Cholesterol a biomolecule Bad cholesterol a strange tale Good cholesterol - indeed

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Cholesterol a biomolecule Bad cholesterol a strange tale Good cholesterol - indeed"

Transcription

1 Cholesterol a biomolecule Bad cholesterol a strange tale Good cholesterol - indeed Thomas B. Kuhn: University of Alaska, Cereon Biotechnology LLC This document is protected by copyright Dr. Thomas B. Kuhn All rights reserved Fall2015 OLLI 1

2 Cholesterol: the good, the bad, and the ugly Good Cholesterol Bad Cholesterol Ugly Cholesterol Fall2015 OLLI 2

3 Cholesterol: its just a molecule Cholesterol Fall2015 OLLI 3

4 Cholesterol a biomolecule Bad cholesterol a strange tale Good cholesterol - indeed Fall2015 OLLI 4

5 Cholesterol a biomolecule What is cholesterol? Where are the origins of cholesterol? Who transports cholesterol? What role(s) has cholesterol? Fall2015 OLLI 5

6 What is Cholesterol? Cholesterol is a Lipid Cholesterol is synthesized by all cells Cholesterol is taken up from extracellular sources (food) Cholesterol is vital for membrane integrity Cholesterol is a precursor for a plethora of biomolecules 25% of all Cholesterol is in the brain! Fall2015 OLLI 6

7 What is Cholesterol? Cholesterol is synthesized by our body Cholesterol is ingested through food sources Cholesterol has 27 carbon atoms All carbon atoms are derived from isoprene (C5 unit) Isoprene is generated from acetate Fall2015 OLLI 7

8 Origins of Cholesterol: Biosynthesis 4 major steps 4 major intermediates Acetate - the starting unit, most common metabolite Mevalonate key precursor to generate isoprene Isoprene curcial building block for many biomolecules Squalene principal carbon skeleton for all sterol-like compounds Fall2015 OLLI 8

9 Mevalonate 2 Acetates are fused to a ketone body Additional condensation of an acetate generates β-hydroxy-βmethylglutarate Reduction of β-hydroxy-βmethylglutarate by HMG-CoA reductase, HMG-CoA reductase is the key regulatory site of cholesterol synthesis Fall2015 OLLI 9

10 Squalene Consecutive condensation of isoprene (5 carbons) Geranyl (2 isoprenes, 10 carbons or 2x 5 carbons) Farnesyl (3 isoprenes, 15 carbons or 3 x 5 carbons) Squalene (2 farnesyl, 30 carbons = 2 x 15 carbons) Fall2015 OLLI 10

11 Cholesterol Fall2015 OLLI 11

12 Origins of Cholesterol: Cellular Uptake Fall2015 OLLI 12

13 Regulation of Cholesterol Origins HMG-CoA reductase classic feedback inhibition Sufficient Cholesterol signals cholesterol esters, blocks up take, and blocks synthesis Transcriptional via the Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) Opposing effect of insulin and glucagon Cross talk to blood sugar levels Fall2015 OLLI 13

14 Regulation of Cholesterol Origins Uptake of cholesterol is measured by sterol-sensing protein Binding of cholesterol to sterol sensing protein initiates degradation of HMG-CoA reductase Fall2015 OLLI 14

15 Cholesterol Transport Fall2015 OLLI 15

16 Cholesterol Transport Liver VLDL Blood Serum Lipid removal LDL t 1/2 = 2-4 d Tissue HDL Tissue Synthesis of steriods, bile acids etc LDL binds LDL receptor internalized delivery of cholesterol Fall2015 OLLI 16

17 Cholesterol Transport - Lipoproteins Cholesterol like other lipids virtually water insoluble Plasma lipoproteins are carriers Apoprotein (ApoB-100) in complex with lipids Lipoprotein complexes vary in density reflecting distinct functions Major Apolipoproteins are B and E Fall2015 OLLI 17

18 Fall2015 OLLI 18

19 Fall2015 OLLI 19

20 HDL vs LDL Fall2015 OLLI 20

21 Roles of Cholesterol Precursor of many biomolecules Major component of cell membranes Impacts cell membrane fluidity Organizes cell membranes Chaperone for protein function Fall2015 OLLI 21

22 Isoprenoid Metabolism Fall2015 OLLI 22

23 Steroid Hormones Cholesterol is the starting material for the synthesis of all steroid hormones Cholesterol is converted to progesterone Progesterone serves as precursor for other steroid hormones. Progesterone Testosterone Estradiol Fall2015 OLLI 23

24 Glucocorticoid Hormones Synthesized in the adrenal cortex. Regulate metabolism of carbohydrates. Decrease inflammation and mediate stress Fall2015 OLLI 24

25 Bile Salts Bile salts are oxidation products of cholesterol. Synthesized in the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and secreted into the intestine where they emulsify dietary fats and aid in their absorption and digestion. H 3 C H 3 C HO CH 3 O NH COO - H 3 C H 3 C HO CH 3 O NH SO 3 2- HO OH Glycocholate (from glycine) HO OH Taurocholate (from taurine) Fall2015 OLLI 25

26 Vitamin D, A, E, and K Vit K Vit A Vit D Vit E Fall2015 OLLI 26

27 Ubiquinone Ubiquinone is an essential electron transporter of cellular respiration Enables switch from 2 to 1 e - transport onto oxygen. Fall2015 OLLI 27

