Self and Peer Evaluation of Written Work Grade 10

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1 Ohio Standards Connection Writing Process Benchmark D Edit to improve sentence fluency, grammar and usage. Indicator 15 Proofread writing, edit to improve conventions (e.g., grammar, spelling, punctuation and capitalization), identify and correct fragments and runons, and eliminate inappropriate slang or informal language. Benchmark E Apply tools to judge the quality of their writing. Indicator 16 Apply tools (e.g., rubric, checklist and feedback) to judge the quality of writing. Benchmark F Prepare writing for publication that is legible, follows an appropriate format and uses techniques such as electronic resources and graphics. Indicator 17 Prepare for publication (e.g., for display or for sharing with others) writing that follows a manuscript form appropriate for the purpose, which could include such techniques as electronic resources, principles of design (e.g., margins, tabs, spacing, and columns) and graphics (e.g., drawings, charts and graphs) to enhance the final product. Lesson Summary: Because this lesson focuses on the editing and publishing phase of the writing process, students must have completed prewriting, drafting and revising of documents prior to starting. Students evaluate their own and each other s writing as they prepare their written work for publication. First, students use a checklist on their own draft. Then, they participate in a peer editing activity. After the peer evaluation, students have an opportunity to make any final edits and/or revisions to their deadline drafts. Estimated Duration: One hour and 30 minutes to two hours. Commentary: Because students work at different rates, this lesson is designed to be completed inside or outside of the classroom. It also can be used when students are working toward a preset deadline or in a writing workshop setting that gives them the opportunity to submit work as they complete it. The materials provide teachers with an opportunity to assess both process and product. The tools (rubrics, self-assessment and peer review sheets) are excellent. The methods (whole group, individual and small group) are conducive to learning for most students. Pre-Assessment: Observe students working through the stages of the writing process and students working drafts and assessment of prior documents. Scoring Guidelines: Use observational assessment data as well as ongoing assessment data to determine students active involvement in the writing process. Post-Assessment: Use the Generic Rubric for Evaluating Students Work, Attachment A, to assess the quality of the deadline draft (the student s product). 1

2 Use Revision Checklist, Attachment B, Self-Evaluation of Written Work, Attachment C and Peer Evaluation, Attachment D, to assess the quality of students writing processes. Scoring Guidelines: All rubric and evaluation sheets are attached and include performance criteria. Instructional Procedures: Day One 1. Students need to have copies of Generic Rubric for Evaluating Students Work, Attachment A, and their drafts. a. Review any of the areas of particular concern, confusion and/or emphasis for this particular writing assignment. b. Review and discuss with students the differences between exploratory, working and deadline drafts. 2. Distribute the Revision Checklist, Attachment B. a. Students work independently to complete the checklist. b. If students do not finish within the class period, the checklist should be completed at home. 3. After completing checklist, each student must complete a Self-Evaluation, Attachment C. Instructional Tips: Remember students work at different rates. For efficient use of the checklist, emphasize: the need for quality; that the checklist should be completed honestly and carefully; the need to read your own writing aloud during editing; one way to search for spelling errors many students have found it useful to read the document backwards. Rubrics and evaluation sheets are attached. Be certain students: understand each document; use them to evaluate and self-check; use them as a guide for work completion; use them to assist with collecting all work to be turned in with the deadline draft. Day Two 4. After students complete the self-evaluation, they select with your assistance partners at the same writing stage, read each others papers aloud and evaluate each other s writing with the Peer Evaluation Sheet, Attachment D. Instructional Tip: Use professional knowledge and understanding of the personalities and ability levels of students as they pair in this activity. It is important that the students are willing to give honest critiques that focus on the writing and not the writer. 2

