Procedure of the Historical Security Council of MUNDo 2015

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1 Forum: The Historical Security Council Issue: The Korean War Student Officer: Anneke Siebeneck Position: President Procedure of the Historical Security Council of MUNDo 2015 The debates of the Historical Security Council of MUNDo 2015 will be divided into three phases which will be: 1.) North Korea has just invaded the South and the SC has come together to discuss the recent developments. 2.) September 1950 The KPA has moved on a lot and pushed back the resistance so far that the UN command controls only 10% of the country in the Southern area of Pusan the USA is seeking for the SC to allow stronger actions to fight back the North Korean forces 3.) As the fighting has continued for long with no real advances, but many casualties, a peaceful solution to the conflict is now to be sought through negotiations. In the following document you will find detailed reports about each phase as well as a summary of the causes that led to the outbreak of the war. Please be aware of the fact that in each phase the final date of action considered will be the one named above. Everything happening afterwards is not to be included in the debate. Nevertheless we highly recommend to research even further than 1953 to find out information about your countries opinion so you might be able to obtain some knowledge about secret actions taken in that time which only revealed afterwards. Furthermore we would like you to consider that this forum is going back in order to possibly change the course of events during the Korean War and not repeat history all over again. Therefore you should research the issue in great detail and think about what the HSC can do better than the Security Council in 1953 in order to find a peaceful and long-lasting solution. Since the Historical Security Council will have an ad-hoc debate, please also prepare, apart from Position Papers for this issue, some Operative Clauses we can debate about. Please remember to submit your Position Paper until the deadline on 12 January and do not hesitate to contact us in case you have any questions or concerns regarding your research or the procedures. We look forward to meeting you at the conference! Yours sincerely, Anneke Siebeneck and Amin Ommada 1

2 Background Information ( ) The Korean Peninsula has witnessed many invasions in the path and to understand the outbreak of the war in 1950 it is necessary to begin with the official annexation of Korea to Japan with the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty of 1910 following the Russo-Japanese War which Japan won in 1905 and after which Korea became a protectorate of Japan. The Korean population fought against the Japanese government with the help of China from which parts were also controlled by Japan. The communist party of Korea fought against the Japanese in Korea and Manchuria led by Kim Il-Sung, making him an important personality in the resistance from 1941 to During World War II Japan recruited Korean soldiers into its army and used Korean food. In 1940 Japan expanded its territory southwards starting with entering Indochina in September. The allies imposed sanctions against Japan however Japan continued its expanding policy in order to gain raw materials which were located in those areas. After the attack on Pearl Harbor on the 7 th of December 1941 the United States of America as well as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland declared war on Japan followed by Germany and Italy declaring war on the US. Until spring 1942 Japan expanded further but the allies fought back and had their first success in May 1942 at the Battle of the Coral Sea. The allies had many defeats but managed to retake the areas Japan invaded before and the first Americans reached Japan in February In this month, the Yalta Conference took place during which the US, Great Britain and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) discussed further proceedings and the future of countries after the ending of World War II. It was decided that all Easter European countries would be free and free elections should be held. In addition they should be pro communism and maintain good relations with the USSR. In the issue of the Pacific War it was decided that the USSR would enter the war against Japan three month after the ending of the war in Europe. Japanese expansion from 1940 to 1942 (Picture 1) After the dropping of two atomic bombs, one on Hiroshima and one on Nagasaki on the 6 th and 9 th of August 1945 which killed over 150,000 people and left long-lasting damages and the fulfilling of the commitment to declare war on Japan by the Soviet Union, Japan surrendered on the 2 nd September of

3 Model United Nations of Dortmund 2015, Research Report, Historical Security Council Immediately after this the US occupied the southern area of the Korean peninsula, while the USSR had been occupying the northern area since August 1945 already. Two new nations were created, divided by the 38th parallel and at the Moscow Conference in December 1945 the US and the USSR decided that Korea should gain its independence after a five-year trusteeship. Since the Korean population had hoped that they would be independent after the occupation of Japan riots broke out which were forbidden by the controlling countries USSR and the US. Both countries named new leaders in their part of the Korean peninsula. The northern area was controlled by Kim Il-Sung, the leader of the Korean Workers Party (KWP) while the leader of the southern area was Syngman Rhee. Korea divided by the 38th parallel(picture 2) There were riots and demonstrations, especially along the border at the 38th parallel. However, South Korea elected Syngman Rhee as president in July 1948 and gained independence on the 15th August 1948 with which the Republic of Korea was established. Shortly afterwards on the 9th of September 1945 the Democratic People s Republic of Korea (DPRK) is established in the northern part of the peninsula whose leader is Kim Il-Sung, also known as eternal leader of DPRK. Both nations on the Korean peninsula wanted a united Korea with their political attitude being carried out. The government of the Republic of Korea violently fought against communists in their country killing many of them, while Kim Il-Sung prepared an invasion of 3