28 Biological Membranes Complex lipids including cholesterol form the membranes around cells and subcellular structures Compartmentalization of biological processes Membranes are flexible, self-sealing, selectively permeable Fall2015 OLLI 28

29 Biological Membranes are heterogeneous Fall2015 OLLI 29

30 Biological Membranes - Fluidity (b) Fluid state Fall2015 OLLI 30

31 Cholesterol and Membranes Found in varying amounts throughout the membrane Stiffen and Strengthen membranes due to its sterol group Fall2015 OLLI 31

32 Lipid Rafts - rigid platforms Fall2015 OLLI 32

33 Lipid Rafts: Communication Portals Fall2015 OLLI 33

34 Cholesterol a chaperone Fall2015 OLLI 34

35 Cholesterol a chaperone Fall2015 OLLI 35

36 Cholesterol a chaperone Fall2015 OLLI 36

37 Cholesterol Alzheimer s Disease Cholesterol is necessary for the proper function of Amyloid precursor protein (APP) Alzheimer s disease alterations in lipid metabolism Alzheimer s disease alteration in lipid raft organization Fall2015 OLLI 37

38 Fall2015 OLLI 38

39 ? Fall2015 OLLI 39

40 Cholesterol HIV infection gp41 mediates binding of HIV virus to cell membranes Cholesterol interaction with gp41 is necessary for virus entry Fall2015 OLLI 40

41 The Official Message National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute - Mission Statement provides global leadership for a research, training, and education program to promote the prevention and treatment of heart, lung, and blood diseases and enhance the health of all individuals so that they can live longer and more fulfilling lives. stimulates basic discoveries about the causes of disease enables the translation of basic discoveries into clinical practice fosters training and mentoring of emerging scientists and physicians communicates research advances to the public to help reduce the burden of heart, lung, and blood diseases worldwide. Fall2015 OLLI 41

42 The official messages NHLBI WebMD (specifically recommended by my health insurance) American Heart Association Fall2015 OLLI 42

43 Cholesterol Guidelines The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) is a program managed by the NHLB institute (NIH) with the goal to reduce increase Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) to due elevated cholesterol in the US since 1985 The assigned goal of the NCEP committee is to meet on a recurring basis, review ongoing scientific research about CVD and make simplified, consensus, committee recommendations to be promoted by NIH and AHA to physicians and public to reduce CVD death Fall2015 OLLI 43

44 How is Cholesterol Measured Blood analysis (fasting or non fasting) Measurement of total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglycerides (mg/dl or mg/100 ml) Total Cholesterol Less than 200mg/dL - Desirable mg/dl - Borderline high 240mg/dL and above High Triglycerides normal < 150 mg/dl Borderline mg/dl High mg/dl Risk > 500 mg/dl Total LDL Less than 100mg/dL - Optimal mg/dL - Near optimal mg/dl - Borderline high mg/dl - High 190 mg/dl and above - Very High Total HDL Less than 40 mg/dl - major risk mg/dl - better over 60 mg/dl protective Fall2015 OLLI 44

45 Fall2015 OLLI 45

46 Cholesterol Guidelines 88% of NCEP members are directly paid by the pharmaceutical industry Fall2015 OLLI 46

47 Facts about LDL and HDL Most of the cholesterol is carried by LDL true Normal plasma levels are 175 mg/100 ml false (!!!!) LDL receptors necessary for LDL uptake true LDL receptors number controlled by intracellular cholesterol levels true Familial hypercholesterolemia low LDL receptors thus high plasma cholesterol (>680 mg) true High plasma cholesterol causes premature atherosclerosis and heart attacks false!!!!! high LDL-low HDL ratio = a warning true/false serum Chol à Chol synthesis true Chol in diet directly affects Chol in blood false statin drugs inhibit Chol synthesis true (HMG-CoA reductase) Fall2015 OLLI 47

48 Cholesterol - Summary Cholesterol is vital for hormone production Cholesterol is vital for digestion (bile acids) Cholesterol is vital for membrane organization Cholesterol is vital for the brain (neurotransmitter receptors) There is little if any scientific basis that cholesterol causes heart disease Fall2015 OLLI 48

49 Fall2015 OLLI 49

Regulation of cholesterol synthesis pathway. Cholesterol Synthesis. Cholesterol biosynthesis. Regulation of HMG CoA reductase activity

Regulation of cholesterol synthesis pathway. Cholesterol Synthesis. Cholesterol biosynthesis. Regulation of HMG CoA reductase activity Cholesterol Synthesis Main function: ation of steroid nucleus Substrate: cytoplasmic acetyl CoA Endproduct: cholesterol Location: cytoplasm Regulation of cholesterol synthesis pathway HMG CoA reductase

More information

Overview of Lipid Metabolism

Overview of Lipid Metabolism Overview of Lipid Metabolism Learning Objectives By the end of this lecture the students should be able to understand: Classification of Lipids The digestion, absorption and utilization of dietary lipids

More information

d. The four stages of cholesterol synthesis is summarized below.

d. The four stages of cholesterol synthesis is summarized below. 1. Sources of cholesterol diet ~ 30 % biosynthesis ~ 70% 2. Types of cholesterol found in the body. Free cholesterol functions as essential structural component of the bi-layer membranes and of outer monolayer

More information

Cholesterol a biomolecule Bad cholesterol a strange tale Good cholesterol - indeed

