Unification of the laws of the Earth and the Universe Why do planets appear to wander slowly across the sky?


 Chad Osborne
 11 months ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 October 19, 2015 Unification of the laws of the Earth and the Universe Why do planets appear to wander slowly across the sky? Key Words Newton s Laws of motion, and Newton s law of universal gravitation: force, mass, gravity, weight Unless otherwise noted, copied pictures are taken from wikipedia.org
2 October 19, 2015 Contents n Founder of Mechanics (review) and Isaac Newton n Newton s laws of motion n Momentum conservation law n The universal law of gravitation
3 Last week n Introduction:  Predictability of our physical world  Stonehenge n The birth of modern Astronomy  Historical background: AD 2 nd C ~ 16C  Observations:16~17C n The birth of Mechanics  Galileo Galilei  The founder of experimental science
4 The birth of Mechanics Birth of Mechanics n Mechanics: the branch of science that deals with the motions of material objects such as  a rock rolling down a hill  a ball thrown into the air  a sailboat skimming over the waves  planets orbiting around the Sun n Until 17 th C, why things move the way they do was not understood
5 The birth of Mechanics n Galileo Galilei ( ): The first person to record observations of the heavens with telescope
6 The birth of Mechanics Galileo Galilei n To understand Galileo s study moving objects, ultimately the workings of the solar system, we have to begin with precise definitions of three terms: speed, velocity, and acceleration
7 The birth of Mechanics Mechanics: speed, velocity, acceleration n Definitions of speed, velocity, and acceleration Speed: distance divided by the time it takes to travel that distance Ex) 60 km/hr (scalar) Velocity: the same numerical value as speed, but including direction Ex) 60 km/hr due west (vector) Acceleration: a measure of the rate of change of velocity. (vector) Whenever an object changes speed or direction, it accelerates
8 The birth of Mechanics The founder of experimental science n Galileo devised an ingenious experiment to determine the relationships among distance, time, velocity, and acceleration. Designed purely to measure acceleration, with an inclined plane crafted of brass and hard wood, by increasing the angle of elevation of the plane 30 o 20 o 10 o
9 The birth of Mechanics The founder of experimental science n Galileo found that any accelerating toward Earth s surface, no matter how heavy or light, falls with exactly the same constant acceleration in free falling (no air resistance). A 1,000kg B 1kg Free falling Surface of Earth Acceleration_A = a_a = Acceleration_B = a_b = g
10 n Experiment from Leaning Tower of Pisa, probably never performed??
11 The birth of Mechanics Galileo s work in speed, velocity, acceleration n In general, the velocity of an accelerating object that starts from rest is proportional to the length of time that it has been falling Velocity = constant a x time t Acceleration n Galileo s work also demonstrated that the distance covered by an accelerating object depends on the square of the travel time. Distance traveled = ½ x acceleration x time 2
12 And yet it moves! By Galileo?? after being forced to recant his belief that the earth moves around the sun, in inquisition.
13 With Galileo s work, scientists began to isolate and observe the motions of objects in nature, and summarize their results into mathematical relationships.
14 Introduction  Isaac Newton n Isaac Newton ( ): synthesized the work of Galileo and others in a statement of the basic principles that govern the motion of everything in the Universe
15 Introduction  Isaac Newton n Isaac Newton ( ): synthesized the work of Galileo and others in a statement of the basic principles that govern the motion of everything in the Universe è Newton s laws of motion: simple and obvious statements to represent results of centuries of experiments and observations
16 October 19, 2015 Contents n Founder of Mechanics (review) and Isaac Newton n Newton s laws of motion  1 st law  2 nd law  3 rd law n Momentum conservation law  (Linear) Momentum  Angular momentum n The universal law of gravitation  Gravity  Weight and gravity
17 Newton s laws of motion
18 Newton s laws of motion The 1 st Law n Newton recognized two different motions Observations:  An object is in uniform motion if it travels in a straight line at constant speed  All other motions are called acceleration involving changes of speed, changed of direction, or both
19 Newton s laws of motion The 1 st Law: law of inertia In physics n Inertia: the tendency of a body to maintain its state of rest or uniform motion unless acted on by an external force. A body at rest tends to stay at rest because of its inertia, while a moving body tends to keep moving because of its inertia. n Force is defined as something that produces a change in the state of motion of an object
20 Newton s laws of motion The 1 st Law: law of inertia n The First Law A moving object will continue moving in a straight line at a constant speed, and a stationary object will remain at rest, unless acted on by an unbalanced force. Define the concept of force as something to cause a mass to accelerate
