5.2. MEASUREMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "5.2. MEASUREMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE"

Transcription

1 5.2. MEASUREMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE Purpose of experiment To record the pressure changes in the vascular system. To set the acoustic signal voltage and time parameters. To calculate the systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Theoretical topics Liquids. Their physical properties. Fluid flow in narrow tubes. Bernoulli equation. Puazeil and Hagen law. Fluid viscosity. The physical model of the blood circulatory system. Blood pressure measurement. Equipment and materials Cuff, phonendoscope, manometer, hand-held pump, booster, pressure-voltage transducer, a digital oscilloscope, a computer. Methodology Blood flow in the blood vessels and its distribution depends on cardiac performance and the overall diameter of the vascular system (the walls of the blood vessels have elastic muscular tissues on whose retraction the inside diameter of the vessel depends). Blood flow is also influenced by the volume and viscosity of the circulating blood. All of these factors are determined by the central nervous system. You can see in Figure the changes in pressure and blood flow velocity in the main types of blood vessels. v, m/s p, mmhg The aorta v Arterioles p Capilla- Venules res Veins pav. The change of pressure p and the blood flow velocity v in main blood vessels Under normal conditions, the vascular system is closed and has no contact with the atmosphere. Blood vessels are oriented in different directions, but most of the arterial and venous blood vessels that carry blood in opposite directions, are located in parallel with each other. Under normal conditions, the blood flow is laminar. In the presence of abnormal conditions, such as a sharp decrease in vascular lumen, partially open, or, conversely, incompletely closed, heart valves or aorta (the resulting sounds are called heart murmurs), the blood flow becomes turbulent. Arterial blood pressure (BP) is blood pressure which presses against the inner wall of the artery. Blood from the heart has to be at a certain pressure to reach the internal organs. The force of the blood flow at the beginning of FBML MEASUREMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE 1

2 each heart rate increases and then decreases. Therefore, blood pressure is expressed as two values: First, the higher value indicates the pressure created by the contraction of the heart and is called the systolic pressure; Second, the smaller value indicates the pressure in the blood vessels between heartbeats and is called the diastolic pressure. The blood pressure in the vessels can be measured in several ways: directly (invasive) or indirectly (noninvasive). Direct (invasive) measurement is done by catheter or cannula, which is a rubber tube connected to a pressure gauge that is inserted into the vessel lumen. Indirect (noninvasive) measurement is done with sphygmomanometers (sphygmos + manometer], (a device for measuring arterial blood pressure), which may be mechanical, electronic or use mercury for measurement. Two methods are normally used for measuring arterial blood pressure: traditional and oscillometric. Traditional method: In this approach, air is pumped into a cuff and completely stops the blood flow in the artery. The air is then slowly released from the cuff. When the cuff pressure coincides with the pressure in the artery, blood flows through the compression zone causing sounds audible with a phonendoscope. These sounds mean that the pressure in the cuff (the results can be read on a gauge) is equal to the pressure in the artery and the systolic pressure is measured at that time. The diastolic pressure is measured when the sound disappears. This method has the advantage that it is recognized as an official standard non-invasive means of determining arterial blood pressure values. The disadvantages of this approach, however, are that it requires special skills for using the phonendoscope unfamiliarity with the instrument can yield incorrect results, and in addition measurement results can be influenced by poor hearing or vision, distraction, extraneous sounds, and the air outlet velocity. Oscillometric method The oscillometric method is based on recording with a digital device (oscilloscope) and does not depend on personal interpretation. This method has several advantages: measurements are independent of the individual characteristics (good hearing or vision, etc.) of the person measuring, this method is not affected by environmental noise, it is a simple technology you can easily measure the patient s blood pressure yourself. The disadvantage is that during measurement the patient cannot move, or speak. The following rules must be complied with to obtain accurate blood pressure readings: Not less than 10 minutes before measuring, the patient has to sit or lie down, and must not eat, smoke or become nervous. BP is measured with the patient lying down or sitting. The cuff is placed on the arm in advance (1-2 min. without any inflation, - vascular and neural adaptation). Measurements are carried out with the patient sitting, his arm at an angle of 45 o held against the chest. The cuff should be at the level of the heart. Ensure that the cuff is placed onto the upper arm tightly, while completely deflated. The cuff should take up 40% of the upper arm volume. Systolic blood pressure is measured from the first clear, strong tone, diastolic in the slowdown phase, with the complete disappearance of tones. When measuring blood pressure, attention should be paid to the following: Arterial blood pressure in different hands could be different, so blood pressure should be measured for the hand where experience has shown that the results are worse. FBML MEASUREMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE 2