Cholesterol a biomolecule Bad cholesterol a strange tale Good cholesterol - indeed Cholesterol a biomolecule Bad cholesterol a strange tale Good cholesterol - indeed Thomas B. Kuhn: University of Alaska, Cereon Biotechnology LLC This document is protected by copyright Dr. Thomas B. Kuhn

More information

Lecture 6: Cholesterol (Ch. 9.1e, 9.2b, 19.7b,c) & Lipoproteins (Ch. 10.3*, 19.1, 19.7b,c)

Lecture 6: Cholesterol (Ch. 9.1e, 9.2b, 19.7b,c) & Lipoproteins (Ch. 10.3*, 19.1, 19.7b,c) Lecture 6: Cholesterol (Ch. 9.1e, 9.2b, 19.7b,c) & Lipoproteins (Ch. 10.3*, 19.1, 19.7b,c) Next lecture: Fatty Acid Oxidation (Ch. 19.2), Ketone Bodies (Ch. 19.3) and Fatty Acid Biosynthesis (Ch. 19.4)

More information

Chapter 25: Metabolism and Nutrition

Chapter 25: Metabolism and Nutrition Chapter 25: Metabolism and Nutrition Chapter Objectives INTRODUCTION 1. Generalize the way in which nutrients are processed through the three major metabolic fates in order to perform various energetic

More information

1- Fatty acids are activated to acyl-coas and the acyl group is further transferred to carnitine because:

1- Fatty acids are activated to acyl-coas and the acyl group is further transferred to carnitine because: Section 10 Multiple Choice 1- Fatty acids are activated to acyl-coas and the acyl group is further transferred to carnitine because: A) acyl-carnitines readily cross the mitochondrial inner membrane, but

More information

1. What has a higher stored energy potential per gram, glycogen or triglycerides? Explain.

1. What has a higher stored energy potential per gram, glycogen or triglycerides? Explain. Lipid Metabolism 1. What has a higher stored energy potential per gram, glycogen or triglycerides? Explain. 2. How can excess acetyl CoA trapped in the mitochondria, be utilized as a substrate for fatty

More information

Sample mid-quarter exam 1 (updated 2/7/14)

Sample mid-quarter exam 1 (updated 2/7/14) Chemistry 256 Sample mid-quarter exam 1 (updated 2/7/14) 1. Which one of the following processes is not stimulated by insulin? a. Glucose uptake in muscle b. Dephosphorylation of glycogen synthase in muscle

More information

Metabolism. Functions of food. Metabolism is all the chemical reactions of the body. source of energy essential nutrients

Metabolism. Functions of food. Metabolism is all the chemical reactions of the body. source of energy essential nutrients Metabolism Functions of food source of energy essential nutrients Metabolism is all the chemical reactions of the body some reactions produce the energy stored in ATP that other reactions consume all molecules

More information

General Structure of Lipids. Lipids are naturally occurring compounds that are soluble in organic solvents but not in water.

General Structure of Lipids. Lipids are naturally occurring compounds that are soluble in organic solvents but not in water. Chapter 15 Lipids 1 Lipids Lipids are biomolecules that contain fatty acids or a steroid nucleus soluble in organic solvents, but not in water named for the Greek word lipos, which means fat extracted

More information

OVERVIEW OF LIPID METABOLISM

OVERVIEW OF LIPID METABOLISM VERVIEW F LIPID METABLISM Date: September 20, 2005 * Time: 8:00 am 8:50 am * Room: G202 Biomolecular Building Lecturer: Steve Chaney 515A Mary Ellen Jones Building stephen_chaney@med.unc.edu 9663286 *Please

More information

GLUCOSE HOMEOSTASIS-II: An Overview

GLUCOSE HOMEOSTASIS-II: An Overview GLUCOSE HOMEOSTASIS-II: An Overview University of Papua New Guinea School of Medicine & Health Sciences, Division of Basic Medical Sciences Discipline of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, M Med Part I

More information

Lipids. Benjamin Caballero, MD, PhD Johns Hopkins University

Lipids. Benjamin Caballero, MD, PhD Johns Hopkins University This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License. Your use of this material constitutes acceptance of that license and the conditions of use of materials on this

More information

1.4: Carbohydrates and Lipids pg. 29 38

1.4: Carbohydrates and Lipids pg. 29 38 UNIT 1: Biochemistry 1.4: Carbohydrates and Lipids pg. 29 38 Carbohydrates Function, primary energy source for the cell, can also be a structural component of cells and organisms. Carbohydrates are the

More information

: The Body s Energy Shuttles. *The body s energy shuttles NADH, FADH 2

: The Body s Energy Shuttles. *The body s energy shuttles NADH, FADH 2 Chapter 8 Metabolism Chapter Outline I. Energy: Fuel for Work. *Energy is necessary to do any kind of work. The body converts chemical energy from food sources carbohydrates, proteins, and fats into a

More information

Topic B Part 4 Lipids. IB Chemistry Topic B Biochem

Topic B Part 4 Lipids. IB Chemistry Topic B Biochem Topic B Part 4 Lipids IB Chemistry Topic B Biochem B3 B4 Lipids - 3.5 hours B.4.1 Compare the composition of the three types of lipids found in the human body. (3) B.4.2 Outline the difference between

More information

Pantesin Effective support for heart healthy cholesterol levels*

Pantesin Effective support for heart healthy cholesterol levels* Pantesin Effective support for heart healthy cholesterol levels* { Pantesin Effective support for heart healthy cholesterol levels* Many health-conscious adults keeping a watchful eye on their cholesterol

More information

LIPID AND LIPOPROTEIN METABOLISM. OBJECTIVES: After completion of this lesson, the participant will be able to:

LIPID AND LIPOPROTEIN METABOLISM. OBJECTIVES: After completion of this lesson, the participant will be able to: LIPID AND LIPOPROTEIN METABOLISM OBJECTIVES: After completion of this lesson, the participant will be able to: 1. Define the following terms : a. Lipid b. Lipoprotein c. Apolipoprotein d. Endogenous e.