3 5. After completing both parts of the peer evaluation, give students an opportunity to consider the comments they received and make additional edits and/or revisions to their drafts. a. Students need not make the suggested revisions in their papers; rather, they must consider the suggestions and, as a writer, consider the validity and appropriateness of the comments. b. On deadline day students must turn in all of their working drafts with their deadline drafts, including the checklist, self-evaluation and peer evaluation. Differentiated Instructional Support: Instruction is differentiated according to learner needs to help all learners either meet the intent of the specified indicator(s) or, if the indicator is already met, to advance beyond the specified indicator(s). The indicator requires students to improve sentence fluency, grammar and usage. The checklist enables students to use specific strategies to improve their writing, regardless of their current writing levels. Students will be able to use the rubric to focus on specific areas of their own writing. Activities in this lesson are designed to be completed individually and within pairs. Either the teacher or peer tutors can assist students having difficulties in particular areas. Students who struggle with writing can use the revision checklist in all of their classes for writing assignments and as a means to record progress throughout the year. Advanced writing students may start internalizing the revision checklist. These students should focus on the characteristics of an A paper on the rubric. Interdisciplinary Connections: These types of activities are important for students to use in the writing they have in any of the other content areas. As students learn to take purpose and audience into consideration and take responsibility for their own revising and editing, the quality of their written expression improves. Science Scientific Inquiry Standard Benchmark: A. Participate in and apply the processes of scientific investigation to create models and to design, conduct, evaluate and communicate the results of these investigations. Indicator: 2. Present scientific findings using clear language, accurate data, appropriate graphs, tables, maps and available technology. Materials and Resources: The inclusion of a specific resource in any lesson formulated by the Ohio Department of Education should not be interpreted as an endorsement of that particular resource, or any of its contents, by the Ohio Department of Education. The Ohio Department of Education does not endorse any particular resource. The Web addresses listed are for a given site s main page, therefore, it may be necessary to search within that site to find the specific information required for a given lesson. Please note that information published on the Internet changes over time, therefore the links provided may no longer contain the specific information related to a given lesson. Teachers are advised to preview all sites before using them with students. 3

4 For the teacher: all attachments For the students: applicable attachments plus a draft of their written work Vocabulary: deadline draft (a polished copy that can still be improved) editing (polishing mechanics, usage, grammar, and spelling) exploratory draft (an initial piece of writing that generates ideas) invention strategies (things you do to prepare for writing, e.g., webbing, outlining, brainstorming, or free writing) revising (adding, deleting, moving, and/or changing content) Technology Connections: Use a word processor to improve the look of the polished piece of writing or at any time during the writing process. Teach students to use all word processing tools (like spell check and grammar check) on your school s word processing program, but encourage students to depend on themselves, not the computer. Research Connections: Arter, Judith and Jay McTighe. Scoring Rubrics in the Classroom: Using Performance Criteria for Assessing and Improving Student Performance. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Corwin Press, An analytical trait rubric divides a product or performance into essential traits or dimensions so it can be judged separately one analyzes a product or performance for essential traits. A separate score is provided for each trait. Students: Judge complex performances involving several significant dimensions. Break performances into traits in order to more readily grasp the components of quality. Provide more specific feedback to students, parents and teachers. Zemelman, Steven, Harvey Daniels and Arthur Hyde. Best Practice: New Standards of Teaching and Learning in America's Schools. Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann, WRITING All children can and should write. Help students find real purposes for writing. Encourage students to take ownership and responsibility. Organize writing workshops where students journal in a cooperative, workshop setting. Realize effective writing programs involve the entire writing process. Give students real audiences and a classroom context of shared learning. Extend writing throughout the curriculum. Teach grammar and mechanics in context, at the editing stage of students writing. 4

5 CLASSROOM STRUCTURES Small-group activities Cooperative learning has been described by William Glasser (1990), David and Roger Johnston (1991), Yael and Shlomo Sharan (1992) and Robert Slavin (1985) among others. Manifestations Peer Response and Editing Classroom workshop Students use large scheduled periods of time for doing their own reading and writing. They collaborate freely with classmates and keep their own records and self-evaluate. Teachers take new roles as model and facilitator and teach to the teachable moments every day (Ruth Hubbard 1996, Elinor Ross, 1996). Attachments: Attachment A, Generic Rubric for Evaluating Students Work Attachment B, Revision Checklist Attachment C, Self-Evaluation of Written Work Attachment D, Peer Evaluation 5