3 When you need a series of 2-3 measurements, take the measurements at least 1 minute apart, and then calculate the final result as the mean value. When taking a break, do not forget to loosen the cuff. Procedures 1 Measuring blood pressure in the traditional way (manometer) Fasten the cuff (N) on the upper arm and place the appliances so that they are easy to observe; the phonendoscope (F) is added a little above the elbow bend to detect the arterial pulse (Figure 5.2.2) Using the hand pump (RP), the cuff is filled with air (pressure should be 0-20 mmhg higher than that at which the pulse is felt in the artery) The cuff pressure is reduced with the air-vent (O). When the pressure decreases, tones are clearly audible in the phonendoscope headphones. The first appearance of tones corresponds to the maximum or systolic pressure P sist. This is registered on the manometer The sudden disappearance of tones corresponds to the minimum or diastolic pressure P diast. This value is also registered on the manometer. Procedures 2 Blood pressure measured by the oscillometric method. Blood pressure measurement system flowchart is shown in Figure With the hand-pump (RP) inflate the cuff (M) to a pressure P higher than the systolic P sist. Pressure is then released from the cuff with the air-vent. When P P sist,, the blood begins to flow in the patient's blood vessels causing changes of pressure in the cuff P. The pressure variation repeats with the frequency of the heartbeats. At the same time, the blood flow causes acoustic vibrations in the phonendoscope (F) membrane. The change in pressure P in the cuff (M) is transferred into electrical vibrations in the converter P/U. These vibrations are registered by the oscilloscope and can be seen in the F RP M O N pav. Measurement of the blood pressure or a b pav. Scheme of blood pressure measurement system: M - cuff, F - a phonendoscope, RP hand pump, P/U - converter P/U, OS Digital oscilloscope, K computer. a) Gauge as the pressure-voltage converter coupled to an oscilloscope, and b) the latter device is directly connected to OS with the computer FBML MEASUREMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE 3

4 digital oscilloscope OS (K or computer) monitor. You can read the DC voltage from the oscilloscope and calculate the value of the signal voltage amplitude and then P sist. and P diast Connect the gauge to the oscilloscope with computer (Figure b.) Switch on the computer and run the 2-channel oscilloscope s DSO-2150 USB program. (Figure 5.2.4) After program start-up it is necessary to establish the appropriate operating parameters. Put the oscilloscope measurements 1st-channel baseline at the center, the voltage deflection coefficient k 1 value should be 10 mv / cm. The 2-nd channel baseline should be four divisions below the center (near the bottom of screen), the voltage deflection coefficient k 2 value should be 200 mv/cm. The dissemination indicator s k3 value is 2 s/cm or 4 s / cm (Figure 5.2.5). k 1 k 2 k pav. Computer screen image after startup pav. Computer screen image with operating parameters 2.4. With the manual pump inflate the cuff to a pressure P higher than the systolic P sist. and generate signal amplitude changes on the 2nd channel of the oscilloscope: that is the baseline moves up and is raised up a few divisions from the center. On the 1st channel a visible voltage change should be seen, which is created by the pressure P. At that time heartbeats are heard in phonendoscope (Figure ) The resulting image should be saved in JPG format on the computer desktop From the resulting image calculate the testing signal period T and frequency ν: T Bk 3 ; = 1/T; (5.2.1) where B - horizontal length (cm) of the measured signal, k 3 - dissemination indicator s k 3 value (e.g. 2 S / cm or 4 S / cm). B A sist. A diast pav. Computer screen image showing voltage changes from heartbeats pav. Computer screen image showing systolic and diastolic values FBML MEASUREMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE 4

5 2.7. Calculate the human heart rate (beats per minute): 60 pulsas (min -1 ) (5.2.2) T pulsas 60 (min -1 ) 2.8. Once again with the manual pump inflate the cuff to a pressure P higher than the systolic P sist. and generate signal amplitude changes on the 2nd channel of the oscilloscope: that is the baseline moves up and is raised up a few divisions from the center Gradually reduce pressure with the air-vent. When pressure P in the cuff is close P sist., blood will flow in the vessels, causing changes of pressure P in the cuff, and together will cause acoustic vibrations in the phonendoscope membrane. At that time the air-vent should be closed and the signal image should be fixed (Fig , A sist. ) The pressure should be further decreased with the air-vent. When the pressure P in the cuff is close to P diast, pressure changes P in the cuff will be lost and the acoustic signal in phonendoscope membrane disappears. At that time the air-vent should be closed and the signal image should be fixed (Fig , A diast. ) The resulting image should be saved in JPG format on the computer desktop Calculate U sist. and U diast.: U sist. A s k 3 ; (5.2.3) U diast. A d k 3 ; (5.2.4) where A s, A d viewable video signal vertical length (cm), k 2 the voltage deflection coefficient value (eg. 200 mv/cm) Knowing the relationship between voltage and pressure: 10 mv = 1 mmhg, systolic pressure P sist. and diastolic pressure P diast. can be calculated Compare blood pressure measured in the traditional way and by the oscillometric method. FBML MEASUREMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE 5

Blood Pressure and Exercise Lab

Blood Pressure and Exercise Lab Blood Pressure and Exercise Lab Rob MacLeod, Brian Birchler, and Brett Burton March 26, 2012 1 Purpose and Background Purpose: To learn about external means to measure blood pressure, observe features

More information

Blood Pressure & Effects of Exercise Laboratory #3. Assigned reading. Widmaier, et al. Vander s Human Physiology Ch. 12 OBJECTIVES

Blood Pressure & Effects of Exercise Laboratory #3. Assigned reading. Widmaier, et al. Vander s Human Physiology Ch. 12 OBJECTIVES Laboratory #3 Assigned reading Widmaier, et al. Vander s Human Physiology Ch. 12 OBJECTIVES 1) Learn to measure your blood pressure using a sphygomomanometer. 2) Test the effect of exercise and body position

More information

Evaluation copy. Blood Pressure. Project PROJECT DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

Evaluation copy. Blood Pressure. Project PROJECT DESIGN REQUIREMENTS Blood Pressure Project 9 Blood pressure is a measure of the fluid pressure within the circulatory system. This pressure is required to ensure the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to, and the removal of

