CHAPTER 4 KEEPING CLEAN

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1 CHAPTER 4 KEEPING CLEAN You are going to learn and talk about: o why things need to be clean o how to keep food clean o how to keep water clean o how to keep your surroundings clean. 55

2 Chapter 4: Lesson 1 LESSON 1 KEEPING THINGS CLEAN Chiko and Kalwe, Chalo, Mule and Muke are very busy. They are cleaning things. What are they doing? Activity 34 What do we do to keep ourselves clean? What do we do to keep our food clean? What do we do to keep our water clean and safe? What do we do to keep our surroundings clean? Why do we keep things clean? READING We need to keep things clean. We wash hands, bodies and clothes. We keep food clean by covering it. We make water clean by boiling or adding chlorine. We wash plates and pots. We sweep our houses and bury rubbish. Keeping things clean kills bad bacteria or germs. Being clean protects us from diseases. 56

3 Chapter 4: Lesson 1 ASK YOURSELF What things do I like cleaning? Why? What do I not like cleaning? Why? Keeping clean FEELINGS ABOUT CLEANING I like... because... I do not like... because... REMEMBER BEING CLEAN IS BEING HEALTHY. We clean a lot of things. For example,... HOMEWORK A Ask your family why it is important to be clean. B Written work: What do you do to keep things clean? Make a list. Then read your list to your family. My cleaning tasks These are my cleaning tasks at home and at school:

4 Chapter 4: Lesson 2 LESSON 2 BACTERIA What living things do you know? Animals? Insects? Birds? Activity 35 What are the smallest living things you know? Are they good or bad? What do they do for us? What do they do to us? Where do they live? B A C T E R I A READING A Bacteria are very small living things. With just your eyes, you cannot see them: they are invisible. There are millions of them all around us. Some bacteria are very useful to us. Others are very dangerous. They give us diseases such as diarrhoea, dysentery and cholera. 58

5 Chapter 4: Lesson 2 Activity 36 Discuss these questions: Where can we nd bacteria? How do they move around? How can they be killed? READING B B1 There are bacteria everywhere. They are in the air, in the water and in the soil. They are also in our food, on our bodies and hands, in our clothes and inside our bodies. B2 Bacteria can travel in air or in water. They can also be carried by insects (e.g. ies) and animals, and on people s skin, hands, and clothes. B3 Bacteria usually live in warm wet places. Most of them die if they are boiled. They are also killed by disinfectants, salt, soap, chlorine and antiseptic ointment. ASK YOURSELF Am I afraid of bacteria? Why? Why not? REMEMBER Keeping clean BACTERIA A I am afraid of bacteria because... B I am not afraid of bacteria because... BACTERIA CAN KILL YOU. For example,... 59

6 Chapter 4: Lesson 2 HOMEWORK A Tell your family about bacteria. B Written work: Find some things which kill bacteria, at home or in the shops. Write about them. Then read your writing to your family. Things which kill bacteria In our house we have... In the shop there is... I use these ones:... 60

7 Chapter 4: Lesson 3 LESSON 3 HOW DISEASES SPREAD Do you know anyone who had diarrhoea or cholera? How did they get it? Activity 37 The pictures show how diseases spread. Tell the class what is happening in the pictures. Talk about what you can see. Also talk about what you cannot see. Why are these things bad? READING Diseases are spread in many ways. - When people cough and sneeze they spread bad bacteria. - Flies and other insects and animals carry bad bacteria to food. If you eat this food, you can get sick. - Some bacteria are carried by water. You can become sick if you drink this water. - You can pick up bad bacteria on your hands. Then, if you put your ngers in your mouth, you can get sick. 61

8 Chapter 4: Lesson 3 Activity 38 Here are some of the ways diseases spread. How many can you nd? Describe one of them. HOW DISEASES SPREAD Sick Person touching sneezing coughing breathing touching Food and Water cooking eating drinking washing touching food touching touching Dirt and Faeces Water, River, Lake washing hands ASK YOURSELF What can we do to prevent diseases? Keeping clean PREVENTING DISEASES DO s and DON Ts DO... DO NOT... REMEMBER DIRT SPREADS DISEASE. For example,... Take this message home! 62

