Growing potatoes for profit and sustainability Season Guidelines

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Growing potatoes for profit and sustainability Season Guidelines"

Transcription

1 Growing potatoes for profit and sustainability Season Guidelines Introduction There is constant demand within the UAE marketplace for locally grown potatoes with premiums being paid for specialty varieties. Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) are a hardy and durable crop that can be easily grown with existing irrigation set up. The UAE s sandy soils are suitable for growing good quality potatoes. This guide will show you the methods for profitable and sustainable production of potatoes, including a water efficient high technology irrigation system. Growing season Planting: mid-october to mid-december Harvest period: Early February to mid- April Table 1: Potato growing season Month Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Planting period Harvest period Growing period Planting to harvest: weeks Total crop cycle: can take up to 20 weeks depending on variety Table 2: Potato growing period from Week Growth stage P H H H H H Key to colours and symbols: P Planting H Harvesting Varieties Varietal selection is important for the success of your crop. Selected varieties should be suited to local climatic conditions, have good pest and disease resistance and meet market needs, particularly relating to tuber size, shape and flesh and skin colour. Certified pest and disease free seed potato is available for purchase from ADFSC. The varieties selected are best suited to the local growing conditions, have good storage potential and offer best returns. Irrigation layout, plant density and expected yield Plant seed potatoes at 20 to 30 cm spacing within rows, and a between row spacing of 90 cm. Potatoes can be also be grown using 20 to 50 cm dripper spacing (Table 3). 1

2 Table 3: Plant arrangement and density Plant spacing Drip line spacing Plant density Plant arrangement Between rows (cm) Within rows (cm) Between lines (cm) within lines (cm) Number of plants per donum Potential marketable yield (kg per donum) Recommended high density planting ,500 3,000 to 4,500 Not recommended traditional planting ,850 1,000 to 2,000 Seed potatoes should be of uniform size with an average weight of 50 grams. They should be planted whole. Where larger seed potatoes are used they should weigh between 80 and 120 g. Cut sections between 40 and 60 g and dry them in a cool, well ventilated and shaded location for one to two days before planting. Each seed potato or cut section should have a minimum of between two to four eyes. For high density planting you need about 4,500 seeds per donum. Seed potatoes are ready for planting when three or four small white sprouts emerge from the eyes. All rotten or diseased tubers should be discarded to avoid the spread of disease into the crop. Care should be taken when storing and handling potatoes to make sure that seeds are not exposed to excessive heat or mechanical damage. Figure 1: Close spacing for high density potatoes Figure 2: High density potato crop Soil analysis and water quality requirements Prior to field preparation, soil and water samples should be taken and sent for analysis. Potatoes are moderately sensitive to salinity. The recommended salinity of irrigation water should not exceed 1.1 ds/m (700 ppm) if the potential yield of potato is to be realised. However, a water salinity of 3.9 ds/m (2,500 ppm) will reduce yield by about 50%. Your local ADFSC extension engineer can assist you with soil and water sampling techniques and help with the interpretation of results from the laboratory to grow the crop successfully. Potatoes are sensitive to chlorides generally found in the calcareous soils in the UAE. Fertilisation with chloride-free fertilisers will contribute towards increased yields and quality of tubers. Land preparation and pre-planting fertilising 2

3 Thoroughly cultivate the area to be planted four weeks prior to the planting date. Dig trenches along rows 20 cm deep and 30 cm wide. Add manure and pre-planting fertilisers (Table 4) and thoroughly mix into the soil at the bottom of the trench to a depth of 5 cm. Back fill the trench with 10 cm of soil then smooth to an even depth of 15 cm. This is to prevent fertilisers coming in contact with seed tubers and to protect them from high soil surface temperatures. The risk of damage to tubers increases in dry conditions, on light soils and where pre-sprouted seeds are planted. Table 4: Recommended rates of pre-planting fertiliser application for UAE sands Fertiliser Application rate (kg/donum) Composted manure 1,000 Ammonium sulphate 25 Triple super phosphate (TSP) 60 Potassium sulphate 26 Magnesium sulphate 5 Trace element mix (Fe, Mn, Zn, B, Cu, Mo) 1 Pre- and post-plant fertiliser applications provided are only a guideline. Fertiliser recommendations should be based on soil irrigation water analyses and experience of soil conditions in your local area. Contact your ADFSC extension engineer for assistance with testing water and soil on your farm and formulating fertiliser schedules. The recommendations above (Table 4) are for a typical sandy soil in Abu Dhabi. Growers may achieve a similar result if necessary, using N:P:K compound fertilisers that supply the same amounts of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg). The composted manure provides organic matter to the soil to help with the retention of irrigation water and nutrients for a strong healthy root system. Organic material must be thoroughly composted to avoid the introduction of weed seeds, pests, diseases and seedling root burn. Poorly composted manure can cause scab in potatoes. Figure 3: Pre-planting fertiliser application Figure 4: Mixing fertilisers and back filling trenches Installation of new irrigation lines 3

4 Existing irrigation systems can be adapted to the new layout by attaching new drip lines at the required spacing to the existing underground sub-mains or lateral water pipes. Existing outlets that do not align with the new spacing should be blocked off. In some situations farmers may choose to install new sub-mains or lateral pipes to facilitate the new drip line layout. Always test the irrigation system and dripper prior to transplanting to ensure all drippers are working. This is ideally done as part of the pre-planting weed control. Growing stage Planting Disease free seed potatoes of uniform size should be planted whole. Seed potatoes should be planted as follows: 1. Place potato seeds at the bottom of the prepared trenches cm apart 2. Backfill the trench to the original soil level 3. Place the irrigation line along the planting row Figure 5: Seed potatoes Crop nutrition and application of soluble fertilizers through irrigation (fertigation) Weekly fertigation is recommended according to the following schedule. Table 5: Recommended rates (kg/donum) for fertigation fertiliser and trace element application for UAE sands Growth stages in weeks Ammonium sulphate Potassium nitrate Magnesium sulphate Calcium nitrate Trace element mix Chelated Fe (EDDHA) At emergence Week Week Week Week Week Week Week Week Week Total Notes: Apply trace elements via fertigation at first irrigation Calcium nitrate should be applied separately from other fertilisers to prevent precipitates forming in the fertigation tank and clogging the drip lines. 4