4 South Korea by increasing his forces. He tried to convince Stalin to launch an attack in spring 1949, however Stalin did not wanted to go to war with America which still had troops stationed in South Korea. The US planned to have their last troops withdrawn by June The USSR already withdrew its troops in During the Chinese Civil War the USSR supported the communistic party and accepted the government of the People s Republic of China before any other member state of the United Nations. Therefore the delegate of the USSR Jacob Malik demanded to replace the Nationalist delegate of the Republic of China, which had a veto in the Security Council, with a delegate from the People s Republic of China. Since several nations were against his suggestion, he left several meetings and called out the Soviet Unions boycott of the Security Council on 13 th of January of He made an exception when voting on his own resolution to replace the Nationalist Chinese delegate with one from the PRC which failed being vetoed by the US and disapproved by several other member states. After this, Malik vowed to only attend meetings of the SC again, if the Nationalist Chinese delegate would be excluded. The remaining member states of the SC decided to continue without the delegate of the USSR. Stalin finally agreed to an invasion of the Republic of Korea after the US withdrew all its troops from the peninsula and it became clear that they would not interfere in the Chinese Civil War which the communistic party won in He thought that the US would not interfere in a conflict in Korea as well and therefore gave his permission for King Il-Sung. However he named the condition that Mao Zedong, the leader of the People s Republic of China, would agree to an invasion. Mao did so because China needed the economical and military support of the Soviet Union. North Koreas military forces were increased by Stalin who sent professional trained veterans of World War II and the Chinese Civil war, as well as tanks, artillery and aircraft. Timeline of events (until June 1950) Autumn 1905 August 22, World War II December 7, 1941 December 8, 1941 December 11, 1941 Until May 1942 May 4-8, 1942 February 1945 February 4-11, 1945 May 8, 1945 August 6, 1945 August 8, 1945 August 9, 1945 August 1945 Japan wins Russo-Japanese War Korea becomes protectorate of Japan Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty Japanese attack on US base Pearl Harbor The US, the UK and several other nations declare war on Japan Germany and Italy declare war on the US Japan invades several areas near by Battle of the Coral Sea first success for the allies The first Americans reach Japan Yalta Conference Germany surrenders First US nuclear attack against Japan (Hiroshima) USSR declares war on Japan Second US nuclear attack against Japan (Nagasaki) USSR occupies northern area of Korea 4

5 September 2, 1945 Japan surrenders September 9, 1945 December 27, 1945 US occupies southern area of Korea Moscow Conference Chinese Civil War August 15, 1948 September 9, 1948 Republic of Korea gains independence Syngman Rhee is elected president Democratic People s Republic of Korea gains independence Kim Il-Sung becomes leader 1948 USSR withdraws its troops June 1949 January 13, 1950 March 1950 June 25, 1950 Relevant treaties and UN resolutions Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty (August 1910) The last US troops are leaving the Korean peninsula USSR boycott of UN Security Council begins Communistic party wins Chinese Civil War Yalta Conference (February 1945) North Korean forces cross 38 th parallel and invaded South Korea Following the Japan-Korea Treaties of 1905 and 1907 this one officially states that Korea is annexed to the Japanese Empire. The treaty was signed by the Japanese Emperor and the Prime Minister of Korea while the Emperor of Korea Sunjong refused to do so. The Japanese ruled over Korea from 1910 to 1945 and improved the infrastructure and education and helped Korea to modernize. However, the Korean population was discriminated and therefore was not in favour of the Japanese government. The Heads of State of the US (Franklin D. Roosevelt), the UK (Winston Churchill) and the USSR (Joseph Stalin) decided in Yalta about the future of European countries after the war and the further proceedings regarding the situation in Japan. It was decided, that France, the UK, the US and the USSR should govern Germany. All eastern European countries should held friendly relations with the USSR and should have free elections. In addition it was decided that the USSR should enter the war against Japan at last three month after the surrender of Germany. Moscow Conference (December 1945) At the Moscow Conference the foreign ministers of the USSR, the US and the UK met to discuss further procedures in Europe and Asia. They prepared peace treaties with several European countries and talked about the situation of further countries such as China. In addition they established the Allied Council for Japan in order to end the Pacific war quickly. Regarding the issue of Korea they decided to re-establish an independent 5

