The Russian Revolution Webquest and Video Analysis- Key

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1 Name: The Russian Revolution Webquest and Video Analysis- Key Directions: Complete the following questions using resources from the links listed below: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9n8hsxqapjy (Ted-Ed Video) (BBC History) To begin this assignment, watch the Ted-Ed video: History vs. Vladimir Lenin and then answer the following questions. 1. When was serfdom- a form of slavery where farmers are bound to their land- abolished in Russia? - Serfdom was abolished in Russia in Why did few Russians see an improvement in their quality of life after serfdom was abolished? - Factory bosses treated their workers far worse than landlords ever did. - Russian factory workers had11 hour days and received little pay.

2 3. What reforms did the Tsar introduce in 1905 following an attempted revolution? Were these reforms effective? - The Tsar had a constitution created. - He had an elected parliament created- the Duma. - These were not very effective since the Tsar maintained absolute power and could dissolve the Duma whenever he wanted. 4. Why was Lenin determined to remove the Tsar from power? - His brother had been executed by the previous Tsar for revolutionary activities. - Nicholas II continued the same mass repression and executions as his father. - Nicholas II got Russia involved in World War I which was unpopular. 5. What uprising forced the Tsar to abdicate? - The uprising of February 1917 forced the Tsar to abdicate. 6. Who assumed power in Russia following the abdication of the Tsar? - The Duma formed a provisional government led by Alexander Kerensky. 7. How did Lenin return to Russia from exile in Switzerland? - The Germans sent Lenin home to instigate rebellion and start riots. 8. When did Lenin assume power in Russia? - Lenin and his Bolsheviks assumed power in October Why did the Bolsheviks murder the Tsar and the entire Romanov family? - The other European powers would have attempted to restore the Tsar to the throne. - Any heirs to Nicholas II would have been seen as the legitimate rulers so they had to be killed. 10. Who did Lenin not want to assume power following his death? Was his warning listened to? - Lenin did not want Stalin to assume power due to how dangerous he was. - His warning came too late and Stalin assumed power.

3 11. What kind of regime in Russia is Lenin responsible for establishing? - Lenin is responsible for establishing a repressive, totalitarian regime which lasted for decades 12. How did Lenin and his Bolsheviks have a positive impact on the history of Russia? - Before Lenin, Russia was a backwards monarchy inhabited by illiterate peasants. - After Lenin, Russia boasted one of the best educated populations in the world, was a place of opportunity for women, and had some of the most important scientific advancements. - Nearly everyone had a roof over their head and had food. For the next section of the assignment, proceed to the BBC History website listed on the front page, read the article, and then answer the following questions. 13. In 1913, how large and diverse was the Russian Empire, which the Romanov family ruled? - He and his dynasty ruled over a huge empire, stretching from central Europe to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic to the borders of Afghanistan. - Russia covered one-sixth of the land surface of the globe, and was populated by almost 150 million people of more than a hundred different nationalities. 14. What events in 1905 had shaken the Russian Empire? - Russia had been defeated in a war with Japan. - The Revolution of 1905, when revolts and uprisings had forced the Tsar to concede civil rights and a parliament to the Russian people. 15. How did the early battles of World War I destroy any hope of national unity? - At Tannenberg and the First Battle of the Masurian Lakes, in 1914, Russia lost two entire armies (over 250,000 men). 16. By 1915, how much Russian territory had fallen to the Central Powers? - By the middle of 1915 all of Russian Poland and Lithuania, and most of Latvia, were overrun by the German army.

4 17. How did the military situation improve in 1916? - The supply of rifles and artillery shells to the Eastern Front was vastly improved. - In the Brusilov Offensive of June 1916, Russia achieved significant victories over the Austrians - capturing Galicia and the Bukovina. - Russia was also holding her own in Transcaucasia, against Turkey. A map of Europe during World War I which shows the location of the Eastern Front 18. Why did this success on the battlefield not translate to success on the home front? - Many factors - including the militarisation of industry and crises in food supply - threatened disaster on the home front. - There were rumours that the tsarina, Alexandra, and her favourite advisor, Rasputin, were German spies. - Critics of the regime were asking whether Russia's misfortunes - 1,700,000 military dead and 5,000,000 wounded - were a consequence of 'stupidity or treason'.

5 19. What events led to Nicholas II abdicating in February 1917? - Food riots, demonstrations and a mutiny at the Petrograd Garrison in February 1917 forced Nicholas II to abdicate as war still continued. 20. Who held the real power in Russia following the abdication of the Tsar? - Real power in Russia after the February Revolution lay with the socialist leaders of the Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies, who were elected by popular mandate. 21. How did the Soviets want to approach the war now that the Tsar was gone? - The Soviet leaders rather half-heartedly supported a defensive war. - However, they were more committed to an unrealistic programme of ending the conflict, through a general peace 'without annexations or indemnities. - This was a formula that neither the Allies nor Germany would ever accept. 22. How much money did Germany spend trying to foment disorder in Russia, including transporting Lenin home? - They spent roughly 30 million marks. 23. Why was the Russian offensive of 1917 a disaster? - Peasant soldiers deserted en masse to join the revolution, and fraternisation with the enemy became common. 24. What caused the downfall of the provisional government in October 1917? - Most of the Russian generals and forces of the political right threw their weight behind a plan for a military coup, under the Russian Army's commander-in-chief, General Kornilov- the coup failed. - The generals and the conservatives who had backed Kornilov felt betrayed by Kerensky (who arrested Kornilov after having appeared to have been in agreement with him) and would no longer defend the government - Kerensky's reputation with the moderate left and with the population at large plummeted when it became clear that he had initially supported Kornilov's plans for the restoration of the death penalty and for the dissolution of soldiers' revolutionary committees.

