RESEARCH ON IMPROVING THE TECHNOLOGY OF STRAWBERRY SPECIES

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1 SUMMARY Keywords: strawberry cultivation technology, radicular fertilization, foliar fertilization, economic efficiency. PhD thesis RESEARCH ON IMPROVING THE TECHNOLOGY OF STRAWBERRY SPECIES was developed in the Doctoral School of the University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest. In Romania, the strawberry culture is developing. Given the climatic and soil conditions very favorable finds that this species in many parts of our country, the existence of a large production markets and high profitability of strawberry, is explained the interest of growers and breeders for this valuable species. In this thesis, we studied the influence of radicular and foliar fertilization on strawberry culture, in order to etstablish the measures to improving the technology through the application of optimal doses of fertilizers, leading to increased the performance of strawberry culture. The thesis was carried out between and is structured in accordance with the law, into two main sections: bibliographic study (32 pages) and own research (103 pages). The first part of the thesis, bibliographic study is divided into two chapters and is an account in the synthesis of information from national and international literature on specific culture technologies of strawberry. Chapter I, "IMPORTANCE OF STRAWBERRY CULTURE, ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF SPECIES IN THE WORLD AND IN ROMANIA " includes four chapters which present aspects of particular importance, evolution and origin of strawberry and current situation (surface and productions) of strawberry culture in the world and in Romania. Chapter II, "STATE OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT SPECIFIC STRAWBERRY TECHNOLOGY", is divided into 4 chapters, in which are presented the strawberry culture systems, mulching aspects, and aspects of nutrition and fertilization in strawberry. In Chapter III, "CHARACTERIZATION OF ECOPEDOCLIMATIC CONDITIONS WHERE CARRIED OUT THE RESEARCHES" described the natural environment in which the research carried out, namely the Research Institute for Fruit Growing Piteşti - Mărăcineni. In Chapter IV, "NECESSITY, PAPER PURPOSE, RESEARCH OBJECTIVES, BIOLOGICAL MATERIAL AND METHODS USED", are presented for the paper purpose, the biological material and method used.

2 The purpose of this paper is to establish measures to improve agricultural technology through the application of optimal doses of solid and foliar fertilizers leading to increased performance of strawberry culture. To achieve the goal of research we proposed the following general objective: - Improving scheme fertilization of strawberry on effective concentrations, their time of application, compatibility with pesticide products, their influence on the processes of growth and development and ultimately on fruit production. The research was carried out in , using like biological material, following strawberry varieties: Premial, Real, Magic, Elsanta, Onebor (Marmolada), Queen Elisa, Alba. Chapter V, "RESULTS CONCERNING IMPROVEMENT STRAWBERRY CULTURE TECHNOLOGY" is divided into 5 sections. Subchaper 1, includes observations on phaenological dynamic. In general, the evolution of main phenological phases were not influenced by fertilising products in strawberry experimental plots. These phenophases were influenced by climatic conditions and age of plant. Subchapter 2, refers to influence of radicular fertilization of the number of fruit per plant, the fruit production per hectare, the average weight of the fruit, the fruit soluble solids content and acidity of the fruit. Influence of radicular fertilization of the number of fruits per plant. Regarding the number of fruits per plant during , were obtained different values, these values varied depending on the variant of fertilization, years of study and genotype. Application of chemical radicular fertilizers determined an increase of the number of fruits per plant, but insignificant on varieties Premial and Elsanta, in 2010, the V6 variants - 167% mixted fertilizer (11.71 fruits / plant), V5-133 % mixed fertilizers (11,46 fruits / plant) and V4-100% mixted fertilizer (11.02), higher values for version control - untreated. Influence of radicular fertilization on fruit production per hectare. The data obtained during the experimental period , shows that all variants of fertilization, except variant V2-33% mixted ferilizer recorded differences production over the untreated control, but statistically uninsured. The average for the three years of study, the highest average yields were obtained in variant V5-133% mixture fertilizer (14.75 t / ha), followed close V6 version - 167% mixture fertilizer (14, 44 t / ha). On average 6 fertilization variants, the largest average fruit production was recorded at varieties Queen Elisa (18.23 t / ha) and Elsanta (15.22 t / ha), these two varieties showed significantly higher yields than all other varieties analyzed. The other five varieties (Onebor,