5 The above schedule of weekly applications (Table 5) is only a guideline for the sandy soils typically found on Abu Dhabi farms. The exact fertiliser recommendations should be based on soil fertility levels and irrigation water conditions in your area. Contact your ADFSC extension engineer for assistance with testing water and soil on your farm. Weekly or more frequent fertigation ensures that nutrient levels are maintained in the root zone of the crop throughout the important growing and production periods. These recommendations are based on good irrigation practices. Excessive irrigation will leach nutrients away from the root zone Crop water requirements Irrigation is important as potatoes have a shallow sparse root system. Therefore, irrigation must be closely monitored to ensure soil moisture remains even in the beds during the whole cropping period. Until foliage emerges from the soil, the young plants need minimum water. Potatoes require even moisture availability to achieve rapid healthy growth. It is essential that the soil is kept constantly and uniformly wet to a depth of at least cm during the early vegetative growth phase until tuber formation. Excessive irrigation can promote tuber rots and results in leaching of nutrients from the root zone. Care should be taken during tuber initiation and formation as irregular irrigation can result in tuber cracking and over irrigation can lead to disease development. If soil dries after tubers have formed, a second growth will initiate when soil gets moist again. This will cause knobbly potatoes and multiples. Alternate wet and dry conditions can also cause hollow heart, or cavities near the middle of the potato. Application of soluble fertiliser as fertigation can be carried out during a normal irrigation. Continue irrigation for 5 minutes after fertigation to flush the system. Hilling The new potato will grow above the seed piece so hilling up is necessary to provide sufficient friable soil to create the correct conditions for tuber formation and to protect the new potatoes from sun exposure and turning green. Green tubers contain the toxic chemical solanine and eating these can cause sickness. After two weeks from planting, first hilling should be carried out when the plant stems are between 15 and 20 cm high. The second hilling is done when the stems are between 10 and 15 cm above the first hill. The hilling procedure involves gathering soil from between the rows to cover the stems. Figure 6: Hilling Figure 7: Potato field after hilling Plant protection Many pest and disease problems can be avoided through Integrated Pest Management (IPM) procedures. The following will help to ensure any pests in your potato crop remain below the economic threshold and swift action is taken should they become a problem. Use of pest resistant varieties This ensures your crop has natural resistance to pests and diseases, minimising the need for expensive chemical control. Row covering Covers should be put up immediately after planting and left for 2-3 weeks. They protect your potato crop from numerous insect 5

6 pests, such as whitefly, potato leafhoppers, thrips, mites and aphids and the diseases they carry, such as potato yellow vein, leafroll and mosaic virus. Crop rotation Do not plant potatoes in fields cultivated with potatoes, tomatoes, capsicum, eggplant and chilli in the previous 5 years or in fields cultivated with fodder crops such as Rhodes grass in the previous 2 years to avoid white grubs. This will also minimise the risk of fungal and bacterial diseases such as bacterial and fungal wilt, black scurf, black dot and nematodes. Rotate with a non-host crop such as corn, onions, carrots, beans and cabbage. Soil solarisation This should be carried out each summer prior to planting to help control soil borne pathogens such as fungal wilt, damping off, powdery scab, pink rot, nematodes and white grub. Companion crops Planting of coriander in the vicinity of your potato crops will help to repel a number of insect pests such as potato beetle and whitefly. Plant certified seed Plant only certified disease-free potato seed to avoid infection with potato leafroll virus, mosaic virus, blights, black scurf and smut. Traps Placing coloured, light and pheromone traps around your potato crop will help control whitefly, leafhoppers, cut worms and potato tuber moth. Removing and correctly destroying all crop residues immediately after harvest This helps prevent last season s pests re-infecting your new crop and will help to control early and late blights and bacterial wilt. Good weed management Potato crops should be weeded every 2-3 weeks after removal of Agrile row covers. This is especially important during the early stages of growth when canopy cover is less developed and the crop cannot compete with weeds. Weeds should be manually removed. This can be combined with hilling. Crop monitoring Potato crops should be monitored for pests and diseases every 3-4 days. This is especially important during the early stages of growth when potatoes are more susceptible to pests and diseases. Consistent monitoring enables a swift and effective response should an outbreak occur, which will minimise crop damage and expense. Prompt harvesting after canopy has dried off Harvest tubers 5 to 10 days after cutting the foliage or after foliage has dried off to prevent diseases such as black scurf. Thorough composting of all organic matter All manure put on the crop should be thoroughly composted to prevent pest and disease outbreaks. In the event of a pest or disease outbreak please contact your nearest ADFSC extension engineer to correctly identify the pest or disease and provide recommended control measures. Harvest stage Pre-harvest interval (PHI) Pre-harvest interval is the time between the last pesticide application and harvests of the treated crop. The PHI varies between different types of pesticides and must be adhered to for all crops. Failure to adhere to the PHI will result in pesticide residues in the harvested produce, which will render the crop unfit for human consumption and for sale. It is illegal to sell crops where the PHI has not been adhered to. 6