6 Korean country, which should be assisted in the first years by the newly established Joint Commission. Furthermore it was decided that until the four-power trusteeship for a period of 5 years elapses the USSR should command in northern Korea and the US should do so in southern Korea. Important key terms and key characters 38 th parallel The winning powers of World War II, mainly the USSR and the US, decided that the 38 th parallel will serve as a border between South and North Korea until Japanese powers left the country and Korea could be united again. At the beginning they did not intent to divide Korea but wanted it to be independent and reunited as fast as possible. Kim Il-Sung Syngman Rhee Bibliography Kim Il-Sung is the founder of the DPRK and its leader from 1948 to He had feld during the Japanese occupation and underwent Soviet training. He was appointed leader of North Korea by the USSR after the ending of World War II and established a communistic government. Kim is suspected to be a harsh ruler and also the initiator of the Korean War since he actively approached the USSR and China to support his plan to invade South Korea in order to reunite the Korean peninsula. Syngman Rhee was appointed leader of the provisional government of South Korea and became the first president of the Republic of Korea afterwards and was in this position until 190. Since the US supported his country, he was strictly against communism and acted violently against communists opponents of his own policy Internet (14/11/20) (14/11/20) (14/11/20) (14/11/24) (14/11/24) (14/11/20) (14/11/20) (14/11/20) Pictures: 1) 2) cb /althistory/images/e/e6/korea1950-nsc.jpg 6

7 1 st Phase (until 30 th of June 1950) Although the boarder at the 38 th parallel was controlled regularly by South Korean and American intelligence officers as well as UN observers and they did notice the movement of North Korean troops southwards, they predicted it to be normal defence measures and failed to warn South Korea. This led to the army of Syngman Rhee being completely unprepared for an attack of the Korean People s Army (KPA). Boarder at the 38 th parallel (Picutre 3) Until today it is not clear, who fired first since the DPRK claimed the Republic of Korea to be the first one which fits to the statement of South Korea that they had captured the city of Haeju. However, it is clear that the fighting started on the 25 th of June 1950 at the Ongjin peninsula in the west. Shortly afterwards the KPA launched attacks all along the 38 th parallel crossing it with over 100,000 troops with which the Republic of Korea Army (ROK Army) was completely overtaxed. The KPA further destroyed the US airbase at Gimpo. The US ambassador in South Korea called for help and as a reaction, President Harry S. Truman called the US air force to support the ROK Army. Furthermore he moved munitions and weapons to South Korea, which proved Stalin wrong who had predicted the US to not interfere in any further conflicts. The United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 82 calling for an immediate ceasefire and the DPRK to withdraw its troops. During the following days the evacuation of areas near the 38 th parallel started. Meanwhile North Korean troops managed to win the cities of Chuncheon, Pocheon and Dongducheon. Furthermore US-General Douglas MacArthur, who was a veteran of World War I and II, was appointed commander of the US troops and ordered air strikes on the KPA. However, the North Korean troops were superior and moved further south wards. MacArthur decided to blow up the bridge across the Han River to stop North Korean forces at the 28 th of June. This was a rather desperate action which killed hundreds of refugees crossing the bridge at that time and further trapped many South Korean troops north of the river. The KPA arrived in the South Korean capital at the same day which was why the government of the Republic of Korea fled to Daejeon. In addition Syngman Rhee ordered the Bodo League massacre killing over 100,000 of supporter of communism. North Korean expansion until the end of June 1950 (Picture 4) 7