More information

INTRODUCTION TO HORMONES

INTRODUCTION TO HORMONES INTRODUCTION TO HORMONES UNIVERSITY OF PNG SCHOOL OF MEDICINE AND HEALTH SCIENCES DISCIPLINE OF BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY PBL MBBS II SEMINAR VJ Temple What are hormones? Cells in multi-cellular

More information

The diagram below summarizes the effects of the compounds that cells use to regulate their own metabolism.

The diagram below summarizes the effects of the compounds that cells use to regulate their own metabolism. Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism Intracellular metabolic regulators Each of the control point steps in the carbohydrate metabolic pathways in effect regulates itself by responding to molecules that

More information

Executive Summary Report

Executive Summary Report Glucose 65-99 mg/dl Glucose measures the amount of sugar in your blood. Glucose is the primary energy source in your body. Insulin (a natural hormone produced by the pancreas) controls how glucose is used

More information

I The THREE types of LIPIDS

I The THREE types of LIPIDS LECTURE OUTLINE Chapter 5 The Lipids: Fats, Oils, Phospholipids and Sterols I The THREE types of LIPIDS A. Triglycerides (fats & oils)- the MAJOR type of lipid in food and humans. 1. 2 parts of triglyceridesa)

More information

NO More Heart Disease

NO More Heart Disease NO More Heart Disease Nitric Oxide Information NO is one of the simplest molecules in biology, comprised of just two atoms one atom of nitrogen (N) and one of oxygen (O). Through NO s structure is simple,

More information

CHOLESTEROL 101: WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW TO KEEP YOUR HEART HEALTHY. By: Camille Quiles, PharmD., RPh.

CHOLESTEROL 101: WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW TO KEEP YOUR HEART HEALTHY. By: Camille Quiles, PharmD., RPh. CHOLESTEROL 101: WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW TO KEEP YOUR HEART HEALTHY By: Camille Quiles, PharmD., RPh. WHAT IS CHOLESTEROL? CHOLESTEROL Waxy, fat-like substance found in all cells of the body Your body uses

More information

Unit 3 Lecture 11 METABOLISM

Unit 3 Lecture 11 METABOLISM Unit 3 Lecture METABOLISM Anabolism is defined as the chemical reactions that combine simple substances into more complex molecules (requires energy). Examples of anabolism include glycogenesis (conversion

More information

The Background for the Diabetes Detection Model

The Background for the Diabetes Detection Model The Background for the Diabetes Detection Model James K. Peterson Department of Biological Sciences and Department of Mathematical Sciences Clemson University November 23, 2014 Outline The Background for

More information

Integration of Metabolism

Integration of Metabolism I. Central Themes of Metabolism 1. ATP is the universal energy carrier. Integration of Metabolism Bryant Miles 2. ATP is generated by the oxidation of metabolic fuels Glucose Fatty Acids Amino Acids 3.

More information

Actions of Hormones on Target Cells Page 1. Actions of Hormones on Target Cells Page 2. Goals/ What You Need to Know Goals What You Need to Know

Actions of Hormones on Target Cells Page 1. Actions of Hormones on Target Cells Page 2. Goals/ What You Need to Know Goals What You Need to Know Actions of Hormones on Target Cells Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1. Actions of Hormones on Target Cells Hormones

More information

Lipid Metabolism. Dr. Howaida Nounou Biochemistry department Sciences college

Lipid Metabolism. Dr. Howaida Nounou Biochemistry department Sciences college Lipid Metabolism Dr. Howaida Nounou Biochemistry department Sciences college Lipids - Heterogenous group of biomolecules - Water insoluble (hydrophobic) - Soluble in organic and non-polar solvents acetone,

More information

Coenzyme Q 10. History

Coenzyme Q 10. History Coenzyme Q 10 History Coenzyme Q 10 was first isolated in 1957 and its chemical structure (benzoquinone compound) was determined in 1958. A large amount of laboratory and animal data on coenzyme Q 10 has

More information

Cholesterol Congestion

Cholesterol Congestion Cholesterol Congestion How your blood cholesterol traffic is measured The odds of getting cardiovascular disease are very high; it is the main cause of death in the US and more than one in four Americans

More information

Lipids. Classes of Lipids. Types of Lipids. Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids. Fatty Acids. 15.1 Lipids 15.2 Fatty Acids

Lipids. Classes of Lipids. Types of Lipids. Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids. Fatty Acids. 15.1 Lipids 15.2 Fatty Acids hapter 15 15.1 15.2 Fatty Acids are biomolecules that contain fatty acids or a steroid nucleus. soluble in organic solvents, but not in water. named for the Greek word lipos, which means fat. extracted