More information

BLOOD PRESSURE AND EXERCISE

BLOOD PRESSURE AND EXERCISE BLOOD PRESSURE AND EXERCISE Westminster College STANDARDS: 3.1.10A, 3.1.12A Identify the function of subsystems within a larger system; analyze and describe the function, interaction and relationship among

More information

MEASURING AND RECORDING BLOOD PRESSURE

MEASURING AND RECORDING BLOOD PRESSURE MEASURING AND RECORDING BLOOD PRESSURE INTRODUCTION The blood pressure, along with the body temperature, pulse, and respirations, is one of the vital signs. These measurements are used to quickly, easily,

More information

Vascular System The heart can be thought of 2 separate pumps from the right ventricle, blood is pumped at a low pressure to the lungs and then back

Vascular System The heart can be thought of 2 separate pumps from the right ventricle, blood is pumped at a low pressure to the lungs and then back Vascular System The heart can be thought of 2 separate pumps from the right ventricle, blood is pumped at a low pressure to the lungs and then back to the left atria from the left ventricle, blood is pumped

More information

SmartRead Plus Automatic Wrist Digital Blood Pressure Monitor with Memory

SmartRead Plus Automatic Wrist Digital Blood Pressure Monitor with Memory Instruction manual E&S 7/20/04 3:31 PM Page 1 Guidebook SmartRead Plus Automatic Wrist Digital Blood Pressure Monitor with Memory Model 04-233-001 Please read this guidebook completely before operating

More information

Plank 1 Tool: Hypertension Medical Assistant Training (Providence Medical Group)

Plank 1 Tool: Hypertension Medical Assistant Training (Providence Medical Group) Plank 1 Tool: Hypertension Medical Assistant Training (Providence Medical Group) Task Qualification Training Packet Volume 1 Date Performing Blood Pressure Checks SUBJECT AREA Vital Signs EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

More information

Cardiovascular Physiology

Cardiovascular Physiology 1 Bio 236 Lab Cardiovascular Physiology Heart s Conduction System and the ECG The heart is an organ that is autorhythmic, meaning it generates its own rhythmic action potentials for contraction of myocardial

More information

Measuring Your Blood Pressure at Home. A Review of the Research for Adults

Measuring Your Blood Pressure at Home. A Review of the Research for Adults Measuring Your Blood Pressure at Home A Review of the Research for Adults Is This Information Right for Me? Yes, if: A doctor* has told you that you may have high blood pressure, also called hypertension.

More information

How to measure blood pressure using digital monitors

How to measure blood pressure using digital monitors How to measure blood pressure using digital monitors What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels. Systolic pressure is the blood

More information

Doppler. Doppler. Doppler shift. Doppler Frequency. Doppler shift. Doppler shift. Chapter 19

Doppler. Doppler. Doppler shift. Doppler Frequency. Doppler shift. Doppler shift. Chapter 19 Doppler Doppler Chapter 19 A moving train with a trumpet player holding the same tone for a very long time travels from your left to your right. The tone changes relative the motion of you (receiver) and

More information

MEASURING VITAL SIGNS TRAINING CHECKLIST

MEASURING VITAL SIGNS TRAINING CHECKLIST Measuring Vital Signs A guide to help Direct Support Professionals learn how to measure, and report vital sign measurements. Outcomes: Know how to take each individual s vital signs. Demonstrate the correct

More information

Cardiovascular Physiology

Cardiovascular Physiology Cardiovascular Physiology Heart Physiology for the heart to work properly contraction and relaxation of chambers must be coordinated cardiac muscle tissue differs from smooth and skeletal muscle tissues

More information

MEASURING AND RECORDING BLOOD PRESSURE

MEASURING AND RECORDING BLOOD PRESSURE MEASURING AND RECORDING BLOOD PRESSURE INTRODUCTION The blood pressure, along with the body temperature, pulse, and respirations, is one of the vital signs. These measurements are used to quickly, easily,

More information

2.2.1 Pressure and flow rate along a pipe: a few fundamental concepts

2.2.1 Pressure and flow rate along a pipe: a few fundamental concepts 1.1 INTRODUCTION Single-cell organisms live in direct contact with the environment from where they derive nutrients and into where they dispose of their waste. For living systems containing multiple cells,

More information

Page 1. Introduction The blood vessels of the body form a closed delivery system that begins and ends at the heart.

Page 1. Introduction The blood vessels of the body form a closed delivery system that begins and ends at the heart. Anatomy Review: Blood Vessel Structure & Function Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1. Introduction The blood vessels

More information

Blood Pressure Guidelines and Screening Techniques

Blood Pressure Guidelines and Screening Techniques Blood Pressure Guidelines and Screening Techniques Connie M. Kracher, PhD, MSD Continuing Education Units: 1 hour Taking patients blood pressure during dental examinations is critical to their overall

More information

OEM MAXNIBP Frequently Asked Questions

OEM MAXNIBP Frequently Asked Questions Frequently Asked Questions Why does the monitor sometimes inflate the BP cuff, then shortly thereafter reinflate the cuff? How will I know if the monitor is experiencing motion artifact during a measurement?

More information

Upper Arm Blood Pressure Monitor SC 6800. Instructions for use

Upper Arm Blood Pressure Monitor SC 6800. Instructions for use Upper Arm Blood Pressure Monitor SC 6800 Instructions for use Contents page Introduction... 3 Features of the SC 6800. 3 Safety instructions... 4 WHO-Interpretation of blood pressure readings... 4 Device

More information

Subminiature Load Cell Model 8417

Subminiature Load Cell Model 8417 w Technical Product Information Subminiature Load Cell 1. Introduction... 2 2. Preparing for use... 2 2.1 Unpacking... 2 2.2 Using the instrument for the first time... 2 2.3 Grounding and potential connection...