3 Real Magic, Premial and Alba) ensured lower production, the differences between them are insignificant. Influence of radicular fertilization on mean fruit weight. Treatment with fertilizers determined obtaining the fruit with average weight between g at Queen Elisa variety and g at Premial variety. The best results on average fruit weight were recorded Onebor (18.36 g), Alba (18.37 g) and Queen Elisa (20.61 g) varieties. Average fruit weight had higher values in untreated control in the case of variants V3-67% mixture fertilizer (17.22 g), V4-100% mixture fertilizer (16.79 g) and V5-133% mixture fertilizer (16.86 g ), but the values were not statistically. Analyzing the effect of fertilization variants on the average weight of fruit on varieties, it is noted that only in the case of varieties Elsanta, Premial and Alba were obtained higher values compared to untreated control in all variants of fertilization, and of these, the varieties Premial and Alba were significant differences between the versions. Influence of radicular fertilization on fruit soluble solids content. Analyzing the soluble solids content of fruit on experimental variants during the study found that doses of fertilizers had a significant influence on it. Regarding the influence fertilization variant of fruit soluble solids content based on genotype, it is observed that in all fertilization variants were obtained higher mean values compared to untreated control values that differ significantly. On average soluble solids content ranged between 9.03% in V5 version - 133% mixture fertilizer and 8.82% in version control - untreated. Influence of radicular fertilization on fruit acidity. During the study there were significant differences between varieties of fruit acidity on the variants of fertilization. The varieties Onebor (ph = 3.30) and Real (ph3,27) had less acidic than fruit varieties Elsanta (ph = 3.75), Queen Elisa and Magic (ph = 3.73), the differences between these varieties very significant. Also varieties Elsanta, Queen Elisa and Magic had significantly higher ph than varieties Alba and Premial. High doses of fertilizers (V4, V5 and V6), induced the appearance of significant differences between varieties acidity. Radicular fertilization influence on the commercial value of strawberry production in the period The first two crops, the most studied species and variants of fertilization were obtained high quality products (extra and quality I). The ratio between extra and first quality fruits ranged from variety to variety, from a variant of fertilizare to another, and from one year to another.

4 In the last two harvests, all varieties studied, in all the variants of fertilization were obtained only low quality fruit of 100%. Radicular fertilization resulted in increases in production quality indicators in the first two harvests, while the last two crops fertilization effect was not felt to give, as it was known and previous research, lower quality fruit and fruit even in STAS. Subchapter 3 presents the correlations between the main characters and traits studied. Following comments on completing the main phenological phases of fructification was found positive correlations between phenophases of fructification. Analysing the relationship between the average number of fruit per plant and fruit production is observed that between the two elements there is a linear correlation, significant distinct upward, the correlation coefficient being 0,502. Also, if we look at the average effect of fertilizers treatment with three experimental years, between the average weight of a fruit and fruit production, there is a linear correlation, and significant upward, indicating that the fruits are more higher, the fruit production is higher. Analyzing the correlation established between the average number of fruits per plant and average weight of a fruit, it is noted that it is linear and distinct significant downward, which explains that as the number of fruit per plant is greater, the fruit weight is smaller. Following the determinations made during three years of research on the influence of fertilizers on fruit characteristics and qualities of the 7 varieties studied, revealed positive correlations, significantly distinct from the main elements of quality fruit. Subchapter 4 shows the effect of foliar fertilization on strawberry varieties. Influence of foliar fertilization on the number of fruits per plant. As radicular fertilization during , following foliar application were obtained different values of the number of fruits per plant, values that varied significantly according to years of study and genotype and ranged from 27,60 fruits / plant at variety Magic and fruits / plant at variety Queen Elisa. Influence of foliar fertilization on fruit production per hectare. Regarding the influence of foliar fertilization on fruit production is observed large increases production compared to radicular fertilization, there are significant differences between varieties production. The highest yield per hectare was recorded in 2010, at the variety Real (25.21 t / ha) and the lowest yield per unit area was recorded in 2011 at the variety Elsanta (13.17 t / ha). Influence of foliar fertilization on average fruit weight. Foliar fertilizer treatments were determined to obtain the fruits with average weight between g and 9.40 g, between the 7 varieties there are significant differences studied. The

5 largest fruits were obtained from varieties Onebor (16.59 g) and Real (15.10 g), and the smallest at variety Premial (9.40 g). In subchapter 5, we calculated the economic efficiency of fertilizer application at strawberry culture. In all variants of fertilization, except variant V2-33% mixed fertilizers were made higher profits than in version control - untreated. Thus, by making production at a price of 4.5 lei / kg was achieved a net annual profit between lei at variant V2 and 20,004 lei to V5 variant, the profit rate ranging from 32.4% to V2 and 47% at V5 variant. Higher profits compared to untreated control were obtained with the variants V3, V4, and V6. Chapter VI, "CONCLUSIONS", contains general conclusions and recommendations made in the course of the experiments. In order to improve nutrition regime at strawberry culture, we recommended applying fertilizers, Polyfeed, Magnisal and Potassium Nitrate (Azotat de potasiu). By applying these fertilizers, both radicular and foliar, while respecting technological sequences were obtained high yields and quality in almost all variants of fertilization, except variant V2-33% mixed fertilizers and profits higher than the version control untreated, profit rate reached at 47%. For that these experiences aimed at testing fertilizers in order to improve the fertilizer scheme, it is noted that variants V5-133% mixed fertilizers and V6-167% mixed fertilizer gave the best results, the economic return of investment, if these variants are very high, 226% and 211% and payback period is short, 1.32 years (V5) and 1.42 years (V6).

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