More information

Endocrine System: Practice Questions #1

Endocrine System: Practice Questions #1 Endocrine System: Practice Questions #1 1. Removing part of gland D would most likely result in A. a decrease in the secretions of other glands B. a decrease in the blood calcium level C. an increase in

More information

CHEM 121. Chapter 19, Name: Date:

CHEM 121. Chapter 19, Name: Date: CHEM 121. Chapter 19, Name: Date: 1. A lipid is any substance of biochemical origin that is A) soluble in water but insoluble in nonpolar solvents B) insoluble in both water and nonpolar solvents C) insoluble

More information

The Freiburg Study. Preliminary Findings

The Freiburg Study. Preliminary Findings The Freiburg Study Preliminary Findings Free Radicals and Oxygen Metabolism MItochondrial Free Radicals Inflammation (hs-crp) Blood Lipids (Cholesterol, Triglycerides) Blood Pressure (Systolic, Diastolic,

More information

Terminology. Cholesterol and Glucose. Three Major Lipoproteins. Definitions VLDL. Chylomicrons

Terminology. Cholesterol and Glucose. Three Major Lipoproteins. Definitions VLDL. Chylomicrons Terminology Cholesterol and Glucose Hyperlipidemia elevated blood cholesterol and triglycerides Hypercholesterolemia elevated cholesterol concentrations only Hypertriglyceridemia elevated blood triglycerides

More information

Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève Lipides, métabolisme des hydrates de carbonne et maladies cardio-vasculaires

Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève Lipides, métabolisme des hydrates de carbonne et maladies cardio-vasculaires Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève Lipides, métabolisme des hydrates de carbonne et maladies cardio-vasculaires Prof. J. Philippe Effect of estrogens on glucose metabolism : Fasting Glucose, HbA1c and C-Peptide

More information

Blood Testing Protocols. Disclaimer

Blood Testing Protocols. Disclaimer Blood Testing Protocols / Page 2 Blood Testing Protocols Here are the specific test protocols recommend by Dr. J.E. Williams. You may request these from your doctor or visit www.readyourbloodtest.com to

More information

Chapter 14 Lipid and Amino Acid Metabolism

Chapter 14 Lipid and Amino Acid Metabolism Chapter 14 Lipid and Amino Acid Metabolism Chapter Objectives: Learn about blood lipids and cholestero, fat mobilization and glycerol metabolism. Learn about the oxidation of fatty acids into acetyl CoA

More information

Endocrine Responses to Resistance Exercise

Endocrine Responses to Resistance Exercise chapter 3 Endocrine Responses to Resistance Exercise Chapter Objectives Understand basic concepts of endocrinology. Explain the physiological roles of anabolic hormones. Describe hormonal responses to

More information

Body Composition & Longevity. Ohan Karatoprak, MD, AAFP Clinical Assistant Professor, UMDNJ

Body Composition & Longevity. Ohan Karatoprak, MD, AAFP Clinical Assistant Professor, UMDNJ Body Composition & Longevity Ohan Karatoprak, MD, AAFP Clinical Assistant Professor, UMDNJ LONGEVITY Genetic 25% Environmental Lifestyle Stress 75% BMI >30 OBESE 25-30 OVERWEIGHT 18-25 NORMAL WEIGHT 18

More information

Biological molecules:

Biological molecules: Biological molecules: All are organic (based on carbon). Monomers vs. polymers: Monomers refer to the subunits that, when polymerized, make up a larger polymer. Monomers may function on their own in some

More information

The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids

The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids The FOUR Classes of Large Biomolecules All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: Carbohydrates

More information

Describe how these hormones exert control quickly by changes in phosphorylation state of enzyme, and more slowly by changes of gene expression

Describe how these hormones exert control quickly by changes in phosphorylation state of enzyme, and more slowly by changes of gene expression Section VIII. Section VIII. Tissue metabolism Many tissues carry out specialized functions: Ch. 43 look at different hormones affect metabolism of fuels, especially counter-insulin Ch. 44 Proteins and

More information

Anti-Atheroscrerotic Drugs

Anti-Atheroscrerotic Drugs Anti-Atheroscrerotic Drugs Masuko Ushio-Fukai, PhD, FAHA Dept. of Pharmacology University of Illinois at Chicago Anti-Atherogenic Drugs: Treatment of Hyperlipidemias Knowledge Objectives: 1) Know the mechanism

More information

Cholesterol and Triglycerides What You Should Know

Cholesterol and Triglycerides What You Should Know Cholesterol and Triglycerides What You Should Know Michael T. McDermott MD Professor of Medicine Endocrinology Practice Director Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes University of Colorado

More information

Regulation of Metabolism. By Dr. Carmen Rexach Physiology Mt San Antonio College

Regulation of Metabolism. By Dr. Carmen Rexach Physiology Mt San Antonio College Regulation of Metabolism By Dr. Carmen Rexach Physiology Mt San Antonio College Energy Constant need in living cells Measured in kcal carbohydrates and proteins = 4kcal/g Fats = 9kcal/g Most diets are

More information

1. Essay: The Digestive and Absorption Processes of Macronutrients

1. Essay: The Digestive and Absorption Processes of Macronutrients Jenny Kim Professor Rosario Nutrition: Macronutrients Project June 26, 2014 1. Essay: The Digestive and Absorption Processes of Macronutrients Whenever we eat, the foods we ingest in our bodies undergo

More information

Biology 12 June 2003 Provincial Examination

Biology 12 June 2003 Provincial Examination Biology 12 June 2003 rovincial Examination ANWER KEY / CORING GUIDE CURRICULUM: Organizers 1. Cell Biology 2. Cell rocesses and Applications 3. Human Biology ub-organizers A, B, C, D E, F, G, H I, J, K,

More information

Cholesterol made simple!