9 Chapter 4: Lesson 3 HOMEWORK A B Find out from your family how you should wash hands. Written work: Write what you do to prevent disease. Preventing disease This is what I do to prevent disease: Example I wash my hands often I... I... I... Explain to your family how these things prevent disease. 63

10 Chapter 4: Lesson 4 LESSON 4 WASHING HANDS Look at the pictures. What are all these hands doing? What other things do your hands do every day? Activity 39 Why do we need to wash our hands? When do we need to wash our hands? READING Always wash your hands before: - eating - preparing food - feeding children - drawing and carrying water. Always wash your hands after: - using the pit latrine or toilet - cleaning the baby - eating food. 64

11 Activity 40 Chapter 4: Lesson 4 What is happening in the pictures? How do you wash your hands? Which is the best way to wash your hands. Why? ASK YOURSELF Do I wash my hands properly? Do I wash my hands at the right times? If not, why not? Keeping clean WASHING HANDS Do I wash my hands properly? A Yes, usually. B Not always, because... Do I wash them at the right times? A Yes, usually B Not always, because... REMEMBER WASH YOUR HANDS PROPERLY. For example,... WASH YOUR HANDS OFTEN. For example,... Take this message home! 65

12 Chapter 4: Lesson 4 HOMEWORK A B Teach the little children at home the best way to wash hands. Written work: Keep a handwashing diary. Write down every time you wash your hands in one day and why. Then read your writing to your family. Handwashing Diary Day... When Example In the morning Why Because I always wash in the morning C Ask your family what they do to keep food clean. 66

13 Chapter 4: Lesson 5 LESSON 5 KEEPING FOOD CLEAN Why is it important to keep food clean? Activity 41 What do Mule and Muke do to keep food clean? Look at the pictures. Find all the things they do. (There are 10.) Which of these things do you do at home? Mule and Muke are preparing snacks for school. Now they are going to prepare some food for the family. They are preparing the meal The meal is ready. The family has come. The meal is over. They are clearing up. Some food is left. Now they have nished work. How do these actions keep food clean? Where are the bad bacteria? What is happening to the bacteria? 67

14 Chapter 4: Lesson 5 READING Eating dirty food makes you sick. We must keep food clean. We have to protect it from ies, dirt, dirty hands, dirty water and bacteria in the air. We keep food clean by - covering it - wrapping it - using clean pots and plates - washing hands before eating - washing hands before preparing food - washing fruits before eating them - washing vegetables before cooking them - cooking food - re-heating food. Activity 42 What foods should we wash? What foods do we not need to wash? What foods should we cover? What foods should we wrap or put in a container? What kind of food should we re-heat? ASK YOURSELF In my house, who is in charge of the food? How can I help this person? REMEMBER KEEP FOOD CLEAN! For example,... Keeping clean HOW TO HELP In my house, the person in charge of the food is I can help by... and by... Take this message home! 68

15 Chapter 4: Lesson 5 HOMEWORK A Find a person selling food. Find two foods which are covered and two foods which are uncovered. Find out why. B Written work: Write the things you do to keep food clean. Then read your writing to your family. What I do to keep food clean Example...I wash my hands before eating I... I..... C Find out where your water comes from and how it comes to your house. 69

16 Chapter 4: Lesson 6 LESSON 6 SAFE WATER TO DRINK Which water is safe to drink? Activity 43 What are Chalo and Mule saying? Mule, can I give you some water to drink? Thank you, Chalo. But where did you get the water from? I got it from the river. Is it safe to drink? Should Mule drink Chalo s water? Why? Why not? Activity 44 Chalo s water comes from the river. Kalwe s water comes from a borehole. Mule s water comes from a well. Where does your water come from? How does it come to your house? What makes water dirty? Is your water clean and safe? How do you know? 70

