EGYPT - Cycle of Life from the Mystic Lands Series VOCABULARY GUIDE

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1 1 Allah - The supreme being in the Islamic faith. VOCABULARY GUIDE bedouin - An Arab of any of the nomadic tribes of the deserts of North Africa, Arabia and Syria. Chephren - The Greek name for Khafre, the fourth king (circa B.C.) of the 4th Dynasty of Egypt. He is credited with the second pyramid of Giza, built just south of the Great Pyramid of Cheops. The head of the Great Sphinx nearby was long believed to be a likeness of Chephren. feluccas - Narrow, flat-bottomed vessels propelled by sails or oars that have traveled the Nile for centuries. hieroglyphics - This is the ancient Egyptian form of writing. It used pictures and symbols to represent words, sounds or objects. Hieroglyphics were called medu netcher which translates to mean "the God's words." Horus - The Egyptian falcon god. Horus was the offspring of Isis and Osiris. He was identified with the living pharaoh. ka - Spirit or "double" of a living person which accompanied that person (body) throughout life and, after death, departed from the body to take its place in the kingdom of the dead. The Egyptians believed that the survival of the ka required the continued existence of the body. To that end the Egyptians developed the elaborate techniques and practices of mummification. The ka was also the vital force emanating from a god and was transferred through the pharaoh to the people. minaret - A tall, slender tower on a mosque with one or more projecting balconies from which the call to prayer is issued. Osiris - Ruler of the Underworld. In Egyptian mythology Osiris was murdered by his brother Seth and was brought back to life by his sister Isis to rule as the judge of the dead. Pharaoh - From the Egyptian "great house," the pharaoh was a king of ancient Egypt. According to the traditions of pharaonic religion, the pharaoh was considered a son of a god and the sole receiver of the ka, or life force that came from the god. Through the pharaoh this life force was transmitted to his people so in both life and death the pharaoh was worshipped by his people as a god. Pyramid Texts - Paintings and reliefs found on the walls of the internal rooms and burial chambers of the pyramids. They are also often found on the sarcophagus itself. These texts recorded the pharaoh's burial ceremonies, the temple rituals, and hymns vital to his passage into the afterlife. Sometimes major events of the pharaoh's life were also recorded. Many believe that these symbols represent special formulas designed to ensure a smooth transition from this life into the next for the pharaoh. (Continued on Blackline Master 2)

2 2 VOCABULARY GUIDE(Continued) Pyramids of Giza - The three famous pyramids of Khufu (Cheops), Khafre (Chephren) and Manakure (Mycerinus) - father, son and grandson, share the Giza plateau with a number of other monuments, which include smaller attendant pyramids, tombs of princes and nobles, mastabas and the Sphinx. Constructed during the period in Egyptian history known as the Old Kingdom, each pyramid was the focus of a complex of subsidiary tombs and temples. The ancient Greeks considered these pyramids one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Ra - The great sun god of the Egyptians. He was considered the creator and ruler of the other elements of nature that were also considered divine. The Egyptians believed that in his royal barque (boat) he rose each morning in the east, traveled the sky, and in the evening disappeared into the western Land of the Dead. During the night he sailed the celestial Nile through Duat, where he would overcome Chaos and emerge once more in the sunrise. sarcophagus - The huge stone or marble coffin used to encase other wooden coffins and the mummy of the pharaoh or queen. Sphinx - This monument shares the Giza plateau with the three Great Pyramids. Carved out of a single ridge of rock 240 feet long and 60 feet high, the Sphinx was shaped into a lion's body with a human head. Some say the head bears the features of Chephren wearing the royal headdress. There are many legends and superstitions associated with the Sphinx. The exact meaning and purpose of the Sphinx for the Egyptians is still not completely clear. Step Pyramid - Located in Saqqarah, the Step Pyramid is considered Egypt's first and very possibly the oldest stone structure of its size in the world. It was constructed by Imhotep, the pharaoh's chief architect, for the Pharaoh Zoser in the 27th century. It still dominates the landscape of Saqqarah today. This first pyramid rose to 62 meters in six steps. It was sheathed in limestone. Imhotep's design and the unusual use of stone were a radical break with tradition and would become the inspiration for the Pyramids of Giza. Valley of the Kings - Burial site used by Egyptian rulers of the New Kingdom period ( B.C.). It is located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the modern town of Luxor. The valley is hidden by high cliffs and a long, narrow, winding entranceway. Thirty-four tombs have been discovered at this site. The tomb of Tutankhamen of the 18th Dynasty was discovered here in Although the tomb had been robbed, it still contained more than 5000 items that had been buried with the young king.

