N Kglobal = Solution Force in member 2: StiffnessMethod Page 14

15 Space (3D) Truss Analysis For space (3D) trusses, all the same concepts of 2D truss analysis still hold. The main differences are: 3 dofs per node Transformation matrix becomes 3x3 Coordinate Transformation StiffnessMethod Page 15

16 Example StiffnessMethod Page 16

17 Stiffness method for Beams The overall methodology of the stiffness methods is still the same for problems involving beams: Define the geometry of the problem in terms of nodes and elements Set up the degrees of freedom: transverse displacements and rotations at nodes 3. Define the loading and boundary conditions as externally applied forces and moments, and degrees of freedom that are fixed / specified. 4. Set up element force-displacement relations q M = K M. d M (local and global coordinate systems are the same) 5. Assemble forces and moments from all elements in terms of unknown global displacements and rotations Solve by partitioning the free and specified degrees of freedom as usual. Nodes Elements and Degrees of Freedom StiffnessMethod Page 17

18 Element force-displacement relationship StiffnessMethod Page 18

19 StiffnessMethod Page 19

20 StiffnessMethod Page 20

21 StiffnessMethod Page 21

22 Sample MATLAB code StiffnessMethod Page 22

23 Plotting Element Calculations StiffnessMethod Page 23

24 Assembly and Global solution K A = K B = Assembly of global stiffness matrix: Load: K G = Solution: StiffnessMethod Page 24

25 Example Support B settles by 1.5 in. Find the reactions and draw the Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams of the beam. E = ksi ; I = 750 in 4 K1 = K2 = K3 = Assembled Kglobal = Solution: StiffnessMethod Page 25

26 Distributed Loads along the length of the element Beams with distributed loads along the length can be solved by the stiffness method using fixed-end moments as follows: Example Determine reactions. E = ksi; I = 510in 4 K2 = K3 = Global system to solve: StiffnessMethod Page 26

27 StiffnessMethod Page 27

28 Stiffness Method for Frame Structures For frame problems (with possibly inclined beam elements), the stiffness method can be used to solve the problem by transforming element stiffness matrices from the LOCAL to GLOBAL coordinates. Note that in addition to the usual bending terms, we will also have to account for axial effects. These axial effects can be accounted for by simply treating the beam element as a truss element in the axial direction. StiffnessMethod Page 28

29 Transformation from Local to Global coordinates Each node has 3 degrees of freedom: But Thus transformation rules derived earlier for truss members between (X, Y) and (X',Y') still hold: = Qrot T Note: Transformation matrix T defined above is the same as Qrot T defined in the provided MATLAB code. Converting Local co-ordinates to Global: Qrot (Qrot) (Qrot) (Qrot) (Qrot) StiffnessMethod Page 29

30 Element Stiffness Matrix in GLOBAL coordinates: Substituting the transformation relations (l) and (2) into LOCAL force (moment) - displacement (rotation) relationships (L): Tmatrix T (in MATLAB code) Tmatrix (in MATLAB code) (Qrot T ) (Qrot) (Qrot T ) (Qrot) Thus, similar to trusses: Example: StiffnessMethod Page 30

31 Frame 2D MATLAB Code: StiffnessMethod Page 31

32 Plotting StiffnessMethod Page 32

33 Frame Element Code Screen clipping taken: 4/30/2014 8:40 AM StiffnessMethod Page 33

34 Example: Element Stiffness matrices: (local coordinates) (Global Co-ordinates) StiffnessMethod Page 34

35 Global structural stiffness matrix (15 15) : Solution: StiffnessMethod Page 35

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