6 Attachment A Generic Rubric for Evaluating Students Work A grade on a written assignment is the reflection of a series of judgments about the quality of ideas presented and the manner in which they are presented. The following are holistic descriptions of universal characteristics of writing. Use specific rubrics, adopted from and aligned to this generic rubric, for specific writing prompts. Additionally, specific guidelines should be used if and when you want to assess students abilities to use and/or apply specific, individual writing skills. (For example, assess specifically for correct comma usage, in addition to using the rubric to evaluate the draft as a whole, use a scoring guide that makes comma usage worth X number of points with points deducted for each comma error. Sometimes, you may wish to only assess specific skills; identifying the three or four areas and grade the paper on those areas only.) A This paper is well-organized throughout, down to the individual paragraphs. Sentences are carefully crafted with virtually no errors in punctuation, spelling, grammar or usage. Words are accurately chosen; informal language, slang or dialect is used only when appropriate. The paper is insightful and vivid. The writing is tight and effective throughout. B Although the paper is generally well-organized, the paragraph structure may sometimes be disjointed. The paper may have a few awkward passages and some errors in punctuation, spelling, grammar or usage, but these errors are not significant enough to distract the reader. The language at times may be too general; the paper lacks some of the insight in thought and/or precision in the writing of an A paper. C This paper responds to the assignment in an ordinary way. Although the paper is basically well-organized, individual paragraphs may be weak or out of place. The paper follows a logical plan and contains generally competent writing, although the language may at times be vague, imprecise or trite. Sentences may sometimes be awkwardly constructed, but their meaning will be clear. Errors in punctuation, spelling, grammar and usage are not highly distracting. D Although this paper may have a recognizable and appropriate thesis, the paper is poorly organized. The paper is understandable, although the writing may be imprecise, trite or vague. Some sentences or passages may be so confusing that their meaning is not clear. Errors in punctuation, spelling, grammar or usage are distracting. F This paper lacks a clear thesis, and the language is muddled and sometimes unclear. Errors in punctuation, spelling, grammar or usage are highly distracting. 6

7 Attachment B Revision Checklist Directions: Follow the steps below to examine your own essay. Check each off as you complete it and include this checklist stapled to your working draft. 1. Look at your opening sentence/paragraph; is it attention getting? Does it make the reader want to continue reading? 2. Do you include clear, well-developed examples, illustrations and/or ideas? 3. Have you broken your essay into appropriate paragraphs? You do not need to have five, but you should have more than one or two. 4. Have you used transitions to get smoothly from one idea to another? 5. Read the conclusion. Does it tie everything together well? Is the last sentence a clincher? Does it leave a good impression? 6. Look at your individual sentences: Check to see if you have a variety in length. You should have some long and medium sentences with a few short ones scattered throughout your work. Three short sentences in a row, for instance, should be revised. Check your sentence beginnings. Do you tend to repeat words or phrases? Revise those sentence beginnings that are repeated within each paragraph. Do you have too many subject-verb starts? Have you omitted there as a sentence beginning? Have you used action verbs and active voice verbs? Can you eliminate some forms of be (is, am, are, was, were)? Do any of your sentences begin with because? If so, make sure the first mark of punctuation in that sentence is a comma and not a period. 7. Highlight the topic sentence in each body paragraph. Do all of the sentences in each paragraph develop the idea expressed in the topic sentence? If not, revise the topic sentence or eliminate the sentences that don t fit. 8. Look at the first word of every paragraph. Do you use a variety of beginnings? If not, revise until you do. 9. Start at the end of your essay with your last sentence and read every sentence aloud. Is every sentence a complete thought whose meaning is clear? 7

8 Attachment C Self-Evaluation of Written Work After you complete the revision checklist, complete this self-evaluation of your paper. Writer s name Title of paper Introduction The best thing about the introduction is If I had more time to improve the introduction, I might Body The two best things about the body are The body s organization is clear because The body could be improved by Conclusion The best thing about the conclusion is To improve the conclusion, I might Overall Evaluation Comment on interest level, style, organization and development of ideas. 8

9 Attachment D Peer Evaluation After completing the self-evaluation, choose a partner for this peer evaluation. 1. Read each other s papers aloud to each other. Give your partner the opportunity to stop and make any corrections additions or deletions that he/she hears when listening to his/her own work. 2. After each writer has an opportunity to hear his/her work, individually complete this peer evaluation sheet. Writer s Name Title of paper Evaluator s Name Content Points Possible Points Earned Is the writing interesting? Does it achieve its purpose? Are there enough details? Are the ideas related to the topic? 25 Organization Are ideas and details arranged in an effective order? Are the connections between ideas, sentences and paragraphs clear? 20 Style Is the meaning of each sentence clear? Are the language and tone appropriate for the audience, topic and purpose? Do sentences read smoothly? Are there a variety of sentence types, lengths and beginnings? 20 Grammar and Usage Is the paper free of problems in grammar and usage? 15 9

10 Attachment D (continued) Punctuation, Capitalization and Spelling Is the paper free of problems in punctuation, capitalization and spelling? 15 Manuscript Form Is the paper free of problems in manuscript form? 5 Total pts. 100 When the writer revises, what should definitely remain in the draft? Suggest two specific things the writer could do to improve the paper. 10

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