Biomechanics of Resistance Exercise. Key Terms Range of Motion Movement Planes Muscle Actions

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1 Biomechanics of Resistance Exercise Key Terms Range of Motion Movement Planes Muscle Actions

2 Anatomical LocationsKey Terms Midline: The invisible line that divides the body or a single body part in half down the center. Anterior: The surface of the body that would be considered the front. o The pectorals are on the anterior aspect of the body Posterior: The surface of the body that would be considered the back. o The rhomboids are on the posterior aspect of the body Superior: Toward the head or upper part of a structure: o The humerus is superior to the radius Inferior: Toward the lower part of a structure o The tibia is inferior to the femur

3 Anatomical LocationsKey Terms Medial: The surface that is closer to the midline of the body. o The adductors are medial to the abductors Lateral: The surface that is further from the midline of the body. o The abductors are on the lateral aspect of the leg Proximal: Closer to the origin of a point of reference o The elbow is proximal to the wrist Distal: Further from the origin or point of reference o The foot is distal to the knee

4 Muscle MovementsKey Terms Agonist- (prime mover) the muscle most directly involved in bringing about a movement Antagonist- the muscle that slows down or stops the movement. Opposes the agonist muscle Synergist- Assists indirectly in a movement Muscle origin (proximal attachment)- the point closest to the midline of the body where the muscle attaches to the bone Muscle insertion (distal attachment)- the point farthest from the midline of the body where the muscle attaches to the bone Stabilizer muscles- muscles acting in a stabilizing role that aren t directly involved in lifting a weight, but instead keep certain parts of the body steady so that the primary working muscles can do their job properly. Anatomical Position- The body is erect, the arms are down at the sides, and the palms face forward.

5 Examples of Agonist vs. Antagonist Muscles Agonist (Prime Mover) Biceps Deltoids Pectoralis Major Rectus Abdominis Quadriceps Antagonist Triceps Latissimus Dorsi Trapezius/Rhomboids Erector Spinae Hamstrings

6 Types of Muscular Contractions Concentric Muscle Action- A muscle action in which the muscle shortens because the contractile force is greater than the resistive force. Eccentric Muscle Action- A muscle action in which the muscle lengthens because the contractile force is less than the resistive force. Isometric Muscle Action-A muscle action in which the muscle length does not change because the contractile force is equal to the resistive force.

7 The Three Movement Planes Sagittal Plane: Divides the body into right and left parts. o Primary movements include Flexion and Extension Frontal Plane: Divides the body into anterior and posterior parts. o Primary movements include Abduction, Adduction, and Lateral Flexion Transverse Plane: Divides the body into superior and inferior parts. o Primary movements include Pronation, Supination, and any rotation about a vertical axis.

8 Movement Planes Anatomical Position Anatomical Planes divide body or joint into 3 segments: Sagittal Frontal/Coronal Transverse/Horizontal

9 Basic Description of Movement Flexion : Decreasing the angle of a given joint. Extension : Returning a joint from flexion. Abduction : Movement away from the midline in the frontal plane. Adduction : Movement toward the midline in the frontal plane. Rotation : Movement counterclockwise or clockwise about a vertical axis Pronation: Internal rotation resulting in appendage facing downward Supination: External rotation resulting in appendage facing upward

10 Examples of Planes and Motions Plane Motion Example Sagittal Flexion/Extension Walking, squatting, overhead Frontal Abduction/adduction press Star Jump Transverse Side Flexion Lateral Arm Raise A great site to find more information

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