More information

Lecture 5 Hemodynamics. Description of fluid flow. The equation of continuity

Lecture 5 Hemodynamics. Description of fluid flow. The equation of continuity 1 Lecture 5 Hemodynamics Description of fluid flow Hydrodynamics is the part of physics, which studies the motion of fluids. It is based on the laws of mechanics. Hemodynamics studies the motion of blood

More information

The Body s Transport System

The Body s Transport System Circulation Name Date Class The Body s Transport System This section describes how the heart, blood vessels, and blood work together to carry materials throughout the body. Use Target Reading Skills As

More information

Manual Blood Pressure Measurement

Manual Blood Pressure Measurement Manual Blood Pressure Measurement 1 Peter Mahoney, CETL Clinical Skills Facilitator Measuring Blood Pressure manually can be difficult if not practised regularly. However it is important to be able to

More information

Factors Affecting Blood Pressure and Heart Rate

Factors Affecting Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Factors Affecting Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Pamela Kay Runyan Chester Nimitz Academy; San Antonio, TX Research Host: Dr. Vernon S. Bishop and Dr. Jeremiah Herlihy The University of Texas Health Center

More information

Automatic Wrist Blood Pressure Monitor with

Automatic Wrist Blood Pressure Monitor with Instruction Manual Automatic Wrist Blood Pressure Monitor with Model HEM-609 ENGLISH ESPAÑOL CONTENTS Before Using the Monitor Introduction...................................... 3 Important Safety Notes.............................

More information

Note: The left and right sides of the heart must pump exactly the same volume of blood when averaged over a period of time

Note: The left and right sides of the heart must pump exactly the same volume of blood when averaged over a period of time page 1 HEART AS A PUMP A. Functional Anatomy of the Heart 1. Two pumps, arranged in series a. right heart: receives blood from the systemic circulation (via the great veins and vena cava) and pumps blood

More information

AgoraLink Agora for Life Science Technologies Linköpings Universitet Kurs i Fysiologisk mätteknik Biofluidflöden

AgoraLink Agora for Life Science Technologies Linköpings Universitet Kurs i Fysiologisk mätteknik Biofluidflöden AgoraLink Agora for Life Science Technologies Linköpings Universitet Kurs i Fysiologisk mätteknik Biofluidflöden Fysiologisk mätteknik Anatomy of the heart The complex myocardium structure right ventricle

More information

Hemodynamic Monitoring: Principles to Practice M. L. Cheatham, MD, FACS, FCCM

Hemodynamic Monitoring: Principles to Practice M. L. Cheatham, MD, FACS, FCCM SUMMARY HEMODYNAMIC MONITORING: FROM PRINCIPLES TO PRACTICE Michael L. Cheatham, MD, FACS, FCCM Director, Surgical Intensive Care Units Orlando Regional Medical Center Orlando, Florida Fluid-filled catheters

More information

Electrocardiography I Laboratory

Electrocardiography I Laboratory Introduction The body relies on the heart to circulate blood throughout the body. The heart is responsible for pumping oxygenated blood from the lungs out to the body through the arteries and also circulating

More information

oil liquid water water liquid Answer, Key Homework 2 David McIntyre 1

oil liquid water water liquid Answer, Key Homework 2 David McIntyre 1 Answer, Key Homework 2 David McIntyre 1 This print-out should have 14 questions, check that it is complete. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page: find all choices before making

More information

Exchange solutes and water with cells of the body

Exchange solutes and water with cells of the body Chapter 8 Heart and Blood Vessels Three Types of Blood Vessels Transport Blood Arteries Carry blood away from the heart Transport blood under high pressure Capillaries Exchange solutes and water with cells

More information

Ultrasound Technologies. PD1v. vascular pocket doppler. Operating Instructions

Ultrasound Technologies. PD1v. vascular pocket doppler. Operating Instructions Ultrasound Technologies PD1v vascular pocket doppler Operating Instructions Before using your Pocket Doppler for the first time, please read these operating instructions carefully. 1 INTRODUCTION The UltraTec

More information

SURVEY METHODS Procedure: Blood Pressure and Pulse

SURVEY METHODS Procedure: Blood Pressure and Pulse SURVEY METHODS Procedure: Blood Pressure and Pulse 1. Purpose This Blood Pressure and Pulse Manual of Operational Procedure (MOP) outlines the steps that field team members should follow when taking and

More information

Responses to Static (Isometric) Exercise

Responses to Static (Isometric) Exercise Responses to Static (Isometric) Exercise Suggestions for Teachers Background Static exercise involves the contraction of skeletal muscle without a change in muscle length, hence the alternative term, isometric

More information

Provided by the American Venous Forum: veinforum.org

Provided by the American Venous Forum: veinforum.org CHAPTER 1 NORMAL VENOUS CIRCULATION Original author: Frank Padberg Abstracted by Teresa L.Carman Introduction The circulatory system is responsible for circulating (moving) blood throughout the body. The

More information

AMBULATORY BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORING QUICK START GUIDE