7 Field Hygiene during harvest Good field hygiene is required to ensure you crop is free of contaminants. This is essential for the crop to be sold in the market. Good hygiene practices must always be adhered to when harvesting fresh vegetables. Crop maturity, handling and storage The growing time to maturity for potatoes varies between 90 and 140 days depending on variety. As the crop matures the foliage changes in colour from bright green to yellow. However, as this colour change may also be caused by a number of pests and diseases, crops must be sampled to verify whether they have reached maturity. To do so, sample tubers from several representative plants within the crop. The skin of mature tubers should be firm and not easily removed when pressure is applied through light rubbing. Once potatoes are mature they must be cured to harden the skin so they can be stored. Gradually reduce irrigation to kill off the foliage. Irrigation should not be completely discontinued as sufficient moisture is required in the soil to prevent tuber dehydration and erosion of the hills, exposing the tubers to greening and sun damage. Cut foliage after one week of reduced irrigation. Harvest can begin once the skin of potatoes is judged to be suitable for market quality requirements which is generally five to ten days after foliage removal. Potatoes harvested before full maturity are prone to bruising and skin flaking during post-harvest handling and shrinkage in storage. Care must be taken to avoid any mechanical damage when harvesting potatoes using digging tools or damage from finger nails. The use of cotton gloves for harvesting potatoes will minimise this. Potatoes should be harvested in the coolest part of the day and immediately transferred to a cool shaded location for short-term storage. They should be packed as to avoid heat and sun damage. This is especially important during late season harvesting when air temperatures and intensity of the midday sun will dramatically reduce quality. Potatoes should be free from rots, blemishes, cuts and mechanical damage and be correctly cured so they are not green or soft. To reduce risk of damage in transit potatoes should be packed carefully. Potatoes bruise easily and should never be dropped or thrown as this will reduce quality and value. Crates must be stacked safely and securely so they are not resting on the produce beneath. Figure 8: Packing potatoes in the pack house Grading To ensure potatoes get the best price, grade them according to the current ADFSC specifications. These can be obtained from your local procurement officer. 7

8 For further information and advice: Contact your local ADFSC office for professional advice from our experienced team of extension engineers. Figure 9: Packed potatoes ready for distribution to retailers 8

Growing cabbage for profit and sustainability Season Guidelines

Growing cabbage for profit and sustainability Season Guidelines Growing cabbage for profit and sustainability 2014-2015 Season Guidelines Introduction Cabbage (Brassica oleraceae) is a biennial plant belonging to the Cruciferae family. They are popular traditional

More information

Growing sweetcorn for profit and sustainability Season Guidelines

Growing sweetcorn for profit and sustainability Season Guidelines Growing sweetcorn for profit and sustainability 2014-2015 Season Guidelines Introduction Fresh, locally grown high quality sweetcorn is in constant demand within the UAE marketplace. The UAE s sandy soils

More information

Home Garden Irish Potato Production in West Virginia

Home Garden Irish Potato Production in West Virginia Home Garden Irish Potato Production in West Virginia HR Scott, Lewis Jett and John Porter The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a cool-season vegetable which was under cultivation in the Andes Mountains for

More information

Fresh From the Field: Growing the Irish Potato in the Mutare Farming Area of. Zimbabwe

Fresh From the Field: Growing the Irish Potato in the Mutare Farming Area of. Zimbabwe Fresh From the Field: Growing the Irish Potato in the Mutare Farming Area of Zimbabwe By Tsitsi Nyabando (Tanaka Churu) nyabando@goldmail.etsu.edu For ENGL 4057/5057 Writing: Theory and Teaching Tsitsi

More information

Plant nutrients. The quantity of nutrients available to the plants is affected by: substrate quality water quality plant type.

Plant nutrients. The quantity of nutrients available to the plants is affected by: substrate quality water quality plant type. Plant nutrients All plants require nutrients to survive and grow. Plants take nutrients from the air, the soil, and the water. Because you cannot see nutrients they are colourless gases or are like dust

More information

To get a bumper crop always use certified virus free seed potatoes and plant after frosts have passed in early spring through to early summer.

To get a bumper crop always use certified virus free seed potatoes and plant after frosts have passed in early spring through to early summer. How to Grow Potatoes Download guide here. Who doesn t love potatoes? High in fiber, rich in vitamin B and C and with more protein and iron than any other vegetable potatoes are a meal in themselves and

More information

SWEETCORN PRODUCTION GUIDELINE

SWEETCORN PRODUCTION GUIDELINE SWEETCORN PRODUCTION GUIDELINE C U S TO M E R S E R V I C E S : 0 8 6 0 7 8 2 7 5 3 W W W. S TA R K E AY R E S. C O. Z A M E M B E R O F T H E P L E N N E G Y G R O U P SWEETCORN 1. HISTORY AND BACKGROUND

More information

Chilli - Long Red Cayenne, Long Slim Cayenne, P2391, Serano, Skyline 3, Star 6601, Thai chili, Thai Dragon.

Chilli - Long Red Cayenne, Long Slim Cayenne, P2391, Serano, Skyline 3, Star 6601, Thai chili, Thai Dragon. CAPSICUMS Hot pepper (chilli), sweet pepper and paprika. CLIMATE These crops require warmer conditions than tomatoes, and are more sensitive to cold and frost. The optimum mean temperatures for growth,

More information

Irish potatoes are one of America s most

Irish potatoes are one of America s most E-511 11-10 Easy Gardening Joseph Masabni, Assistant Professor and Extension Horticulturist, The Texas A&M University System Irish potatoes are one of America s most popular vegetables the average American

More information

Agricultural to the 21st Century:

Agricultural to the 21st Century: Agricultural to the 21st Century: Tips, Tools & Technologies By Ms. Keeley Holder May 20 th, 2010 Who Am I? Farmer Produce Growers Ltd Scientist Integrated Pest Management Specialist President Barbados

More information

A guide for handling for cabbage, carrot, hot pepper, lettuce, sweet potato and tomato. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

A guide for handling for cabbage, carrot, hot pepper, lettuce, sweet potato and tomato. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations A guide for handling for cabbage, carrot, hot pepper, lettuce, sweet potato and tomato Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations A guide for handling for cabbage 1. HARVESTING Harvesting

More information

Getting the Most out of Your Vegetable Garden Soil Test Report

Getting the Most out of Your Vegetable Garden Soil Test Report gardening.cornell.edu Getting the Most out of Your Vegetable Garden Soil Test Report 1. Be certain your soil ph is in the optimal range. 2. Add a nitrogen (N) source at the recommended rate. 3. Add a phosphorus

More information

Growing Potatoes in the Florida Home Garden 1

Growing Potatoes in the Florida Home Garden 1 HS933 Growing Potatoes in the Florida Home Garden 1 Jeffery E. Pack, James M. White and Chad M. Hutchinson 2 The potato is one of America's most popular vegetables. Americans eat an average of 125 lbs

