# STATISTICS 151 SECTION 2 FINAL EXAM DECEMBER

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2 (b) What is the probability that UNC win a bowl game at the end of the season? (5) (c) Given that they win, what is the probability that it is a BCS game? (8) 2. Ozone is a chemical pollutant which is regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency. Table 1 (back of exam feel free to tear off and discard at end of exam) represents the mean July ozone level, in parts per billion (ppb) for the years in 95 U.S. cities. (a) Draw a stem and leaf plot of the data, choosing suitable units for the stem and the leaves. (Use the back of the page if you prefer to take more space.) (4) (b) Find the five-number summary and the inter-quartile range. (4) (c) Draw a histogram, making your own choice of suitable intervals. (4) 2

3 (d) Are there any outliers by the 1.5IQR rule? (3) (e) You are given that x = 51.8, s = Are there any outliers by the alternative rule that uses x and s? (2) (f) Summarize the overall shape of the distribution, including such issues as whether it is skewed or whether you believe there are outliers. (3) 3. An airline estimates that 80% of the passengers who reserve tickets actually show up for their flights. Based on this information, it has to decide how many tickets it will sell for each flight, which is typically more than the number of seats actually available. To answer the following questions, make sure you identify which probability distribution you are using and explain your justification. (a) In the first-class section of a particular aircraft, 12 seats are available. The airline sells 14 seats. What is the probability that more passengers will show up than there are seats for? (7) (b) In the economy section of a particular aircraft, 200 seats are available. The airline sells 225 seats. What is the probability that more passengers will show up than there are seats for? (7) 3

4 (c) Continuing part (b), the airline would like to sell 250 seats. To what number must it increase the number of seats on the aircraft, so that the probability of passengers having to be turned away is less that 0.05? (6) 4. A regular New York Times poll includes the question, Do you approve or disapprove of the way George W. Bush is handling foreign policy? In a recent poll (September ), there were 1,131 respondents, of whom 37% answered approve, and 56% answered disapprove (the other 7% either didn t answer or said they had no opinion). (a) Construct a 90% confidence interval of the true proportion of the population who approve of Mr. Bush s foreign policy. (8) (b) Does this poll contain convincing evidence that more people disapprove than approve? Explain. (5) (c) In future, the New York Times decides its survey must have a margin or error no greater than 1.2%, with confidence level 95%. What sample size do they need to achieve this? (7) 4

5 5. A recent survey in Consumer Reports (December 2006) listed the prices of 11 models of bicycles, as follows: ( x = 848; s = 476) Model Price (\$) Klein Reve v 1800 Specialized Roubaix 1300 Trek Pilot Canondale Synapse Raleigh Cadent Schwinn Super Sport GS 700 Schwinn Sierra GS 340 Mongoose Switchback SX 280 Brompton C-type C3E 675 Bike Friday Stock Pocket Tourist 830 Dahon Speed (a) Compute a 99% confidence interval for the average selling price of all bicycles. (14) (b) What are the assumptions behind the procedure in (a)? Highlight two features of the problem which might suggest the assumptions are inappropriate in this case. (6) 6. Many people believe that when the defendant in a jury trial is black, the prosecuting attorneys use peremptory challenges systematically to exclude blacks from the jury. To study this, a defendants rights group followed the composition of 20 juries (240 jurors) in a particular county. Over the period of the study, 18% of the jury pool were black. However, of the 240 jurors actually chosen to serve on a jury (excluding alternates), only 14 were black. 5