Cholesterol made simple! Cholesterol made simple! Cholesterol is the biggest risk factor for heart disease and also increases your risk of stroke and circulatory disease - Heart UK The Cholesterol Charity What is Cholesterol and

More information

Lesson 3: Blood glucose

Lesson 3: Blood glucose Lesson 3: Blood glucose Inquiry Focus: How does the body deliver the energy in food to its parts? Student Learning Objectives: By the end of the lesson, students will be able to do the following: Describe

More information

High Cholesterol (Dyslipidemia)

High Cholesterol (Dyslipidemia) High Cholesterol (Dyslipidemia) What is high cholesterol? Cholesterol is a type of fat that is found in every cell in the body. It is used to build healthy cells and some vital hormones. High levels of

More information

Your Life Your Health Cariodmetabolic Risk Syndrome Part VII Inflammation chronic, low-grade By James L. Holly, MD The Examiner January 25, 2007

Your Life Your Health Cariodmetabolic Risk Syndrome Part VII Inflammation chronic, low-grade By James L. Holly, MD The Examiner January 25, 2007 Your Life Your Health Cariodmetabolic Risk Syndrome Part VII Inflammation chronic, low-grade By James L. Holly, MD The Examiner January 25, 2007 The cardiometabolic risk syndrome is increasingly recognized

More information

Chem 452 - Lecture 8 Lipids and Cell Membranes 111111

Chem 452 - Lecture 8 Lipids and Cell Membranes 111111 Chem 452 - Lecture 8 Lipids and Cell Membranes 111111 Like carbohydrates, lipids are one of the four major classes of biomolecules, which also include the proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. Lipids

More information

Absorption of Drugs. Transport of a drug from the GI tract

Absorption of Drugs. Transport of a drug from the GI tract Absorption of Drugs Absorption is the transfer of a drug from its site of administration to the bloodstream. The rate and efficiency of absorption depend on the route of administration. For IV delivery,

More information

Cell Membranes Part 1: Review of Membrane Structure and Changes with Aging By Dan Carter, ND

Cell Membranes Part 1: Review of Membrane Structure and Changes with Aging By Dan Carter, ND Introduction Does cell membrane physiology degrade over time? Can the physiologic function of cell membranes be improved? If cell membrane functionality can be improved, is there clinical benefit to patients?

More information

Endocrine Glands and the General Principles of Hormone Action

Endocrine Glands and the General Principles of Hormone Action Endocrine Glands and the General Principles of Hormone Action Cai Li, Ph.D. Assistant professor Touchstone Center for Diabetes Research Departments of Physiology and Internal Medicine The University of

More information

Fats, Oils, and Other Lipids

Fats, Oils, and Other Lipids Chapter 5 Fats, Oils, and Other Lipids Slide Show developed by: Richard C. Krejci, Ph.D. Professor of Public Health Columbia College 9.30.15 Objectives for Chapter 5 1. Describe the three classifications

More information

Diabetes and Stroke. Understanding the connection between diabetes and the increased risk of stroke

Diabetes and Stroke. Understanding the connection between diabetes and the increased risk of stroke Diabetes and Stroke Understanding the connection between diabetes and the increased risk of stroke Make the Connection Almost 26 million people in the U.S. roughly 8 percent of the population have diabetes.

More information

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? a. Ability to store hereditary information b. Use of organelles to control

More information

7 Answers to end-of-chapter questions

7 Answers to end-of-chapter questions 7 Answers to end-of-chapter questions Multiple choice questions 1 B 2 B 3 A 4 B 5 A 6 D 7 C 8 C 9 B 10 B Structured questions 11 a i Maintenance of a constant internal environment within set limits i Concentration

More information

Lipids (Biologie Woche 1 und 2; Pages 81 and 82)

Lipids (Biologie Woche 1 und 2; Pages 81 and 82) Lipids (Biologie Woche 1 und 2; Pages 81 and 82) Lipids Features Have oily, greasy or waxy consistency Relatively insoluble in water Protein and carbohydrates may be converted into lipids by enzymes an

More information

Chapter 45: Hormones and the Endocrine System

Chapter 45: Hormones and the Endocrine System Name Period Overview 1. What is a hormone? 2. Why does a hormone elicit a response only with target cells? 3. The body has two long-distance regulating systems. Which involves chemical signals by hormones?