More information

How to Grow Strawberries

How to Grow Strawberries How to Grow Strawberries Download guide here. There is not a fruit that captures the essence of summer better than strawberries. Whether they spill out of strawberry towers, tumble from hanging baskets,

More information

POMEGRANATE NUTRITION. Dr. Mongi Zekri

POMEGRANATE NUTRITION. Dr. Mongi Zekri POMEGRANATE NUTRITION Dr. Mongi Zekri Fertilizer Requirements Fertilizer requirements for pomegranate trees are similar to those for citrus. CITRUS CITRUS POMEGRANATE Background information Best quality

More information

Hydroponic vegetable production

Hydroponic vegetable production Hydroponic vegetable production agriculture, forestry & fisheries Department: Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA Guide Hydroponic vegetable production Directorate: Plant Production

More information

Potato, white (Solanum tuberosurn)

Potato, white (Solanum tuberosurn) Potato, white (Solanum tuberosurn) Recommed Varieties White Rose Kennebec Chieftain Norgold Russet Red Lasoda Many specially varieties are available also Disease Resistance LB Grow white potatoes from

More information

1. THE GROWER 2. GREENHOUSE STRUCTURE FEATURED 3. CROPS GROWN. Hung Nguyen: 0408 696 949, hung_si_hing@hotmail.com

1. THE GROWER 2. GREENHOUSE STRUCTURE FEATURED 3. CROPS GROWN. Hung Nguyen: 0408 696 949, hung_si_hing@hotmail.com 1. THE GROWER Hung Nguyen: 0408 696 949, hung_si_hing@hotmail.com Hung is a new grower in his third year of independent farm management. He completed a Diploma in Horticulture while working on his parent

More information

Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management Integrated Pest Management Andrea Veres Junior Technical Officer FAO REU andrea.veres@fao.org Yerevan, Armenia 2013 Why develop IPM? Agriculture was: not sustainable optimized inputs for maximum profit

More information

United Arab Emirates University Date Palm Development Research Unit Dept. Date Palm Tissue Culture Laboratory (DPTCL)

United Arab Emirates University Date Palm Development Research Unit Dept. Date Palm Tissue Culture Laboratory (DPTCL) United Arab Emirates University Date Palm Development Research Unit Dept. Date Palm Tissue Culture Laboratory (DPTCL) Guidelines and Tips for the Cultivation of Tissue Culture-Derived Date Palm Trees Introduction

More information

MANAGING VEGETABLE GARDEN SOIL FERTILITY IN VERMONT Vern Grubinger, Extension Professor, University of Vermont

MANAGING VEGETABLE GARDEN SOIL FERTILITY IN VERMONT Vern Grubinger, Extension Professor, University of Vermont MANAGING VEGETABLE GARDEN SOIL FERTILITY IN VERMONT Vern Grubinger, Extension Professor, University of Vermont Soil fertility is determined by the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of soil.

More information

Onion & Leek Planting Guide

Onion & Leek Planting Guide Onion & Leek Planting Guide Important Remove plants from box immediately. Do not put in soil or water before planting. Keep cool and dry until you can plant. Follow the instructions inside for best results.

More information

BENEFITS OF USING IPM

BENEFITS OF USING IPM Edward J. Bechinski and William H. Bohl Potato growers who use IPM consider all available pest control tools. Alternatives to conventional pesticides are the foundation of every IPM plan. Pesticides play

More information

Diseases and Their Control

Diseases and Their Control Chapter 34 Diseases and Their Control In This Chapter Keywords Diseases After learning the information in this chapter, you will be able to: 1. List the causes of disease symptoms. 2. Describe how fungi,

More information

Common diseases of strawberries

Common diseases of strawberries SEPTEMBER 2009 PRIMEFACT 892 Common diseases of strawberries L Ullio Cleanfresh Project, Intensive Horticulture, Sydney Markets Leaf scorch Leaf scorch is common on older leaves and at the end of season,

More information

How Does My Garden Grow?

How Does My Garden Grow? How Does My Garden Grow? Grade Level: K-3 Approximate Length of Activity: A garden whether planted outside in a bed or in containers is an ongoing project that spans 8-12 weeks. As you plan your garden

More information

Tomato Year-Round IPM Program ANNUAL CHECKLIST (Reviewed 12/12)

Tomato Year-Round IPM Program ANNUAL CHECKLIST (Reviewed 12/12) Tomato Year-Round IPM Program ANNUAL CHECKLIST (Reviewed 12/12) These practices are recommended for a monitoring-based IPM program that reduces water quality problems related to pesticide use. Track your

More information

Mulching is a long-established horticultural

Mulching is a long-established horticultural E-512 07-09 Easy Gardening MULCHING MULCHING MULCHING MULCHING Joseph Masabni, Assistant Professor and Extension Horticulturist, The Texas A&M University System Mulching is a long-established horticultural

More information

Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management Chapter 2 Integrated Pest Management In This Chapter Keywords After learning the information in this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Define Integrated Pest Management (IPM). 2. List and describe the 5

More information

Irrigated Winter Wheat

Irrigated Winter Wheat Southern Idaho Fertilizer Guide Irrigated Winter Wheat Brad Brown, Soil Scientist Parma Research and Extension Center The following fertilizer guidelines are based on University of Idaho research that

More information

Use of Shredded Leaf Mulch Improves Potatoes Grown for Local and Organic Markets

Use of Shredded Leaf Mulch Improves Potatoes Grown for Local and Organic Markets Cooperative Extension njaes.rutgers.edu Martin Hall, Room 327 rabin@aesop.rutgers.edu Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey 88 Lipman Drive 848-932-3610 New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8525 Fax: 732-932-6633

More information

Workshop Title: Plant Signals: Nutritional Deficiencies & Disease

Workshop Title: Plant Signals: Nutritional Deficiencies & Disease Workshop Title: Plant Signals: Nutritional Deficiencies & Disease Speaker: Av. Singh, Ph.D., P.Ag. Executive Summary A detailed explanation of how to identify nutritional deficiencies and disease was given