6 (a) Formulate this as a hypothesis testing problem. Say what is the parameter of interest, and define an H 0 and H a that would correspond to saying that the jury selection process either is, or is not, biased against blacks being chosen. (5) (b) Compute the standard error, the test statistic, and the P-value. (12) (c) Summarize your conclusions in everyday language. (3) 7. A chemical plant is discharging a certain toxic chemical into a river. Officials from the EPA determine that the maximum safe discharge of this chemical is 1.5 ounces per week. In an attempt to monitor the plant s compliance, they measure the actual amount of discharge each week. In five weeks, the actual discharges are 2.8, 1.3, 4.1, 1.8 and 2.5 ounces. (a) Compute the mean and the standard deviation of these discharges. What is the standard error of the mean? (5) (b) What would be an appropriate hypothesis test to determine whether the plant is in compliance with the standard? State H 0 and H a. (3) (c) Compute the relevant test statistic and determine the P-value (as accurately as you are able to determine what it is). Would you accept or reject H 0? (9) 6

7 (d) Explain in layman s terms what this shows. (3) 8. The following table (taken from the General Social Survey) represents the answers by a randomly selected group of respondents to the question How willing would you be to accept cuts in your standard of living in order to protect the environment? The same question was asked in 1994 and again in 2000, with the following results: Response Very Fairly Neither willing Not very Not at all willing willing nor unwilling willing willing (a) Complete the table by computing the row and column totals. What was the total number of respondents? (3) (b) Compute the χ 2 statistic, the number of degrees of freedom, and the P-value. Would you accept or reject the hypothesis of independence? (13) (c) Explain in layman s language what this means in terms of people s attitude to the environment. Is there evidence that this changed between 1994 and 2000? In what respect has the change been greatest? (4) 7

8 City Ozone City Ozone City Ozone Akron 63 Grand Rapids 54 New York 55 Albuquerque 54 Greensboro 61 Oakland 31 Arlington 67 Honolulu 15 Oklahoma City 53 Atlanta 63 Houston 41 Omaha 40 Austin 41 Huntsville 58 Orlando 42 Bakersfield 79 Indianapolis 59 Philadelphia 59 Baltimore 62 Jackson 45 Phoenix 55 Baton Rouge 45 Jacksonville 45 Pittsburgh 59 Biddeford 49 Jersey City 64 Portland 39 Birmingham 49 Johnstown 58 Providence 50 Boston 46 Kansas City, MO 53 Raleigh 62 Buffalo 54 Kansas City, KS 47 Riverside 79 Cedar Rapids 40 Kingston 52 Rochester 52 Charlotte 67 Knoxville 63 Sacramento 62 Chicago 47 Los Angeles 64 Salt Lake City 61 Cincinnati 57 Lafayette 41 San Antonio 38 Cleveland 54 Las Vegas 56 San Bernardino 88 Columbus, GA 49 Lexington 57 San Diego 48 Columbus, OH 58 Lincoln 39 San Jose 38 Colorado Springs 49 Lake Charles 40 Seattle 38 Corpus Christi 25 Louisville 57 Shreveport 51 Coventry 57 Little Rock 51 Spokane 45 Dayton 59 Madison 48 Santa Ana/Anaheim 49 Washington 61 Memphis 59 St. Louis 49 Denver 55 Miami 27 Stockton 56 Des Moines 31 Milwaukee 51 St. Petersburg 38 Detroit 51 Mobile 48 Syracuse 51 Dallas/Fort Worth 51 Modesto 63 Tacoma 38 El Paso 50 Muskegon 63 Tampa 40 Evansville 62 Nashville 49 Toledo 55 Fresno 76 New Orleans 38 Tucson 50 Fort Wayne 58 Newark 52 Table 1: July average ozone levels in 95 U.S. cities 8