AMBULATORY BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORING QUICK START GUIDE C A R D I O P E R F E C T AMBULATORY BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORING QUICK START GUIDE UNDERSTANDING ERROR CODES ERROR CODE DESCRIPTION 1 Unknown error 2 This can indicate one of the following problems: After

More information

Human Anatomy and Physiology II Laboratory

Human Anatomy and Physiology II Laboratory Human Anatomy and Physiology II Laboratory The Circulation (Two Weeks) 1 This lab involves two weeks work studying the vasculature of the human body. Both weeks involve the exercise in the lab manual entitled

More information

Milwaukee School of Engineering Gerrits@msoe.edu. Case Study: Factors that Affect Blood Pressure Instructor Version

Milwaukee School of Engineering Gerrits@msoe.edu. Case Study: Factors that Affect Blood Pressure Instructor Version Case Study: Factors that Affect Blood Pressure Instructor Version Goal This activity (case study and its associated questions) is designed to be a student-centered learning activity relating to the factors

More information

Flow Measurement Options for Pipeline and Open Channel Flow

Flow Measurement Options for Pipeline and Open Channel Flow Flow Measurement Options for Pipeline and Open Channel Flow October 2013 Presented by Molly Skorpik - 2013 Montana Association of Dam and Canal Systems Conference Irrigation Training and Research Center

More information

Overview of the Cardiovascular System

Overview of the Cardiovascular System Overview of the Cardiovascular System 2 vascular (blood vessel) loops: Pulmonary circulation: from heart to lungs and back) Systemic circulation: from heart to other organs and back Flow through systemic

More information

Experiment 3 Pipe Friction

Experiment 3 Pipe Friction EML 316L Experiment 3 Pipe Friction Laboratory Manual Mechanical and Materials Engineering Department College of Engineering FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY Nomenclature Symbol Description Unit A cross-sectional

More information

Measurement of Blood Pressure

Measurement of Blood Pressure Measurement of Blood Pressure Ambulatory and Home Blood Pressure Monitoring BHS Non Medical Prescribing Update MSc. Management of Hypertension in Primary Care University of Birmingham February 2013 Louise

More information

Vtial sign #1: PULSE. Vital Signs: Assessment and Interpretation. Factors that influence pulse rate: Importance of Vital Signs

Vtial sign #1: PULSE. Vital Signs: Assessment and Interpretation. Factors that influence pulse rate: Importance of Vital Signs Vital Signs: Assessment and Interpretation Elma I. LeDoux, MD, FACP, FACC Associate Professor of Medicine Vtial sign #1: PULSE Reflects heart rate (resting 60-90/min) Should be strong and regular Use 2

More information

CONTROL OF BLOOD FLOW AND BLOOD PRESSURE (Lectures 3b and 4)

CONTROL OF BLOOD FLOW AND BLOOD PRESSURE (Lectures 3b and 4) CONTROL OF BLOOD FLOW AND BLOOD PRESSURE (Lectures 3b and 4) 63 CONTROL OF BLOOD FLOW 1) REASON: Body needs different levels of nutrient delivery and metabolic removal for differing levels of activities

More information

3 rd Russian-Bavarian Conference on Bio-Medical Engineering

3 rd Russian-Bavarian Conference on Bio-Medical Engineering 3 rd Russian-Bavarian Conference on Bio-Medical Engineering Blood Pressure Estimation based on Pulse Transit Time and Compensation of Vertical Position Dipl.-Inform. Med. Christian Douniama Dipl.-Ing.

More information

Aids needed for demonstrations: viscous fluid (water), tubes (pipes), injections, paper, stopwatches, vessels,, weights

Aids needed for demonstrations: viscous fluid (water), tubes (pipes), injections, paper, stopwatches, vessels,, weights 1 Viscous and turbulent flow Level: high school (16-17 years) hours (2 hours class teaching, 2 hours practical excercises) Content: 1. Viscous flow 2. Poiseuille s law 3. Passing from laminar to turbulent

More information

Paul Clements, SpR in Anaesthetics, Hope Hospital, Salford, UK. Carl Gwinnutt, Consultant Anaesthetist, Hope Hospital, Salford, UK.

Paul Clements, SpR in Anaesthetics, Hope Hospital, Salford, UK. Carl Gwinnutt, Consultant Anaesthetist, Hope Hospital, Salford, UK. The Physics of Flow Paul Clements, SpR in Anaesthetics, Hope Hospital, Salford, UK. Carl Gwinnutt, Consultant Anaesthetist, Hope Hospital, Salford, UK. Introduction Flow is defined as the quantity of fluid

More information

Blood vessels. transport blood throughout the body

Blood vessels. transport blood throughout the body Circulatory System Parts and Organs Blood vessels transport blood throughout the body Arteries blood vessels that carry blood AWAY from the heart Pulmonary arteries carry the deoxygenated blood from heart

More information

Indirect Blood Pressure Measurement

Indirect Blood Pressure Measurement P r o c e d u r e s P r o C A R D I O L O G Y Peer Reviewed Indirect Blood Pressure Measurement Maintenance of appropriate systemic arterial blood pressure is vital for survival. Because many common situations

More information

Electrocardiogram and Heart Sounds

Electrocardiogram and Heart Sounds Electrocardiogram and Heart Sounds An introduction to the recording and analysis of electrocardiograms, and the sounds of the heart. Written by Staff of ADInstruments Introduction The beating of the heart

More information

Laminar and Turbulent flow. Flow Sensors. Reynolds Number. Thermal flow Sensor. Flow and Flow rate. R = Mass Flow controllers