More information

Fertility Guidelines for Hops in the Northeast Dr. Heather Darby, University of Vermont Extension Agronomist

Fertility Guidelines for Hops in the Northeast Dr. Heather Darby, University of Vermont Extension Agronomist Fertility Guidelines for Hops in the Northeast Dr. Heather Darby, University of Vermont Extension Agronomist The increasing acreage of hops in the Northeast has prompted the need for fertility guidelines

More information

Introductory Vegetable Production Part 1. F.I.R.S.T. Planning F.I.R.S.T. STEPS. PRODUCTION Plan. MARKETING Plan. Veg Production Pt1 - Overview

Introductory Vegetable Production Part 1. F.I.R.S.T. Planning F.I.R.S.T. STEPS. PRODUCTION Plan. MARKETING Plan. Veg Production Pt1 - Overview Veg Production Pt1 - Overview Introductory Vegetable Production Part 1 Site Selection / Soil / Water / Crop Planning / Equipment First Steps Site Selection Soil Water / Irrigation Crop Planning Equipment

More information

General kinds of plant diseases: What is a plant disease? 1. Low Temperature. Kinds of non-infectious diseases:

General kinds of plant diseases: What is a plant disease? 1. Low Temperature. Kinds of non-infectious diseases: What is a plant disease? Any problem with a plant that causes a reduction in yield or appearance. General kinds of plant diseases: 1. Non infectious: Can not be transmitted (or moved) from a disease plant

More information

your easy guide to home-grown, garden-fresh vegetables vegetable growing chart

your easy guide to home-grown, garden-fresh vegetables vegetable growing chart Vegetable Planner your easy guide to home-grown, garden-fresh vegetables vegetable growing chart At-a-glance guide to sowing and harvesting times for most popular vegetables. This chart covers 18 months

More information

The Potential of High Tunnels. Curt R. Rom M. Elena Garcia Professor Department of Horticulture University of Arkansas

The Potential of High Tunnels. Curt R. Rom M. Elena Garcia Professor Department of Horticulture University of Arkansas The Potential of High Tunnels Curt R. Rom M. Elena Garcia Professor Department of Horticulture University of Arkansas Or Structures to Enhance Horticulture (from MotherEarth News) Terms Tunnels or Hoophouses

More information

SMALLHOLDERS STEP-BY-STEP SERIES

SMALLHOLDERS STEP-BY-STEP SERIES SMALLHOLDERS STEP-BY-STEP SERIES DRY SEASON VEGETABLE PRODUCTION AS AN ENTERPRISE TRAINING PAMPHLET DEVELOPED BY THE VERSION 1 REGULARLY UPDATED MAY, 2013 FORWARD Nigeria has great potential to become

More information

Chapter 4: Lettuce Production

Chapter 4: Lettuce Production Chapter 4: Lettuce Production Lettuce Production This handbook is directed toward a daily production of 5 ounce (150 grams) heads of leaf lettuce. The production of the lettuce crop is separated into two

More information

Drip Irrigation for the Yard and Garden

Drip Irrigation for the Yard and Garden Drip Irrigation for the Yard and Garden R. Troy Peters, Ph.D. WSU Extension Irrigation Engineer Drip irrigation has many advantages over sprinklers. The application efficiency of sprinklers is typically

More information

Fruit is medium size, medium red, bright, medium firm, good flavour, a good fresh dessert variety, suitable for freezing.

Fruit is medium size, medium red, bright, medium firm, good flavour, a good fresh dessert variety, suitable for freezing. Strawberry The strawberry, considered by many people to be a favorite berry crop, is ideally suited for the home garden. A small plot of land can produce all the strawberries required for an average size

More information

Kitchen Garden? What is a. Farmers from Mulsam in Jajarkot, Nepal, display vegetables from their kitchen gardens

Kitchen Garden? What is a. Farmers from Mulsam in Jajarkot, Nepal, display vegetables from their kitchen gardens The Farmers' Handbook - "Near The House 2", What is a Kitchen Garden? Farmers from Mulsam in Jajarkot, Nepal, display vegetables from their kitchen gardens A kitchen garden is where herbs and vegetables

More information

Fodder Beet Growing & Grazing Guide

Fodder Beet Growing & Grazing Guide Introduction. Fodder Beet is potentially the highest yielding winter forage options available to farmers currently. Some of the advantages of growing fodder beet include: High dry matter yield Not in the

More information

G A Gardener's Guide for Soil and Nutrient Management in Growing Vegetables

G A Gardener's Guide for Soil and Nutrient Management in Growing Vegetables University of Nebraska - Lincoln DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln Historical Materials from University of Nebraska- Lincoln Extension Extension 1-1-1990 G90-945 A Gardener's Guide for Soil

More information

How Fertilizers and Plant Nutrients Affect Groundwater Quality Robert G. Stevens, Dan M. Sullivan, and Craig G. Cogger

How Fertilizers and Plant Nutrients Affect Groundwater Quality Robert G. Stevens, Dan M. Sullivan, and Craig G. Cogger EB1722 How Fertilizers and Plant Nutrients Affect Groundwater Quality Robert G. Stevens, Dan M. Sullivan, and Craig G. Cogger Essential plant nutrients occur naturally in soil. To increase crop yield,

More information

ADVANCED SUGARCANE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY

ADVANCED SUGARCANE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY ADVANCED SUGARCANE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY By RanaZulfiqar Ali Director Sugarcane Research Institute, Faisalabad Comparison with World (2011-12) Item Sugarcane production 05 Area under sugarcane 05 Production

More information

Balancing the Diet for Your Dahlias. Prepared for the American Dahlia Society August 2012 Kevin Larkin ADS Research & Education Committee

Balancing the Diet for Your Dahlias. Prepared for the American Dahlia Society August 2012 Kevin Larkin ADS Research & Education Committee Balancing the Diet for Your Dahlias Prepared for the American Dahlia Society August 2012 Kevin Larkin ADS Research & Education Committee Benefits of good plant nutrition Insect tolerance Disease tolerance

More information

WHAT IS IN FERTILIZER OTHER THAN NUTRIENTS?