9 1. (a) See the following: SOLUTIONS AND COMMENTS WIN (0.3) 0.06 BCS BOWL (0.2) NON BCS BOWL (0.6) NO BOWL (0.2) LOSE (0.7) WIN (0.7) LOSE (0.3) WIN (0) (b) =.48 (c) = 1 8 =.125 LOSE (1) Remarks. Although I maintain that the above was the only correct answer to the question, there were two other solutions that proved popular. One was based on the following tree diagram (or an equivalent representation): 0.2 WIN (0.3) BCS BOWL (0.16) NON BCS BOWL (0.64) NO BOWL (0.2) LOSE (0.7) WIN (0.7) LOSE (0.3) WIN (0) LOSE (1) This would have been the correct tree diagram if part of the question had read, Given that UNC qualify for a bowl game, the conditional probability that it is a BCS bowl game is 0.2. However, the question as worded did not specify that the 0.2 for a BCS bowl game was conditional on UNC being in a bowl game. With this interpretation of the question, the answers to (b) and (c) were.496 and.097 (or 3 31 ). I gave 17/20 for this solution, so long as the rest of the question was correct. The other solution that some people gave was WIN BCS BOWL 0.2 LOSE NON BCS BOWL 0.8 WIN LOSE

10 under which scenario the possibility no bowl game at all has probability 0. This seems less plausible to me, but I gave 16/20 if you did the rest of the question correctly including.62 as the answer to (b) and again.097 or 3 31 for (c). 2. (a) Either of the following: or I actually think the first of these plots is more informative about the distribution, but the second one obeys all the rules for stem and leaf plots that we discussed in class, so I gave it equal credit. (b) (15,45,52,59,88). The IQR is 59 45=14. (c) See diagram at top of next page (obviously there are many different choices for the interval widths and endpoints here but I was looking for something that was not too scraggly drawn and gave a reasonable representation of the shape of the distribution). (d) 1.5IQR is 21 so the boundaries for outliers are 45 21=24 and 59+21=80. The smallest and largest values (15 in Honolulu, 88 in San Bernardino) are both outliers. (e) This rule would declare something an outlier if it was more than 3 standard deviations from the mean. Thus the boundaries are = 17.3 and = The same two cities are outliers. (f) The distribution is reasonably symmetric (possibly slightly left-skewed, but not strongly so). However the presence of outliers at both ends shows it s not a perfect normal curve. 10

11 Histogram of OzoneMean Frequency OzoneMean 3. (a) Let X be the number of passengers who book tickets who actually show up for the flight. X has a binomial distribution with n = 14 and p = 0.8. The aircraft is overbooked if X = 13 or 14. We calculate Pr{X = 13} = 14 (0.8) =.1539, Pr{X = 14} = (0.8) 14 =.0440, resulting in a probability = (b) In this case n = 225, p = 0.8. The normal approximation is justified because np = 180, n(1 p) = 45, both of which are greater than 15. We have µ = np = 180, σ = np(1 p) = 36 = 6 so the z score associated with x = 200 is z = = The left-tail probability associated with that , so the probability that the number of passengers who show up is greater than 200 is = (c) z = 1.96 would correspond to a left-tail probability of 0.95 or a right-tail probability of For n = 250 we have µ = = 200 and σ = = so the number of seats that must be available is = 212.4, or 213 to the next-highest whole number. 4. (a) The standard error is = For 90% confidence, the margin of error is = The confidence interval is.37 ±.0236 = (.3464,.3936). (b) Both the upper and lower bound of the confidence interval are well below 50%, implying that we have very high confidence that p < 0.50 (where p is the proportion of the population who approve Bush s policy). This comparison is slightly complicated by the 7% don t knows, but even if the don t knows were included in with those who approve, it s still clear that the proportion is well below those who disapprove. (Another way to do the calculation would be to calculate a confidence interval for the proportion who disapprove, which leads to the interval (.536,.584), strong evidence that the proportion of the whole population who disapprove is greater than 0.5.) Remark added after grading. A lot of students equated the phrase more people disapprove than approve to p < 0.5. But this may not be true! For example, if the poll had 11