Laminar and Turbulent flow. Flow Sensors. Reynolds Number. Thermal flow Sensor. Flow and Flow rate. R = Mass Flow controllers Flow and Flow rate. Laminar and Turbulent flow Laminar flow: smooth, orderly and regular Mechanical sensors have inertia, which can integrate out small variations due to turbulence Turbulent flow: chaotic

More information

A PATIENT S GUIDE TO CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION

A PATIENT S GUIDE TO CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION A PATIENT S GUIDE TO CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION The science of medicine. The compassion to heal. This teaching booklet is designed to introduce you to cardiac catheterization. In the following pages, we will

More information

Factors Affecting Blood Pressure. Vessel Elasticity Blood Volume Cardiac Output

Factors Affecting Blood Pressure. Vessel Elasticity Blood Volume Cardiac Output Factors that Affect Pressure Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1. Introduction pressure is affected by several factors:

More information

Functions of Blood System. Blood Cells

Functions of Blood System. Blood Cells Functions of Blood System Transport: to and from tissue cells Nutrients to cells: amino acids, glucose, vitamins, minerals, lipids (as lipoproteins). Oxygen: by red blood corpuscles (oxyhaemoglobin - 4

More information

UW MEDICINE PATIENT EDUCATION. Aortic Stenosis. What is heart valve disease? What is aortic stenosis?

UW MEDICINE PATIENT EDUCATION. Aortic Stenosis. What is heart valve disease? What is aortic stenosis? UW MEDICINE PATIENT EDUCATION Aortic Stenosis Causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment This handout describes aortic stenosis, a narrowing of the aortic valve in your heart. It also explains how this

More information

Heart and Vascular System Practice Questions

Heart and Vascular System Practice Questions Heart and Vascular System Practice Questions Student: 1. The pulmonary veins are unusual as veins because they are transporting. A. oxygenated blood B. de-oxygenated blood C. high fat blood D. nutrient-rich

More information

Cardiac Catheterization

Cardiac Catheterization Page 1 Cardiac Catheterization What Other Terms Are Used To Describe Cardiac Catheterization? Heart Cath (catheter) Angiogram What Is Cardiac Catheterization? This procedure is nonsurgical and is performed

More information

Direct Arterial Blood Pressure Monitoring Angel M. Rivera CVT, VTS (ECC) Animal Emergency Center Glendale, WI March 2003

Direct Arterial Blood Pressure Monitoring Angel M. Rivera CVT, VTS (ECC) Animal Emergency Center Glendale, WI March 2003 Direct Arterial Blood Pressure Monitoring Angel M. Rivera CVT, VTS (ECC) Animal Emergency Center Glendale, WI March 2003 Introduction Direct measurement of arterial blood pressure is obtained via a peripheral

More information

huidige en toekomstige hemodynamische bewaking

huidige en toekomstige hemodynamische bewaking huidige en toekomstige hemodynamische bewaking Stefan De Hert Department of Anesthesiology Ghent University Hospital Ghent University Belgium disclosures? 2 hemodynamic monitoring? ~ adequacy of organ

More information

CARDIO-VASCULAR SYSTEM MODULE. Academic Year 2004-2005 Study Guide

CARDIO-VASCULAR SYSTEM MODULE. Academic Year 2004-2005 Study Guide CARDIO-VASCULAR SYSTEM MODULE Academic Year 2004-2005 Study Guide CVS Objectives At the end of this part of the course the student should be able to recognize: 1. The histology and ultra-structure of the

More information

Cardiac Catheterization in Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension

Cardiac Catheterization in Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension Cardiac Catheterization in Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension Russel Hirsch, M.D. And James Tarver, M.D. Cincinnati Chldren s Hospital Medical Center And Orlando Heart Center Disclosures Russel Hirsch

More information

Pressure Sensor Based Estimation of Pulse Transit Time

Pressure Sensor Based Estimation of Pulse Transit Time International Journal of Information & Computation Technology. ISSN 0974-2239 Volume 4, Number 13 (2014), pp. 1321-1328 International Research Publications House http://www. irphouse.com Pressure Sensor

More information

PICC/Midclavicular/Midline Catheter

PICC/Midclavicular/Midline Catheter 47 PICC/Midclavicular/Midline Catheter Introduction- PICC/ MCV/ Midline You have a PICC/Midclavicular/Midline (peripherally inserted) catheter. This catheter should make receiving I.V. medicines or solutions

More information

INTERFERENCE OF SOUND WAVES

INTERFERENCE OF SOUND WAVES 1/2016 Sound 1/8 INTERFERENCE OF SOUND WAVES PURPOSE: To measure the wavelength, frequency, and propagation speed of ultrasonic sound waves and to observe interference phenomena with ultrasonic sound waves.