WHAT IS IN FERTILIZER OTHER THAN NUTRIENTS? WHAT IS IN FERTILIZER OTHER THAN NUTRIENTS? Raymond C. Ward Ward Laboratories Inc. Kearney, NE Commercial fertilizer is a source of plant nutrients that can be applied to soil to nourish crops when the

More information

Weeds WEEDS. Common Purslane

Weeds WEEDS. Common Purslane WEEDS Introduction Weeds are any plants that grow where they are unwanted. Common weeds are fast growing, resilient nuisances that compete with your cultivated plants for nutrients, water, and sunlight.

More information

Strawberry fertiliser guide

Strawberry fertiliser guide APRIL 2010 PRIMEFACT 941 (REPLACES AGFACT H3.AC.1) Strawberry fertiliser guide Lawrence Ullio Horticulturist Intensive Industries (Horticulture), Sydney Markets Strawberries are grown on a wide range of

More information

Outline. What is IPM Principles of IPM Methods of Pest Management Economic Principles The Place of Pesticides in IPM

Outline. What is IPM Principles of IPM Methods of Pest Management Economic Principles The Place of Pesticides in IPM Improving Control Systems in Thailand for Plant and Plants Products Intended for Export to the European Union co-funded by the European Union and Thai Department of Agriculture Preharvest Use of Pesticides

More information

WATER SOLUBLE FERTILIZERS

WATER SOLUBLE FERTILIZERS WATER SOLUBLE FERTILIZERS Plant-Prod Fertilizers Plant-Prod is completely soluble, and in warm water goes into solution almost instantly. Plant-Prod stays dissolved and leaves no deposits in tanks or irrigation

More information

Strawberry Production Basics: Matted Row

Strawberry Production Basics: Matted Row Strawberry Production Basics: Matted Row David T. Handley, Vegetable and Small Fruits Specialist University of Maine Cooperative Extension Highmoor Farm, P.O. Box 179, Monmouth, Maine 04259 (207) 933-2100

More information

Soil Sampling for Nutrient Management

Soil Sampling for Nutrient Management Soil Sampling for Nutrient Management Nutrient Management Factsheet No. 2 in Series Revised September 2010 Order Reference No. 631-500-1 For nutrient management, soil sampling is done to collect a soil

More information

CROP PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT

CROP PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT CROP PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT Finish Line & Beyond Types of Crops Soil Preparation Sowing Harvesting Fertilisers Insecticides All living organisms require food. Plants can make their food themselves.

More information

Average fertilizer application rates in kg/ ha for a MT/ ha yield CaO MgO

Average fertilizer application rates in kg/ ha for a MT/ ha yield CaO MgO Banana IMPORTANT FACTS ABOUT THE BANANA Banana is an herbaceous plant of the genus Musa. The fruit is an important staple food throughout the world and is commercially grown in more than 100 countries.

More information

Introduction Ask the members whether one of them uses compost in his/her garden. Make him/her explain why and how it is used.

Introduction Ask the members whether one of them uses compost in his/her garden. Make him/her explain why and how it is used. Compost Information for VAG Leaders Preparation: - In this factsheet, the members will learn about compost: what is it? How to make it? What can be composed? - The leader must be sure to bring the materials

More information

Ecologically based weed management! Chuck Mohler! Cornell University!

Ecologically based weed management! Chuck Mohler! Cornell University! Ecologically based weed management! Chuck Mohler! Cornell University! Outline! Understanding weeds! Behavior of wandering perennials! Tillage and emergence cues! Life and death of weed seeds in the soil!

More information

The Benefits of Calcium Sulphate Use in Soil & Agriculture

The Benefits of Calcium Sulphate Use in Soil & Agriculture The Benefits of Calcium Sulphate Use in Soil & Agriculture A good soil environment is vital for the growth and health of plants Tight and compacted soils may limit plant growth and cause disease problems.

More information

Planning Your Vegetable Garden A first step to a successful growing season!

Planning Your Vegetable Garden A first step to a successful growing season! Planning Your Vegetable Garden A first step to a successful growing season! 10 Steps to Plan a Successful Garden 1. Figure out what you want to grow 2. Assess your resources (location, equipment, time)

More information

Jeremiah K.S. Dung Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center Oregon State University

Jeremiah K.S. Dung Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center Oregon State University Jeremiah K.S. Dung Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center Oregon State University Species of Pectobacterium and Dickeya Formerly known as soft rot Erwinias P. carotovorum subspecies P. atrosepticum

More information

GENERAL WATERING & CARE GUIDE

GENERAL WATERING & CARE GUIDE GENERAL WATERING & CARE GUIDE Between 30-60 percent of water applied to lawns and gardens is never absorbed by the plants. Water is often wasted because it is applied too quickly and runs off, evaporates

More information

mulching Action Sheet 34 So what is mulching?

mulching Action Sheet 34 So what is mulching? mulching Action Sheet 34 So what is mulching? nutrients release as leaves decompose leaf litter shallow roots take up Have you ever looked closely at a forest floor? It s covered in leaf litter - a nutrient-rich,

More information

Plant Nutrient Analysis Sampling Guide

Plant Nutrient Analysis Sampling Guide Hwy 15 P.O. Box 510 Northwood, ND 58267 (701) 587-6010 Fax (701) 587-6013 Home page: agvise.com 902 13th St. N. P.O. Box 187 Benson, MN 56215 (320) 843-4109 Fax (320) 843-2074 Plant Nutrient Analysis Sampling

More information

USING MANURE AND COMPOST

USING MANURE AND COMPOST Nutrient Management for Fruit & Vegetable Crop Production Carl J. Rosen and Peter M. Bierman Department of Soil, Water, and Climate University of Minnesota USING MANURE AND COMPOST AS NUTRIENT SOURCES

More information

CORN (MAIZE) & BIOFUEL CORN

CORN (MAIZE) & BIOFUEL CORN CORN CORN (MAIZE) & BIOFUEL CORN NaanDanJain has many years experience with corn irrigation. Modern irrigation can increase the productivity of the crop for higher yields, using less water and fertilizers.