6 25. What promise did Lenin and the Bolsheviks make upon seizing power? - After taking power, the Bolsheviks promised to deliver 'Peace, Bread and Land' to the people of Russia. 26. What did Lenin hope would happen if the other belligerents didn t listen to his request for all nations to stop fighting? - He hoped to transform the world war into an international civil war, when the 'imperialist' powers refused to cease fighting and thereby revealed their ambitions. 27. When the Central Powers did agree to a peace treaty, causing Lenin s plan to backfire, who did the Bolsheviks send to negotiate? - Lenin's lieutenant, Trotsky, was sent to negotiate. 28. Why was Russia forced to sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, instead of waiting for the communist revolution to spread? - Germany resumed its invasion of Russia on the Eastern Front, pushing further east in five days of February 1918 than it had in the previous three years. 29. What did Russia lose in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk? - The treaty handed over Finland, Poland, the Baltic provinces, Ukraine and Transcaucasia to the Central Powers, together with one-third of the old empire's population, one-third of its agricultural land and three-quarters of its industries. 30. Due to outrage over the treaty, what internal conflict broke out in Russia? What was the name for the two sides in this conflict? - A civil war broke out. - The two sides were the Reds (the Bolsheviks) and the Whites (more conservative elements in Russia). 31. Why were the Reds able to push back the White forces which surrounded them? - The Reds were able to take advantage of internal lines of communication. - They could utilise the railways, arsenals, and the economy of the most populous provinces of the former empire. - By 1921 they had an army of almost five million soldiers.

7 32. Why were the Whites not an effective fighting force? - The Whites never commanded forces totalling more than 250,000 men at one time. - They were separated from each other by huge distances, and were based around the less developed peripheries of Russia. - The Whites underestimated the Bolsheviks' capacity to resist. - The White armies exhibited only brutality, venality, disorder and a lack of political and military direction. 33. Why did the Allied nations intervene in the Russian Civil War on the side of the Whites? - Their main interest was in the Great War, not the Russian Civil War. - Their desire was to try and reconstitute the Eastern Front, to ease the pressure on the Western Front. 34. How many people were killed in the Russian Civil War? - The civil war caused an estimated 10 million lives. 35. What legacy did the Russian Civil War and the Bolshevik victory leave behind? - It helped forge post-tsarist Russia's self-image as a strong country that had stood up to the bullying of the west, and that lay at the root of the Cold War.

8 Name: The Russian Revolution Webquest and Video Analysis Directions: Complete the following questions using resources from the links listed below: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9n8hsxqapjy (Ted-Ed Video) (BBC History) To begin this assignment, watch the Ted-Ed video: History vs. Vladimir Lenin and then answer the following questions. 1. When was serfdom- a form of slavery where farmers are bound to their land- abolished in Russia? 2. Why did few Russians see an improvement in their quality of life after serfdom was abolished?

9 3. What reforms did the Tsar introduce in 1905 following an attempted revolution? Were these reforms effective? 4. Why was Lenin determined to remove the Tsar from power? 5. What uprising forced the Tsar to abdicate? 6. Who assumed power in Russia following the abdication of the Tsar? 7. How did Lenin return to Russia from exile in Switzerland? 8. When did Lenin assume power in Russia? 9. Why did the Bolsheviks murder the Tsar and the entire Romanov family? 10. Who did Lenin not want to assume power following his death? Was his warning listened to?

10 11. What kind of regime in Russia is Lenin responsible for establishing? 12. How did Lenin and his Bolsheviks have a positive impact on the history of Russia? For the next section of the assignment, proceed to the BBC History website listed on the front page, read the article, and then answer the following questions. 13. In 1913, how large and diverse was the Russian Empire, which the Romanov family ruled? 14. What events in 1905 had shaken the Russian Empire? 15. How did the early battles of World War I destroy any hope of national unity? 16. By 1915, how much Russian territory had fallen to the Central Powers?

11 17. How did the military situation improve in 1916? A map of Europe during World War I which shows the location of the Eastern Front 18. Why did this success on the battlefield not translate to success on the home front?

12 19. What events led to Nicholas II abdicating in February 1917? 20. Who held the real power in Russia following the abdication of the Tsar? 21. How did the Soviets want to approach the war now that the Tsar was gone? 22. How much money did Germany spend trying to foment disorder in Russia, including transporting Lenin home? 23. Why was the Russian offensive of 1917 a disaster? 24. What caused the downfall of the provisional government in October 1917?

13 25. What promise did Lenin and the Bolsheviks make upon seizing power? 26. What did Lenin hope would happen if the other belligerents didn t listen to his request for all nations to stop fighting? 27. When the Central Powers did agree to a peace treaty, causing Lenin s plan to backfire, who did the Bolsheviks send to negotiate? 28. Why was Russia forced to sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, instead of waiting for the communist revolution to spread? 29. What did Russia lose in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk? 30. Due to outrage over the treaty, what internal conflict broke out in Russia? What was the name for the two sides in this conflict? 31. Why were the Reds able to push back the White forces which surrounded them?

14 32. Why were the Whites not an effective fighting force? 33. Why did the Allied nations intervene in the Russian Civil War on the side of the Whites? 34. How many people were killed in the Russian Civil War? 35. What legacy did the Russian Civil War and the Bolshevik victory leave behind?

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