More information

Insulin s Effects on Testosterone, Growth Hormone and IGF I Following Resistance Training

Insulin s Effects on Testosterone, Growth Hormone and IGF I Following Resistance Training Insulin s Effects on Testosterone, Growth Hormone and IGF I Following Resistance Training By: Jason Dudley Summary Nutrition supplements with a combination of carbohydrate and protein (with a ratio of

More information

Education. Panel. Triglycerides & HDL-C

Education. Panel. Triglycerides & HDL-C Triglycerides & HDL-C Thomas Dayspring, MD, ACP Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Attending in Medicine: St Joseph s s Hospital, Paterson, NJ Certified

More information

Hormones & Chemical Signaling

Hormones & Chemical Signaling Hormones & Chemical Signaling Part 2 modulation of signal pathways and hormone classification & function How are these pathways controlled? Receptors are proteins! Subject to Specificity of binding Competition

More information

Cardiovascular disease physiology. Linda Lowe-Krentz Bioscience in the 21 st Century October 14, 2011

Cardiovascular disease physiology. Linda Lowe-Krentz Bioscience in the 21 st Century October 14, 2011 Cardiovascular disease physiology Linda Lowe-Krentz Bioscience in the 21 st Century October 14, 2011 Content Introduction The number 1 killer in America Some statistics Recommendations The disease process

More information

Freiburg Study. The other 24 subjects had healthy markers closer to what would be considered ideal.

Freiburg Study. The other 24 subjects had healthy markers closer to what would be considered ideal. Freiburg Study The Freiburg Study was conducted with 48 healthy human subjects of various ages. None of the test subjects had been diagnosed with any disease prior to the study. None were taking any type

More information

What Each Vitamin & Mineral Does In Your Body. Vitamin A

What Each Vitamin & Mineral Does In Your Body. Vitamin A What Each Vitamin & Mineral Does In Your Body Vitamin A Prevents skin disorders, such as acne, wrinkling and age spots. Enhances the immune system protects against colds, flu, and infections to kidney,

More information

Digestion, Absorption. How & where?

Digestion, Absorption. How & where? Digestion, Absorption How & where? What happens to food? Three processes Digestion Absorption Elimination Where do they occur? GI tract Overview of Digestion GI tract Gastrointestinal (GI) tract: series

More information

Dietary Fat Supplements and Body Condition: Does Fatty Acid Profile Matter? James K. Drackley, Professor of Animal Sciences

Dietary Fat Supplements and Body Condition: Does Fatty Acid Profile Matter? James K. Drackley, Professor of Animal Sciences Dietary Fat Supplements and Body Condition: Does Fatty Acid Profile Matter? James K. Drackley, Professor of Animal Sciences Does Fatty Acid Profile Matter? How does the balance of the major energy-related

More information

Methyl groups, like vitamins, are

Methyl groups, like vitamins, are Methyl groups are essential for the body to function properly and must be obtained from the diet The need for methyl groups increases under stress Chapter 11 Betaine a new B vitamin Methyl groups reduce

More information

CORPORATE HEALTH LOWERING YOUR CHOLESTEROL & BLOOD PRESSURE

CORPORATE HEALTH LOWERING YOUR CHOLESTEROL & BLOOD PRESSURE CORPORATE HEALTH LOWERING YOUR CHOLESTEROL & BLOOD PRESSURE What is Cholesterol? What s wrong with having high cholesterol? Major risk factor for cardiovascular disease Higher the cholesterol higher the

More information

1. The diagram below represents a biological process

1. The diagram below represents a biological process 1. The diagram below represents a biological process 5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. Which set

More information

2. Structure and bonding of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids

2. Structure and bonding of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids 2. Structure and bonding of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids 2.1. Polymers, monomers, and bonding Carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids are primary nutritional ingredients for humans. The breakdown of

More information

Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2

Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2 Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2 Organic vs. Inorganic compounds Organic compounds contain carbon and are found in living organisms Exceptions: hydrocarbonates, carbonates, oxides of carbon. Inorganic

More information

Unit 2: Cells, Membranes and Signaling CELL MEMBRANE. Chapter 5 Hillis Textbook

Unit 2: Cells, Membranes and Signaling CELL MEMBRANE. Chapter 5 Hillis Textbook Unit 2: Cells, Membranes and Signaling CELL MEMBRANE Chapter 5 Hillis Textbook HOW DOES THE LAB RELATE TO THE NEXT CHAPTER? SURFACE AREA: the entire outer covering of a cell that enables materials pass.

More information

Lipid & Fat: Overview

Lipid & Fat: Overview Lipid & Fat: Overview What is a lipid? Triglycerides, phospholipids and sterols Triglycerides = Fat Saturated & unsaturated Essential fatty acids ü Omega 3 & Omega 6 Trans fat Why do you need fat? How

More information

A. Definition of biology - Biology is the study of life.

A. Definition of biology - Biology is the study of life. Introduction to Biology and Chemistry Outline I. Introduction to biology A. Definition of biology - Biology is the study of life. B. Characteristics of Life 1. Form and size are characteristic. e.g. A

More information

Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells

Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells Bio 100 Molecules of cells 1 Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells Compounds containing carbon are called organic compounds Molecules such as methane that are only composed of carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons

More information

Nutrition, Digestion, Absorption, and Excretion

Nutrition, Digestion, Absorption, and Excretion ECOL 182 - Spring 2010 Nutrition, Digestion, Absorption, and Excretion Dr. Regis Ferriere Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology University of Arizona Lecture 2 Our main questions in this lecture

More information

Blood clot in atheroma. help make vitamin D and hormones, like oestrogen and testosterone, in your body.