12 shown 40% approve, 40% disapprove, 20% don t know, there would be no basis at all to say more people disapprove than approve. So you must say something about how the don t knows affect your answer, but I was satisfied if you simply said you didn t believe the 7% don t knows would change the result. (c) Since we re talking about all future polls, it would not be reasonable to assume that the proportion (0.37) remains the same, so we assume it is p = 0.5 according to the argument that this gives a conservative choice of sample size. The margin of error calculation then leads to m = 1.96 p(1 p) n or n = p(1 p) ( 1.96 m ) 2. With p = 0.5, m = we have n = 0.25 ( ) 2 = , or a sample size of (Remark: In spite of the above disclaimer, some students did assume p would remain at.37, in which case the correct answer is 6219.) 5. (a) The standard error is = For df = 11 1 = 10, the critical value for a 99% confidence interval is (Table B). Therefore, the margin of error is = 455. The confidence interval is 848 ± 455 = (393, 1303). (b) The assumptions include (i) the data are a random sample from the population of all bicycles, and (ii) the underlying distribution is normal. Both assumptions seem dubious here, (i) because there is no evidence that any kind of random selection is involved (more likely, Consumer Reports just chose bikes in a number of different categories to give what they thought was a representative sample, but we have seen that human judgment of what is random is often highly suspect); (ii) because the distribution seems right-skewed (e.g. the most expensive bike is exactly 2 standard deviations above the mean, but the least expensive is only 1.19 standard deviations below). 6. (a) Let p be the proportion of blacks (among those already in the jury pool) who are selected for an actual jury. The null hypothesis is H 0 : p = p 0 = 0.18 against the alternative H a : p < p 0. A one-sided alternative is appropriate since the stated objective is to look for bias against blacks. (b) Since this is a hypothesis testing problem rather than a confidence interval calculation, the standard error is p0 (1 p 0 ) n = = The test statistic is z = ˆp p 0 S.E. = = The P-value is the left-tail probability associated with z = This is (with certainty) less than the P-value associated with z = 4.5, which is Therefore, the actual P-value is smaller than which implies very strong evidence against the null hypothesis. (c) The study provides very strong evidence that the jury selection process is biased against blacks. 7. (a) The table is Observation x x x (x x) Total

13 The mean is x = = 2.5 and the standard deviation is error of x is = = The standard (b) If µ is the mean discharge per week, then a one-sided test would test H 0 : µ = 1.5 against H a : µ > 1.5. One-sided is appropriate, because the EPA would not be worried if the discharge was less than 1.5. (c) t = x 1.5 S.E. = = According to Table B with df = 4, the right-tail probability is between 0.10 and 0.05 (but closer to 0.05). Since it is a one-sided test, the right-tail probability is also the P-value. Since the P-value is greater than 0.05, we cannot reject H 0. (d) The data don t prove that the company is breaking the law. However, this could simply mean there are not enough data, and the EPA might want to continue the monitoring process for a few more weeks. 8. (a) The complete table with row and column totals is Response Very Fairly Neither willing Not very Not at all Total willing willing nor unwilling willing willing Total (b) The table of expected values is Response Very Fairly Neither willing Not very Not at all Total willing willing nor unwilling willing willing Total The contributions to the χ 2 statistic are The total is The degrees of freedom are (5 1) (2 1) = 4 and the most extreme value for the χ 2 statistic in the table with df = 4 is 18.47, corresponding to a tail probability. Since > 18.47, it follows that the P-value is less than (c) The result of the chi-squared test is highly significant, in other words, the null hypothesis of independence is rejected. Looking at the table of contributions to the χ 2 statistic, it is seen that the highest contributions are from the last two columns, in particular, a substantial shift of people from the not very willing category into not at all willing. Politically, this probably means that people on the right of the political spectrum, who opposed Clinton s/gore s environmentalist views, hardened their opinions and became more opposed while Clinton was president, while people on the left of the political spectrum basically agreed with what Clinton was doing and did not change their views. Remark. Part (c) was the worst answered part here! A lot of students did the chi-squared test correctly without looking at the table to see where the independence assumption was breaking down. But there s no point knowing how to do a chi-squared test (or any kind of statistical test) if you don t know how to interpret it in the light of the actual data! 13

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