8 On the 29 th and 30 th of June the first US air strikes were flown targeting an North Korean air base near the capital Pyongyang and US ground troops were ordered to support the ROK Army which decreased from 95,000 men on the 25 th of June to less than 22,000 men at the end of June. The UN Security Council passed one more resolution on the 27 th of June containing six perambulatory clauses which are referring to Resolution 82 and repeating the call for a ceasefire. Timeline of events (25 th June 30 th June 1950) June 25 June 26 June 27 June 28 June 29 June 30 Korean war starts with a fire exchange at the Ongjin peninsula KPA crosses 38 th parallel with over 100,000 troops UNSC Resolution 82 KPA occupies Chuncheon, Pocheon and Dongducheon Evacuation starts ROK Army gets support from US air force US air strikes at North Korean troops North Korean troops march further south UNSC Resolution 83 Bridge across the Han River is blown up by US army KPA occupies Seoul Bodo League massacre US air strikes target KPA air base near Pyongyang Truman orders US ground troops to support the ROK Army North Korean forces cross Han River and occupy Samcheok Relevant treaties and UN resolutions UNSC Resolution 82 (25 th June 1950) Favour: 9 Against: 0 Abstentions:1 Not-Voting: 1 1 Resolution 82 was passed immediately after the outbreak of the war and contains actions which should be taken in order to restore international peace and security. The Security Council calls for an instant ceasefire and the withdraw of North Korean troops to the 38 th parallel. This should be observed by the UN Commission on Korea. Furthermore all member states are urged to support actions taken by the UN against North Korea and refuse from giving assistance to the authorities of the DPRK. (Resolution) (Voting record) UNSC Resolution 83 (27 th June 1950) Favour: 7 Against: 1 This resolution was passed after it became clear that the DPRK would not withdraw its troops and the fighting continued. It recalls Resolution 82 and emphasizes the importance to reestablish international peace and security. Therefore every member state should cooperate with the UN. Furthermore PC 4 1 Not-Voting means, that countries were not present during voting procedures and therefore were not able to show their opinion on this issue. 8

9 Abstentions: 0 states, ( ) that urgent military measures are required ( ). 2 Not-Voting: (Resolution) (Voting record) Important key terms and key characters Ongjin peninsula Republic of Korea Army (ROK Army) Korean People s Army (KPA) Harry S. Truman Douglas MacArthur Bodo League massacre On the 25 th of June 1950 the Korean War started with fights at the Ongjin peninsula. This location is strategically important since the height of the mountains located on it secure a clear look over the entire Korean peninsula. Furthermore the only road going towards it was blocked by the 38 th parallel and therefore it was difficult to get to by the North Korean population. The ROK Army is the army of South Korea. It had great losses at the beginning of the Korean War and therefore was support by UN troops, from which the majority was from the US. Weapons and soldiers were brought to South Korea to fight against the forces of North Korea. The KPA is the army of North Korea. It was a very conventional army heavily supported by the USSR and China. Veterans of World War II and the Chinese Civil War trained North Korean soldiers and also fought in the Korean War. Furthermore tanks, weapons and aircraft were send to North Korea. Before UN troops supported the ROK Army, the ROK was superior and since its enemies needed time to organize them the DPRK had a great advantage at the beginning of the war. Harry S. Truman was born in 1884 and was the 33 rd President of the US. He was elected Vice-President in 1945 but since President Roosevelt died shortly afterwards he became President and was re-elected in As President Truman passed various measures against communism, for example the Truman Doctrine, which defines the US policy towards communism, and the Marshall Plan, which guarantees financial aid to countries affected by World War II. Douglas MacArthur was born in 1880 and is the only five-star US General serving the US army during the Korean War. He is a World War I and II veteran. Since 1941 he is in charge of the US forces in the Pacific which makes him responsible for Japan s surrender. During the Korean War he was handed the command of the UN troops. After the surrender of Japan in World War II and the division of the Korean peninsula at the 38 th parallel both parts of Korea were influenced by the country occupying. This led to the 2 UN Security Council, Resolution 83, PC 4 (14/12/12) 9

10 DPRK becoming a communistic country and the Republic of Korea being a capitalistic one. Both newly established countries convicted the other form of policy. South Korea opposed communists actively and after the KPA crossed the 38th parallel Syngman Rhee ordered the Bodo League massacre on the 28th of June and this was carried out over the entire summer of The numbers of people who were killed during this time are very vague and are estimated to be between 200,000 and 1,2 million. Inform yourself about/take into consideration Your countries relations with North and South Korea Your countries policy regarding communism and capitalism The involvement of your country in the conflict so far Which is the better option: Two independent Koreas or a Korean Unification? Which actions need to be taken to solve the conflict? Is an intervention of UN troops necessary? Helpful links (Overview of military actions during the Korean War) (Overview about the reasons for the outbreak of the war and events which happened during the war) (Summary of the Korean War) Bibliography Internet: (14/11/20) (14/11/20) (14/11/20) (14/11/20) (14/11/27) (14/11/27) (14/12/13) (14/12/13) (14/12/13) Pictures 3) 4) 10

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