Blood clot in atheroma. help make vitamin D and hormones, like oestrogen and testosterone, in your body. CHOLESTEROL This factsheet explains what cholesterol is and why too much cholesterol in your blood is harmful. It also provides information regarding cholesterol testing and tips to help reduce your blood

More information

High Blood Cholesterol

High Blood Cholesterol National Cholesterol Education Program ATP III Guidelines At-A-Glance Quick Desk Reference 1 Step 1 2 Step 2 3 Step 3 Determine lipoprotein levels obtain complete lipoprotein profile after 9- to 12-hour

More information

Nutrition and Health Info-Sheet F o r H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s

Nutrition and Health Info-Sheet F o r H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s Nutrition and Health Info-Sheet F o r H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s Produced by Erin Digitale, PhD Cristy Hathaway, BS Sheri Zidenberg-Cherr, PhD Karrie Heneman, PhD UC Cooperative Extension Center

More information

1. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF METABOLIC SYNDROME

1. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF METABOLIC SYNDROME 1. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF METABOLIC SYNDROME Izet Aganović, Tina Dušek Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University Hospital Center Zagreb, Croatia 1 Introduction The metabolic syndrome

More information

Human Body Review #3: Digestive System

Human Body Review #3: Digestive System Name: Class: Date: Human Body Review #3: Digestive System Modified True/False Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the sentence

More information

Why is a Comprehensive Metabolic Blood Chemistry panel included in the FNHP?

Why is a Comprehensive Metabolic Blood Chemistry panel included in the FNHP? Why is a Comprehensive Metabolic Blood Chemistry panel included in the FNHP? (A cornerstone of my approach is test, don t guess. Identifying the underlying patterns contributing to poor health is the key

More information

Liver Function Tests. Dr Stephen Butler Paediatric Advance Trainee TDHB

Liver Function Tests. Dr Stephen Butler Paediatric Advance Trainee TDHB Liver Function Tests Dr Stephen Butler Paediatric Advance Trainee TDHB Introduction Case presentation What is the liver? Overview of tests used to measure liver function RJ 10 month old European girl

More information

Engage: Brainstorming Body Systems. Record the structures and function of each body system in the table below.

Engage: Brainstorming Body Systems. Record the structures and function of each body system in the table below. Engage: Brainstorming Body s Record the structures and function of each body system in the table below. Body Nervous Circulatory Excretory Immune Digestive Respiratory Skeletal Muscular Endocrine Integumentary

More information

Biochemistry of Cells

Biochemistry of Cells Biochemistry of Cells 1 Carbon-based Molecules Although a cell is mostly water, the rest of the cell consists mostly of carbon-based molecules Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds Carbon

More information

structures for exam 1 Gluconeogenesis and Glycogen Metabolism Reactions for exam 1 How the ETS works ATP formation

structures for exam 1 Gluconeogenesis and Glycogen Metabolism Reactions for exam 1 How the ETS works ATP formation Gluconeogenesis and Glycogen Metabolism structures for exam 1 less than 10% of points structures which may be required: cose, f-1,6-bip, DHAP, uvate, acetyl, citrate, OAA electrons in the following: :H,

More information

What You Need to Know about High Blood Cholesterol

What You Need to Know about High Blood Cholesterol What You Need to Know about High Blood Why is high cholesterol bad? is a natural substance found in our diet and made by our liver. It is important for many functions throughout our body. High blood cholesterol

More information

BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE

BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE C A R B O H Y D R A T E S, L I P I D S, P R O T E I N S, A N D N U C L E I C A C I D S The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 115, Page 1 of 29) Carbon

More information

Welchol (colesevelam HCl) Receives FDA Approval to Reduce Blood Glucose in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

Welchol (colesevelam HCl) Receives FDA Approval to Reduce Blood Glucose in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes For Immediate Release Company name: DAIICHI SANKYO COMPANY, LIMITED Representative: Takashi Shoda, President and Representative Director (Code no.: 4568, First Section, Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya Stock Exchanges)

More information

Biol 101 Exam 2: Cells & Cell Membranes Fall 2008

Biol 101 Exam 2: Cells & Cell Membranes Fall 2008 MULTIPLE CHOICE. There are 60 questions on this exam. All answers go on the Scantron. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The cell theory is one of

More information

A CLOSER L OOK AT A JOINT PROJECT BETWEEN T HE A MERICAN H EART A SSOCIATION AND T HE N ATIONAL P HARMACEUTICAL C OUNCIL

A CLOSER L OOK AT A JOINT PROJECT BETWEEN T HE A MERICAN H EART A SSOCIATION AND T HE N ATIONAL P HARMACEUTICAL C OUNCIL A CLOSER L OOK AT Americans pay $53.4 billion each year for medical care of heart disease. An additional $47.4 billion is lost due to premature death and lower productivity. A JOINT PROJECT BETWEEN T HE

More information

High Blood Cholesterol What you need to know

High Blood Cholesterol What you need to know National Cholesterol Education Program High Blood Cholesterol What you need to know Why Is Cholesterol Important? Your blood cholesterol level has a lot to do with your chances of getting heart disease.

More information

What s the point? ATP! Electron Transport Chain ATP

What s the point? ATP! Electron Transport Chain ATP http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vcpnk92uswy What s the point? Cellular Respiration The point Stage 4: is to make ATP! Electron Transport Chain ATP 2013-2014 Cellular respiration ATP accounting so far Even

More information

Mechanism of hormone action

Mechanism of hormone action Mechanism of hormone action ผศ.ดร.พญ.ส ว ฒณ ค ปต ว ฒ ภาคว ชาสร รว ทยา คณะแพทยศาสตร ศ ร ราชพยาบาล Aims What is hormone receptor Type of hormone receptors - cell surface receptor - intracellular receptor

More information