More information

Contents. Microfluidics - Jens Ducrée Physics: Fluid Dynamics 1

Contents. Microfluidics - Jens Ducrée Physics: Fluid Dynamics 1 Contents 1. Introduction 2. Fluids 3. Physics of Microfluidic Systems 4. Microfabrication Technologies 5. Flow Control 6. Micropumps 7. Sensors 8. Ink-Jet Technology 9. Liquid Handling 10.Microarrays 11.Microreactors

More information

FLUID FLOW Introduction General Description

FLUID FLOW Introduction General Description FLUID FLOW Introduction Fluid flow is an important part of many processes, including transporting materials from one point to another, mixing of materials, and chemical reactions. In this experiment, you

More information

Chapter 16: Circulation

Chapter 16: Circulation Section 1 (The Body s Transport System) Chapter 16: Circulation 7 th Grade Cardiovascular system (the circulatory system) includes the heart, blood vessels, and blood carries needed substances to the cells

More information

PTA 210 PTA Technique. Vital Signs

PTA 210 PTA Technique. Vital Signs PTA 210 PTA Technique Vital Signs Review Last Lecture Why learn aseptic technique? 3 modes of infection transmission 3 levels of cleanliness Standard precautions (hand hygiene, PPE, respiratory hygiene,

More information

Living with Low Blood Pressure

Living with Low Blood Pressure Living with Low Blood Pressure Understand the medical jargon and tips on how to cope with low Blood Pressure (BP) What is low blood pressure? Blood pressure (BP) is measured in millimetres of mercury (mm

More information

Head Loss in Pipe Flow ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids

Head Loss in Pipe Flow ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids Head Loss in Pipe Flow ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids Dr. J. M. Meyers Dr. D. G. Fletcher Dr. Y. Dubief 1. Introduction Last lab you investigated flow loss in a pipe due to the roughness

More information

Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2011; 7: 709 717. Published online 2011 November 30. doi: 10.2147/VHRM.S27193 PMCID: PMC3237100

Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2011; 7: 709 717. Published online 2011 November 30. doi: 10.2147/VHRM.S27193 PMCID: PMC3237100 Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2011; 7: 709 717. Published online 2011 November 30. doi: 10.2147/VHRM.S27193 PMCID: PMC3237100 Validation of four automatic devices for self-measurement of blood pressure according

More information

Circulation Stations

Circulation Stations Circulation Stations This worksheet corresponds with stations around the classrooms. Work in groups of 3 and do the stations in any order. Name: Station 1: Blood smear under a microscope Materials: - Microscope

More information

Percutaneous Abscess Drainage

Percutaneous Abscess Drainage Scan for mobile link. Percutaneous Abscess Drainage An abscess is an infected fluid collection within the body. Percutaneous abscess drainage uses imaging guidance to place a thin needle through the skin

More information

Focused on a 5K: Strong Strides with Resistance Training

Focused on a 5K: Strong Strides with Resistance Training HSW-LR937 Focused on a 5K: Strong Strides with Resistance Training Often when we get focused on one type of activity such as walking or running we forget about the benefits of adding other activities to

More information

Physics 1114: Unit 6 Homework: Answers

Physics 1114: Unit 6 Homework: Answers Physics 1114: Unit 6 Homework: Answers Problem set 1 1. A rod 4.2 m long and 0.50 cm 2 in cross-sectional area is stretched 0.20 cm under a tension of 12,000 N. a) The stress is the Force (1.2 10 4 N)

More information

The EasySense unit can detect that the Smart Q Heart Rate Sensor is connected and the range it is set to.

The EasySense unit can detect that the Smart Q Heart Rate Sensor is connected and the range it is set to. Heart Rate Sensor Heart Rate Sensor (Product No PC-3147) Pulse rate Range: 0 to 200 bpm Resolution: 1 bpm Waveform Range: -2000 to 2000 mv Resolution: 1 mv Introduction The Smart Q Heart Rate Sensor monitors

More information

Heat. LD Physics Leaflets. Determining the adiabatic exponent c P /c V of various gases using the gas elastic resonance apparatus P2.5.3.

Heat. LD Physics Leaflets. Determining the adiabatic exponent c P /c V of various gases using the gas elastic resonance apparatus P2.5.3. WZ 013-06 Heat Kinetic theory of gases Specific heat of gases LD Physics Leaflets P..3. Determining the adiabatic exponent c P /c V of various gases using the gas elastic resonance apparatus Experiment

More information

Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics Applied Fluid Mechanics Sixth Edition Robert L. Mott University of Dayton PEARSON Prentkv Pearson Education International CHAPTER 1 THE NATURE OF FLUIDS AND THE STUDY OF FLUID MECHANICS 1.1 The Big Picture

More information

The science of medicine. The compassion to heal.

The science of medicine. The compassion to heal. A PATIENT S GUIDE TO ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY STUDIES OF THE HEART The science of medicine. The compassion to heal. This teaching booklet is designed to introduce you to electrophysiology studies of the heart.

More information

Section Two: Arterial Pressure Monitoring

Section Two: Arterial Pressure Monitoring Section Two: Arterial Pressure Monitoring Indications An arterial line is indicated for blood pressure monitoring for the patient with any medical or surgical condition that compromises cardiac output,

More information

A Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of Various Heart Valves and Aortic Conduits, on Coronary Filling

A Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of Various Heart Valves and Aortic Conduits, on Coronary Filling A Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of Various Heart Valves and Aortic Conduits, on Coronary Filling Joseph A. Knight, B.S. University of South Florida, Chemical Engineering Karl Muffly, PhD University

More information

Lab Exercise 1: Acoustic Waves

Lab Exercise 1: Acoustic Waves Lab Exercise 1: Acoustic Waves Contents 1-1 PRE-LAB ASSIGNMENT................. 2 1-3.1 Spreading Factor: Spherical Waves........ 2 1-3.2 Interference In 3-D................. 3 1-4 EQUIPMENT........................