17 Chapter 4: Lesson 6 READING Water from a borehole or a protected well is usually safe to drink. These water sources do not get dirty easily. Water gets dirty if: - people or animals urinate in it - people or animals pass stools nearby - people bathe or swim in it - people wash clothes in it - animals drink from it. ASK YOURSELF Is my water safe and clean? How do I know? REMEMBER KEEP WATER CLEAN! For example,... Keeping clean WATER SOURCES My water comes from... A This water is quite safe to drink because... B This water is not very safe because... Take this message home! HOMEWORK A B Ask your family how to make water safe for drinking. Written work: Do you carry water to your home? Write about it. Say what you do, where, what for and how often. Then read your writing to your family. Drawing water Example I carry water from the well to the house for washing twice a week

18 Chapter 4: Lesson 7 LESSON 7 DRAWING AND STERILIZING WATER How can we make water safe for drinking? How can we sterilize it? Activity 45 What is happening in the pictures? This is Kalwe. He is boiling the water. This is Chiko s mother. She is adding chlorine. Why does this make the water safe? 72

19 Chapter 4: Lesson 7 Activity 46 Kalwe and Chiko are going to draw water for drinking. They are going with their friends. What should they do rst? Where should they get the water from? How can they draw the water safely? What should they do when they get home? How can they keep the water safe at home? How should they take the water from the container? Show the class how to do these things correctly. 73

20 Chapter 4: Lesson 7 READING When you draw drinking water, do these things: 1. First, wash your hands well. 2. Take a closed water carrier. 3. Clean the water carrier. 4. Take the water from a safe source. 5. Do not touch the water. 6. When you get home, sterilize the water. 7. Store the water in a clean covered container. 8. When you take water out, do not put your hands in. ASK YOURSELF What do you think is the best way to sterilize drinking water? Why? Keeping clean SAFE DRINKING WATER I prefer to boil drinking water because... I prefer to add chlorine to drinking water because... REMEMBER DRAW WATER CAREFULLY! For example,... 74

21 Chapter 4: Lesson 7 HOMEWORK A Tell your family all the things you have to do to have safe drinking water. Ask them what they think. B Written work: Write about what you do to have safe water. Then read your writing to your family. Safe water I help make water safe and keep it clean. This is what I do: C Look around the area where you live. Are there any places where there is a lot of dirt? What kind of dirt is it? 75

22 Chapter 4: Lesson 8 LESSON 8 CLEAN SURROUNDINGS Look at your surroundings. Are they clean? What do we do to keep them clean? Activity 47 In the picture, Mule is visiting her sick friend Kanyanta. What are they saying to each other? I am sick. The nurse says I have diarrhoea and malaria Do you know what causes malaria and diarrhoea? I do not know. Here we are always sick. Your surroundings are dirty. Flies sit on faeces and bring diarrhoea when they sit on your food. The tall grass is the home of mosquitoes that bring malaria. Why is Kanyanta always sick? How can we correct what is happening in the picture? How can we keep our surroundings clean? READING Dirt and rubbish spread diseases. Keep your surroundings clean by: - using the toilet - sweeping the grounds - slashing tall grass - burying rubbish. 76

23 Chapter 4: Lesson 8 ASK YOURSELF What do I do to keep my surroundings clean at home? What do I do to keep my surroundings clean at school? Keeping clean CLEAN SURROUNDINGS This is what I do to keep my surroundings clean: At home, I... At school, I... REMEMBER KEEP YOUR SURROUNDINGS CLEAN. For example,... A HOMEWORK Written work: If we want to be healthy, we must be clean. Write down what else you can do to keep things clean. Read your writing to your family. My new tasks What else can I do to keep things clean? I can... I can... B Is diarrhoea really dangerous? Ask your family. 77

24 Chapter 4: Revision REVISION OF CHAPTER FOUR We have come to the end of Chapter Four. What did we learn? Hold up all the Remember messages for Chapter Four. Read them out one by one. For each message give examples. Say why each message is important. 78

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