3 3 VIEWER'S GUIDE Directions: Answer the following questions immediately after viewing the video or as instructed by your teacher. Use the back of this sheet if necessary. 1.Why has the Nile been so important to the Egyptians throughout their history? 2. Why was the first great Egyptian stone monument built, what was it called, and why is it considered important? 3. What are the Pyramid Texts and why was their discovery significant? 4. Who were the pharaohs and why were they considered important to the Egyptian people? 5. What controversies surround the great sculpture known as the Sphinx? 6. The religious beliefs of the ancient Egyptians are considered exceedingly complex. What are a few of the ancient Egyptian religious concepts introduced in the video? 7. What was the ultimate goal of the pharaoh and what did he do to help reach his goal? 8. What did the pyramids represent for the pharaoh? 9. How was the ancient Egyptian world view different from the 20th century Western world view? 10. Why did the religion practiced under the pharaohs start to lose favor and what replaced it?

4 4 CROSSWORD PUZZLE ACROSS 1. King of ancient Egypt who was considered DOWN 1. This monument is carved out of a single ridge of to be a son of a god. rock and was shaped into a lion's body with the 2. An Arab of any of the nomadic tribes of the head of a human. deserts of North Africa, Arabia, and Syria. 2. The Egyptian falcon god. 3. A huge stone or marble coffin used to encase 3. The ancient Egyptian form of writing. It used wooden coffins and mummies of the pharaohs and pictures and symbols to represent words, sounds or queens. objects. 4. Narrow, flat-bottomed vessels that have traveled 4. The spirit of a living person that departs from the over the Nile River for centuries. body after death to take its place in the Kingdom of 5. The supreme being in the Islamic faith. the Dead. 6. The Greek name for the fourth king of the 4th 5. Ruler of the Underworld; sister of Isis. Dynasty of Egypt. It was believed that the head of the Great Sphinx was a likeness of him.

5 5 QUIZ Part 1 Directions: Fill in the blanks with the missing term. 1. This monument shares the Giza plateau with the three Great Pyramids. Carved out of a single ridge of rock 240 feet long and 60 feet high, the was shaped into a lion's body with a human head. Some say the head bears the features of Chephren wearing the royal headdress. There are many controversies, legends and superstitions associated with this sculpture. 2. is the ancient form of Egyptian writing. It used pictures and symbols to represent words, sounds or objects. 3. Located in Saqqarah, the is considered Egypt's first and very possibly the oldest stone structure of its size in the world. It was constructed by Imhotep, the pharaoh's chief architect, for the Pharaoh Zoser in the 27th century, B.C. 4. The great sun god of the Egyptians, was known as the creator and ruler of the other elements of nature that were also considered divine. The Egyptians believed that in his royal barque (boat) he rose each morning in the east, traveled the sky, and in the evening disappeared into the western Land of the Dead. 5. are paintings and reliefs found on the internal rooms and burial chambers of the pyramids. Many believe that these symbols represent special formulas designed to ensure a smooth transition from this life into the next for the pharaoh. Part 2 Directions: Place a T before the true statements, and an F before the false statements. 6. The Nile River has been very important throughout Egyptian history. 7. The pharaohs were important only as political figures to the Egyptians. 8. The New Kingdom rulers chose the Valley of the Kings as their burial grounds. 9. The Egyptians believed that the survival of the ka required the continued existence of the body. 10. The majority of Egyptians today are practicing Christians.

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