Packet 3b: The Periodic Table

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1 Click: Periodic Table: Organizes and classifying the elements Dmitri Mendeleev: Russian chemist who arranged according to their increasing atomic. Was he right? Each box shows: Elements are arranged according to the increasing

2 Arrangement of the Periodic Table Physical and chemical properties appear in regular, ( ) intervals. Ex: Periodic Law: Periods (locate on table): Ex: There are (#) periods Groups or families (locate on table): Ex: There are (#) groups Family names to know (locate and label): Group 1: Group 2: Group 17: Group 18: Other groups: named after Ex: Hydrogen (locate): not member of any family; can be placed in Group or Behaves more like Group 17. Practice Regents Questions: 1. This element belongs in Period (1) 6 (3) 2(2) 3 (4) 4 2. The alkali metals all have the same (1) electronegativity (3) atomic radius (2) oxidation number (4) ionization energy 3. The alkaline earth metals are those elements in Group (1) 1 (3) 2 (2) 11 (4) The elements in Group 2 have similar chemical properties primarily because they have the same(1) ionization energies(2) oxidation potentials(3) number of principal energy levels(4) number of electrons in the outermost shell 5. Which Group in the Periodic Table contains the noble gases? (1) 1 (3) 2 (2) 13 (4) 18

3 6. In which shell are the valence electrons of the elements in Period 2 found? (1) 1 (2) 3 (3) 2 (4) 4 7. In which Group of the Periodic Table would this element, 2 5, most likely be found? (1) 1 (2) 2 (2) 13 (4) As the elements in Period 3 are considered in order of increasing atomic number, the number of principal energy levels in each successive element (1) decreases (3) increases (2) remains the same 10. Which is an alkaline earth metal? (1) Na (3) Ca (2) Ga (4) Ta Types of Elements Some properties to know: luster: malleable: brittle: ductile:

4 Other properties of metals: Low ionization energy: Low electronegativity: Most metals are at room temperature, except Most active metal Tend to electrons Metals form ions Ex: Trends: Across a period: elements have metallic character Down a group: elements have metallic character Transition metals: Groups through Have one and two valence electrons and fill inner energy levels with increasing atomic number Less reactive than Multiple Form compounds that have Ex: or Other properties of nonmetals: ionization energy: electronegativity: Most nonmetals are gases and solids except Most active nonmetal Tend to electrons Nonmetals form ions Ex: Allotropes: Some nonmetals exist in different forms such as: o Oxygen: o Carbon: o Phosphorus:

5 Metalloids Touch the Properties of both and Ex: Practice Regents Questions: 1. Most of the elements in the Periodic Table are classified as (1) metalloids (3) nonmetals (2) noble gases (4) metal 2. Phosphorus is best classified as a (1) nonmetal (3) metalloid (2) metal (4) transition eleme 3. What are two properties of most nonmetals? (1) high ionization energy and poor electrical conductivity(2) high ionization energy and good electrical conductivity (3) low ionization energy and poor electrical conductivity (4) low ionization energy and good electrical conductivity. 4. Which Group contains elements which are metalloids? (1) 1 (2) 11 (3) 14 (4) 4 5. Which aqueous solution is colored? (1) MgSO 4 (aq) (2) BaCl 2 (aq) (3) KCl (aq) (4) CuSO 4 (aq) Purple Workbook p. 36 for additional problems Periodic Properties of the Elements Atomic Size/Radius (Listed on Table S) Across a period: size (until you reach Noble Gases) Because: as the nuclear charge increase and electron is added the attraction between the nucleus and the electrons leading to a in size. Down a group: size. Because: 1. As period new energy levels are being occupied 2. There are more inner level electrons shielding nucleus from the outer level electrons

6 Ionic Radius Atoms gain or lose electrons to form Metals lose electrons to form ions A positive ion is than the atom it was Ex 1: Li + is smaller than Li Ex 2: Nonmetal gain electron to form ions formed from. A negative ion is than the atom it was Ex 1: Cl - is larger than Cl Ex 2: Electronegativity (Listed on Table S) A measure an atoms attraction for electrons (when it bonds) Values: Across a period values Down a group values Metals have values while nonmetals have high values Fluorine: Highest Cesium : Lowest Noble gases not assigned # Ionization Energy (Listed on Table S) The amount of energy need to remove the most loosely bound electron (this would be the electrons) Across a period: ionization energy Because: as nuclear charge increases the electrons are more strongly attracted thus more energy is needed to remove them from the atom. Down a group: ionization energy Because: as valence electrons are further from nucleus thus they are easier to remove. They farther from the nucleus as inner level electrons shield the positively charged nucleus

7 Reactivity of Elements Elements that are found uncombined: Noble gases (rarely react) Elements react in order to achieve a = electrons Elements found combined with another atom of the same element Diatomic gases: Remember: Br I N Cl H O F (Say: Brinclhof) Elements that are so reactive they are found uncombined in nature Ex: Elements of groups,, and Elements in groups 1 and 2 combine with the elements in group 17 to form salts. Some can only be obtained by of their salts. Group 1 and 2 elements easily react with Group 17 elements Group 1 and 17 General formula: MX M= X= Ex: NaCl, Electron Dot: Group 2 and 17 General formula: MX 2 M= X= Ex: MgF 2 Electron Dot: Practice Regents Questions: 1. A compound is broken down by chemical means during (1) chromatography (2) distillation (2) electrolysis (4) filtration 2. Which list of elements is arranged in order of increasing atomic radii? (1) Sr, Ca, Mg, Be (2) Sc, Ti, V, Cr (3) F, Cl, Br, I (4) Li, Be, B, C

8 3. Compared to the radius of a chlorine atom, the radius of a chloride ion is A) smaller because chlorine gains an electron B) smaller because chlorine loses an electron C) larger because chlorine gains an electron D) larger because chlorine loses an electron 4. Which element has the smallest atomic radius? (1) Mg (2) Ca (3) Sr (4) Ba 5. Which ion has the smallest radius? (1) K+ (2) Na+ (3) Mg+2 (4) Al+3 6. The element with the most metallic character in Group 16 is (1) O, (2) S, (3) Se, (4) Te 7. If M represents an element in Group 2 the formula of its chloride would be (1) MCl (2) MCl 2 (3) M 2 Cl (4) M 2 Cl 2 8. Which represents the correct order of activity for the Group 17 elements [> means greater than](1) bromine > iodine > fluorine > chlorine (2) fluorine > chlorine > bromine > iodine(3) iodine > bromine > chlorine > fluorine (4) fluorine > bromine > chlorine > iodine Purple Workbook p. 36 for review

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