More information

Fertility Needs of No-Till Corn, Soybean and Wheat. Raymond C. Ward Ward Laboratories, Inc Kearney, NE

Fertility Needs of No-Till Corn, Soybean and Wheat. Raymond C. Ward Ward Laboratories, Inc Kearney, NE Fertility Needs of No-Till Corn, Soybean and Wheat Raymond C. Ward Ward Laboratories, Inc Kearney, NE www.wardlab.com Soil Sample for Fertility Dry or Frozen Ground Uniform Slice Top and Subsoil Sampling

More information

NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAPEVINES. Andrew Teubes Viticultural Consultant

NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAPEVINES. Andrew Teubes Viticultural Consultant NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAPEVINES Andrew Teubes Viticultural Consultant Nutrient requirements Five (5) critical aspects of importance for grapevine nutrition Which elements are required by the vine

More information

PROFESSIONAL POTATO GROWING. Planting

PROFESSIONAL POTATO GROWING. Planting PROFESSIONAL POTATO GROWING Planting CONTENTS Planting Seed bed Soil structure Moisture supply Which seed to use? The purpose of the crop Stem density Tuber size Seed required Examples Planting density

More information

BANANA PRODUCTION. ARC-Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops. Banana Production - English

BANANA PRODUCTION. ARC-Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops. Banana Production - English BANANA PRODUCTION ARC-Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops Banana Production - English BANANA PRODUCTION Compiled by Directorate Communication National Department of Agriculture and W. Willemse,

More information

GARDENING with Raised Beds RAISED BEDS SOIL / COMPOST TIPS AND GENERAL INFORMATION INDICATIVE PRICING GENERAL INFORMATION LITTLE DIGGERS CLUB

GARDENING with Raised Beds RAISED BEDS SOIL / COMPOST TIPS AND GENERAL INFORMATION INDICATIVE PRICING GENERAL INFORMATION LITTLE DIGGERS CLUB GARDENING with Raised Beds RAISED BEDS SOIL / COMPOST TIPS AND GENERAL INFORMATION INDICATIVE PRICING GENERAL INFORMATION LITTLE DIGGERS CLUB Options for Raised Gardens Getting Started Raised Beds timber

More information

Understanding the. Soil Test Report. Client and Sample Identification

Understanding the. Soil Test Report. Client and Sample Identification Understanding the Soil Test Report Page 1 of 7 Crops absorb the nutrients required from soil in order to grow, so ensuring that your soil is meeting the crops needs is critical. Having the proper level

More information

RIPPLE Africa Step by Step Fruit Tree planting Guide

RIPPLE Africa Step by Step Fruit Tree planting Guide RIPPLE Africa Step by Step Fruit Tree planting Guide NOTES ON FRUIT PRODUCTION Aim and Objective The aim and objective of RIPPLE Africa as an organisation is to make Nkhata Bay District one of the leading

More information

The nutrient management plan comprises the following elements:

The nutrient management plan comprises the following elements: Experience gained while testing soil samples and advising on nitrogen nutrients management in Poland as an extension worker presentation of Agronom software NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT PLAN Nutrient management

More information

Plant Nutrients. The Non-Mineral Nutrients are hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), & carbon (C).

Plant Nutrients. The Non-Mineral Nutrients are hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), & carbon (C). Plant Nutrients Sixteen chemical elements are known to be important to a plant's growth and survival. The sixteen chemical elements are divided into two main groups: nonmineral and mineral. Non-Mineral

More information

1/30/2016. Soil management. Essential Plant Nutrients. Regular soil sampling Nutrient management Soil ph and EC Soil organic matter

1/30/2016. Soil management. Essential Plant Nutrients. Regular soil sampling Nutrient management Soil ph and EC Soil organic matter Potassium management for Vegetable Production Dr. Ajay Nair Department of Horticulture Iowa State University Essential Plant Nutrients Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen Macronutrients Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium

More information

Cucumber disease control. Parm Randhawa,, Ph.D. California Seed & Plant Lab

Cucumber disease control. Parm Randhawa,, Ph.D. California Seed & Plant Lab Cucumber disease control Parm Randhawa,, Ph.D. California Seed & Plant Lab Agenda Symptom recognition Where the disease come from Disease Management Check list European American Disease control is same

More information

BLUEBERRY FERTILIZATION IN SOIL

BLUEBERRY FERTILIZATION IN SOIL BLUEBERRY FERTILIZATION IN SOIL Gerard Krewer and D. Scott NeSmith University of Georgia Ext. Fruit Publication 01-1 Index: Introduction... 1 General information on blueberry fertility and fertilizers...

More information

NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT. FO-3176-B (REVISED 2013) Plant Analysis Sampling and Interpretation SAMPLING THE RIGHT PLANT PART

NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT. FO-3176-B (REVISED 2013) Plant Analysis Sampling and Interpretation SAMPLING THE RIGHT PLANT PART NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT FO-3176-B (REVISED 2013) Plant Analysis Sampling and Interpretation Daniel E. Kaiser, John A. Lamb, and Carl Rosen Over the past 25 to 30 years, the popularity of plant analysis or

More information

University of Hawaii at Manoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources

University of Hawaii at Manoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources University of Hawaii at Manoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources J. Sugano, J. Uyeda, S. Fukuda, K. Wang, M. Kawate, C. Tamaru, B. Fox, and T. Radovich College of Tropical Agriculture

More information

Irrigation of Field Grown Nursery Stock

Irrigation of Field Grown Nursery Stock Irrigation of Field Grown Nursery Stock Ted Bilderback Nursery Extension Specialist Department of Horticulture Science North Carolina State University Ted_Bilderback@ncsu.edu http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/nursery/

More information

Environmental Effects on Development of Infectious Plant Disease

Environmental Effects on Development of Infectious Plant Disease Environmental Effects on Development of Infectious Plant Disease Environment can Determine whether Disease will Occur Temperature Moisture Light Soil Nutrients & ph Botrytis on raspberries http://www.hort.cornell.edu/department/facilities/lihrec/vegpath/photos/images/late_blight_tomato_leaf3x1200.jpg

