Diabetes and Your Diet July 2011

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1 These are general guidelines to help improve blood sugar levels. Talk to your dietitian about how they fit into your specific kidney diet. Foods are made up of protein, fat and carbohydrate. Protein (meat and alternatives) and fat do not increase blood sugar. Carbohydrate (sugar, starch) increases blood sugar. Eating at regular times helps to prevent blood sugar levels from going up and down. Try to have a meal or snack every 4-6 hours. Protein and fat slow down digestion of carbohydrate. Mixed meals including protein (meat and alternates), fat and carbohydrate keep blood sugar from rising as high than when eating carbohydrate (sugar and starch) alone. Limit sugar and sweet foods and avoid large portions of fruit and starchy foods. Vegetables (except potatoes and corn) contain little carbohydrate. Fruit and fruit juice, even if fresh or unsweetened contain higher amounts of carbohydrate. ( LIMIT OR AVOID) MILK AND ALTERNATIVES ½ cup per day Milk, 2%, 1%, or skim Yogurt -Light, Diet, unsweetened, or sweetened with artificial sweetener. Limit to ½ cup milk or yogurt per day. All milk and yogurt need to be limited because they are high in potassium and phosphorus. FATS Use in moderation Oil canola, olive, soybean, corn Margarine nonhydrogenated Mayonnaise Lard, shortening, butter 1

2 ( LIMIT OR AVOID AS NECESSARY) MEAT AND ALTERNATIVES These are high protein low carbohydrate foods that do not increase your blood sugar. Try to include a meat or alternative at all meals or snacks. SERVINGS PER DAY Lean beef, pork, chicken, turkey, lamb, wild meat and fish. Eggs or egg whites Peanut Butter, nuts, seeds Dried peas, beans, lentils Tofu Cheese, unprocessed or block 1 Serving = 1 ounce meat, fish or poultry 1 Egg 2 tbsp peanut butter 1/3 cup dried peas, beans, lentils ¼ cup canned salmon or tuna 1/3 cup tofu ¼ cup cottage cheese 1 ounce cheese, unprocessed or block Processed meat ham, bologna, wieners, Klik, bacon, sausages, deli meats, chicken fingers -higher in sodium and phosphorus. Sardines higher in sodium and phosphorus Dried peas, beans and lentils - higher in potassium and phosphorus- use carefully. Cheese is higher in phosphorus. Limit to 2-3 times per week. Avoid Cheese Whiz, cheese slices, Kraft Dinner Nuts, seeds and peanut butter - high in potassium and phosphorus use only in small amounts. 2

3 FOOD ITEM HEALTHIER CHOICES POOR CHOICES (HIGHER SODIUM, NECESSARY)) FRUITS 2-3 servings per day Fresh Frozen Unsweetened canned fruit (packed in water or juice, not syrup) High potassium fruits: Apricots, bananas, cantaloupe, coconut, dates, durian, figs, honeydew melon, jackfruit, kiwi, oranges (navel and Valencia), nectarines, papaya, fresh pear, fresh plums, pomegranate, pumpkin, raisins Unsweetened fruit juice VEGETABLES 2-3 servings per day Fresh Frozen Canned vegetables higher in sodium High potassium vegetables: Avocado, artichoke, beets, beet greens, bok choy, brussel sprouts, raw carrots, mushrooms, rutabaga, snow peas, cooked spinach, squash, sweet potato, tomato 3

4 NECESSARY) SNACKS Air popped popcorn Toast & low fat cream cheese English muffin or toast & thin layer of peanut butter Homemade lower sugar baked goods Jell-O Light Unsalted crackers or pretzel Sugar-Free candies Vegetables with low fat dip Low Fat Cookies & Crackers (Arrowroot, Social Tea digestives, graham wafers) Fruit 1 small or ½ cup Half Sandwich Microwave popcorn-higher in sodium Cheezies Chips Chocolate, candy Commercial muffins Cookies, cakes (high fat) Croissants Donuts Granola Ice cream Pastries BEVERAGES Water, tea, coffee, diet or low calories drinks Diet 7Up, Diet Sprite, Diet Gingerale, Diet Root beer, Diet Cream Soda, Light Cranberry Juice, Kool Aid Light, Crystal Light Club Soda higher in sodium Regular soft drinks and fruit drinks Unsweetened fruit juice Cola, Diet Cola, Dr. Pepper - higher in phosphorus Some iced teas look for phosphoric acid on label 4

5 FOOD ITEM HEALTHIER CHOICES POOR CHOICES0 (HIGHER SODIUM, NECESSARY)) STARCHY FOODS 1 serving = 1 slice bread ½ bun ¾ cup hot cereal ½ cup cold cereal ½ cup pasta, potatoes, or corn 1/3 cup rice 6 soda crackers Eat Servings per day Bread and Buns White, Rye, 60% Whole Wheat Cream of Wheat Oatmeal Unsweetened Cold Cereals Pasta or noodles Corn Potatoes (Pre-soak or double boil if limiting potassium) Rice Unsalted Crackers Dietitian Phone 100 % Whole Wheat bread and buns higher potassium and phosphorus Biscuits or Bannock made with baking powder- high in phosphorus. Oatmeal may need to be limited (high phosphorus, if eaten often) Bran (high phosphorus and potassium). Whole wheat pasta- higher in potassium and phosphorus Noodle mixes are higher in sodium (Mr. Noodles, noodles and sauce). Fried, baked or chips are higher in potassium Brown rice (high in potassium, phosphorus) Regular salted crackers NOTES 5

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