More information

FLOAT SWITCHES FLOW SWITCHES FOR LIQUIDS PRESSURE SWITCHES

FLOAT SWITCHES FLOW SWITCHES FOR LIQUIDS PRESSURE SWITCHES 01D351-GB FLOAT SWITCHES FLOW SWITCHES FOR LIQUIDS PRESSURE SWITCHES DOLOMIT FLOAT SWITCHES The DOLOMIT float switches find application in liquid level control in tanks and wells; they require connection

More information

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Risk factors are traits and life-style habits that increase a person's chances of having coronary artery and vascular disease. Some risk factors cannot be changed or

More information

Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty (PTA) and Stenting For PVS Patients

Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty (PTA) and Stenting For PVS Patients Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty (PTA) and Stenting For PVS Patients There are two types of blood vessels in the body arteries and veins. Arteries carry blood rich in oxygen from the heart to all

More information

Reading Assignment: Tasks for the Veterinary Assistant, pages 467-473, Appendix L, O and P

Reading Assignment: Tasks for the Veterinary Assistant, pages 467-473, Appendix L, O and P Patient Monitoring Reading Assignment: Tasks for the Veterinary Assistant, pages 467-473, Appendix L, O and P Patient monitoring during surgery is an extremely important task that is commonly the responsibility

More information

ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I. Part 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts

ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I. Part 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I Part 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts These presentations are prepared by Dr. Cüneyt Sert Mechanical Engineering Department Middle East Technical University Ankara, Turkey csert@metu.edu.tr

More information

What Effects Does Exercise Have on You?

What Effects Does Exercise Have on You? What Effects Does Exercise Have on You? Suggestions for Teachers Purpose To explore the responses of the heart and blood pressure to exercise Objectives Materials 1) To learn how to take a pulse and blood

More information

Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) for Outpatient

Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) for Outpatient Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) for Outpatient Introduction A Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter, or PICC line, is a thin, long, soft plastic tube inserted into a vein of the arm. It

More information

Chapter 10. Flow Rate. Flow Rate. Flow Measurements. The velocity of the flow is described at any

Chapter 10. Flow Rate. Flow Rate. Flow Measurements. The velocity of the flow is described at any Chapter 10 Flow Measurements Material from Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements; Figliola, Third Edition Flow Rate Flow rate can be expressed in terms of volume flow rate (volume/time) or mass

More information

Blood Pressure Monitor Using Flexis QE128 Gabriel Sanchez RTAC Americas

Blood Pressure Monitor Using Flexis QE128 Gabriel Sanchez RTAC Americas Freescale Semiconductor Application Note Document Number: AN3500 Rev. 0, 08/2007 Blood Pressure Monitor Using Flexis QE128 by: Gabriel Sanchez RTAC Americas 1 Introduction Product designers and developers

More information

X-Plain Subclavian Inserted Central Catheter (SICC Line) Reference Summary

X-Plain Subclavian Inserted Central Catheter (SICC Line) Reference Summary X-Plain Subclavian Inserted Central Catheter (SICC Line) Reference Summary Introduction A Subclavian Inserted Central Catheter, or subclavian line, is a long thin hollow tube inserted in a vein under the

More information

Circulatory System Review

Circulatory System Review Circulatory System Review 1. Draw a table to describe the similarities and differences between arteries and veins? Anatomy Direction of blood flow: Oxygen concentration: Arteries Thick, elastic smooth

More information

Differential Relations for Fluid Flow. Acceleration field of a fluid. The differential equation of mass conservation

Differential Relations for Fluid Flow. Acceleration field of a fluid. The differential equation of mass conservation Differential Relations for Fluid Flow In this approach, we apply our four basic conservation laws to an infinitesimally small control volume. The differential approach provides point by point details of

More information

Mercury is poured into a U-tube as in Figure (14.18a). The left arm of the tube has crosssectional

Mercury is poured into a U-tube as in Figure (14.18a). The left arm of the tube has crosssectional Chapter 14 Fluid Mechanics. Solutions of Selected Problems 14.1 Problem 14.18 (In the text book) Mercury is poured into a U-tube as in Figure (14.18a). The left arm of the tube has crosssectional area

More information

FLUID FLOW STREAMLINE LAMINAR FLOW TURBULENT FLOW REYNOLDS NUMBER

FLUID FLOW STREAMLINE LAMINAR FLOW TURBULENT FLOW REYNOLDS NUMBER VISUAL PHYSICS School of Physics University of Sydney Australia FLUID FLOW STREAMLINE LAMINAR FLOW TURBULENT FLOW REYNOLDS NUMBER? What type of fluid flow is observed? The above pictures show how the effect

More information

The Valve Clinic. at Baptist Health Madisonville

The Valve Clinic. at Baptist Health Madisonville The Valve Clinic at Baptist Health Madisonville The Valve Clinic at Baptist Health Madisonville Welcome to the Baptist Health Madisonville Valve Clinic at the Jack L. Hamman Heart & Vascular Center. We

More information

An abdominal ultrasound produces a picture of the organs and other structures in the upper abdomen.

An abdominal ultrasound produces a picture of the organs and other structures in the upper abdomen. Scan for mobile link. Ultrasound - Abdomen Ultrasound imaging of the abdomen uses sound waves to produce pictures of the structures within the upper abdomen. It is used to help diagnose pain or distention

More information

Going home with your Tunneled Catheter

Going home with your Tunneled Catheter Going home with your Tunneled Catheter Your Tunneled Catheter was put in by on Interventional Radiologist Date Your Tunneled Catheter was put in at: McMaster University Medical Centre Hamilton General

More information