More information

Saintbridge Allotment Gardens Association

Saintbridge Allotment Gardens Association Saintbridge Allotment Gardens Association July 2015 newsletter In July the allotment looks at its best with a wide range of crops coming ready for harvest including; courgettes, cucumber, runner beans,

More information

Nitrogen (N) Phosphorus (P)

Nitrogen (N) Phosphorus (P) FERTILIZERS Ideally, fertilizer recommendations should be based on the results of recent soil analysis done on representative soil samples. Where vegetable crops are to be grown for the first time, or

More information

Five Steps for Healthy Garden Tomatoes

Five Steps for Healthy Garden Tomatoes Purdue extension BP-184-W Author Daniel S. Egel Vegetable Diseases Five Steps for Healthy Garden Tomatoes Photos by Daniel S. Egel (Figures 1-3) and Elizabeth Maynard (Figures 4-5) www.btny.purdue.edu

More information

Raised Bed Gardening

Raised Bed Gardening Raised Bed Gardening Prepared by: Mark Acosta, Ilene Quitagua, Ian Iriarte, David Camacho, Duane Dominguez, Frank Cruz and L. Robert Barber For: UOG Cooperative Extension Service Funding, assembly, and

More information

Organic Gardening Certificate Program Quiz Week 3 Answer Key

Organic Gardening Certificate Program Quiz Week 3 Answer Key Q uiz for week 3 readings: 1. The database on the Organic Weed management Website contains the following sections except: A. Picture B. Ecology C. Management D. Description 2. The weed quackgrass can reproduce

More information

Crop Nutrient Needs in South and Southwest Texas

Crop Nutrient Needs in South and Southwest Texas B-6053 04-01 Crop Nutrient Needs in South and Southwest Texas Charles Stichler and Mark McFarland* Crop fertilization is not an exact science. The soil is a dynamic, changing, and complex mixture of organic

More information

Soil Nutrient Sources and NutrientUptake

Soil Nutrient Sources and NutrientUptake Soil Nutrient Sources and NutrientUptake Photosynthesis Plants use light energy and chlorophyll to make sugars for plant growth from water and carbon dioxide. Light and Chlorophyll 6 CO 2 + 12 H 2 O C

More information

FERTILIZERS AND SOIL BUILDING 101 FOR COMMUNITY GARDENERS. Is organic better? Don Boekelheide Mecklenburg County PLANT Charlotte, North Carolina

FERTILIZERS AND SOIL BUILDING 101 FOR COMMUNITY GARDENERS. Is organic better? Don Boekelheide Mecklenburg County PLANT Charlotte, North Carolina FERTILIZERS AND SOIL BUILDING 101 FOR COMMUNITY GARDENERS Is organic better? Don Boekelheide Mecklenburg County PLANT Charlotte, North Carolina Session goals To enable you and your community garden to

More information

Texas Home Gardening Guide

Texas Home Gardening Guide Page 1 of 8 Texas Home Gardening Guide Home gardening continues to grow in popularity. One of every three families does some type of home gardening, according to conservative estimates, with a majority

More information

You will need a metre tube. Insert the tube directly into the ground, twist and extract so you get approximately metres of soil.

You will need a metre tube. Insert the tube directly into the ground, twist and extract so you get approximately metres of soil. Soil quality testing Soil Core A soil core is useful when conducting the following tests for soil quality. It allows you to see and test soil properties that you otherwise would not have access to. You

More information

Managing Pesticide Resistance

Managing Pesticide Resistance Chapter 2 Managing Pesticide Resistance In This Chapter Keywords What is Pesticide Resistance? After learning the information in this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Define pesticide resistance. 2. Define

More information

Maize is a major cereal grown and consumed in Uganda and in the countries of Kenya, Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda

Maize is a major cereal grown and consumed in Uganda and in the countries of Kenya, Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda Maize Production in Uganda Farmers have improved maize yields from 1,000Kg/ha to 3,000-5,000 Kg/ha using the recommended technologies Maize is a major cereal grown and consumed in Uganda and in the countries

More information

WEED MANAGEMENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES

WEED MANAGEMENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES C 6 H A P TE R WEED MANAGEMENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES After completely studying this chapter, you should: Be able to define a weed and its four stages of development. Understand the differences between annual,

More information

CITY OF LETHBRIDGE SECTION CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS Page 1 of 5 TOPSOIL AND FINISH GRADING

CITY OF LETHBRIDGE SECTION CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS Page 1 of 5 TOPSOIL AND FINISH GRADING CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS Page 1 of 5 1.0 GENERAL 1.1 Material Supplied by Contractor/Developer.1 Contractor Developer will supply topsoil delivered to job site. 1.2 Related Work.1 Preparation to subgrade

More information

This presentation is about the management of weeds.

This presentation is about the management of weeds. This presentation is about the management of weeds. 1 Weed control within the first several weeks after crops are planted is critical in order to avoid a yield reduction from weeds. The effectiveness of

More information

Central North Carolina Planting Calendar for Annual Vegetables, Fruits, and Herbs

Central North Carolina Planting Calendar for Annual Vegetables, Fruits, and Herbs Central North Carolina Planting Calendar for Annual Vegetables, Fruits, and Herbs Central North Carolina is a wonderful place to garden. Almost any type of vegetable or fruit can be grown successfully

More information

A Guide to Growing Potatoes

A Guide to Growing Potatoes Growing Potatoes in Your Home Garden A Guide to Growing Potatoes In Your Home Garden Kelly A. Zarka, Donna C. Kells, David S. Douches and C. Robin Buell Michigan State University Have you ever grown potatoes

More information

Horticulture Information Leaflet 33-E

Horticulture Information Leaflet 33-E Department of Horticultural Science Horticulture Information Leaflet 33-E Revised 9/93 -- Author Reviewed 8/97 VEGETABLE CROP IRRIGATION Douglas C. Sanders, Extension Horticultural Specialist Distributed

More information