21 Newton s laws of motion The 1 st Law: example inertia Bus was moving to the right, and stopped suddenly.
22 Newton s laws of motion The 2 nd Law n Observations: It is easier to lift a child than an adult. Force = mass (kg) x acceleration ( m/s 2 ) : F=ma n If we know the forces acting on a system of known mass, we can predict its future motion Stationary or changed à An object acceleration is a balance between two factors: force and mass
23 Newton s laws of motion The 2 nd Law: law of acceleration n The Second Law The acceleration produced on a body by a force is proportional to the magnitude of the force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. It tells us the exact magnitude of the force necessary to cause a given mass to achieve a given acceleration
24 Newton s laws of motion The 2 nd Law: example F 1 = m 1 a 1 F 2 = m 2 a 2 F 1 = F 2 à m 1 < m 2, a 1 > a 2 where m1, m2, and a1, a2 are the masses and accelerations of a golf ball and a truck, respectively Picture modified from
25 Newton s laws of motion The 2 nd Law: unit of force n F = ma Force = mass [kg] x acceleration [m/s 2 ] n Unit of force: newton [N] = [kg*m/s 2 ] (newton) (kgmeterpersecondsquared)
26 Newton s laws of motion The 3 rd Law n Forces always act simultaneously in pairs Action ç è Reaction Ex) When you hold a book up, the book feels heavy in your hands as it presses down, but your hands exert an equal and opposite force on the book
27 Newton s laws of motion The 3 rd Law: law of actionreaction n The Third Law For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Whenever a force is applied to an object, that object simultaneously exerts an equal and opposite force
28 Newton s laws of motion The 3 rd Law: example Force propels rocket in opposite direction Force produced from engine
29 Newton s laws of motion Newton s Laws at Work n Newton s three laws of motion form a comprehensive description of all possible motions Ex) A rocket launching to the space
30 Newton s laws of motion Newton s Laws at Work n Newton s three laws of motion form a comprehensive description of all possible motions Ex) A rocket launching to the space n However, they do not say anything about the nature of forces. In fact, much of the progress of science has been associated with the discovery and elucidation of the forces of nature
31 Momentum conservation law
32 Momentum conservation Momentum speed mass n Tendency of a moving object to remain in motion depends on the mass of the object and on its speed
33 Momentum conservation Momentum speed mass n Tendency of a moving object to remain in motion depends on the mass of the object and on its speed n Observation: the higher the mass and the higher the speed, the more difficult it is to stop the object or change its direction of motion è (Linear) Momentum = mass (kg) x velocity (m/s): p = mv
34 Momentum conservation Conservation of Momentum n Newton s 2 nd law imply: If no external forces act on a system, the changes in the total momentum of a system is zero è law of conservation of linear momentum P = mv, F = ma, v = at Change of (P) = change of (mv) = ma X change of (t) F=0 è change of (P) = 0 * When a quantity does not change, the quantity is conserved.
35 Conservation of momentum: example Collision of two billiard balls Collision before after m 1 v 1 m 2 m 1 m 2 v 2 first ball momentum=m 1 v 1 second ball momentum=0 at rest first ball momentum=0 at rest second ball momentum=m 2 v 2 Total momentum of the system before collision m1v1 + m2v2 = m1v1 Total momentum of the system after collision m1v1 + m2v2 = m2v2
36 Conservation of momentum: example Collision before after m 1 v 1 m 2 m 1 m 2 v 2 first ball momentum=m 1 v 1 second ball momentum=0 at rest first ball momentum=0 at rest second ball momentum=m 2 v 2 When there is no external force, for example the friction force, m1v1 = m2v2 because the total momentum is always conserved.
37 Momentum conservation Angular Momentum n Angular Momentum  Just as on object keeps moving in a straight line unless an external force acts on it, an object that is rotating will keep rotating unless a twisting force acts to make it stop.  A twisting force: torque
38 Momentum conservation Angular Momentum n Angular Momentum (cont d)  A twisting force: torque (τ ) Ex) A spinning top will keep spinning until the friction between its point of contact and the floor slows it down  Tendency to keep rotating is angular momentum :angular momentum : torque
39 Momentum conservation Angular Momentum n Two factors increase angular momentum  The rate of spin: the faster an object spins, the harder it is to stop  The distribution of mass: object with more mass, or with mass located farther away from the central axis of rotation, have greater angular momentum
40 Momentum conservation Angular Momentum n Two factors increase angular momentum  The rate of spin: the faster an object spins, the harder it is to stop  The distribution of mass: object with more mass, or with mass located farther away from the central axis of rotation, have greater angular momentum Ex) A solid metal and an airfilled tire of same diameter and rate of spin have different angular momentum
41 Universal law of gravitation
42 The universal law of gravitation Gravity n Gravity: the most obvious force in our daily lives  It holds us down and keeps us from floating off into space  It guarantees that when you drop things they fall down n * Gravity s quantitative properties were studied by Galileo and his contemporaries * Newton revealed its universality
43 The universal law of gravitation Gravity n Newton s apple??  Newton s question: Can the gravity that causes an apple to move downward extend far outward to the Moon, supplying the force that keeps it from flying off?
44 The universal law of gravitation Gravity n Newton s apple??  Newton s hypothesis: there must be a force acting on the Moon going around Earth, not moving in a straight. This force is the same force that made the apple fall.
45 The universal law of gravitation Gravity n Newton s apple?? (cont d)  He realized that the orbits of all the planets also could be understood if gravity was as force found throughout the universe
46 The universal law of gravitation Newton s law of universal gravitation n Newton s law of universal gravitation: Between any two objects in the universe there is an attractive force (gravity) that is proportional to the masses of the objects and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them m1 R Gravity Force = G m1 m2 R m2 m1: mass1 m2: mass2 R: distance G: constant
47 The universal law of gravitation Newton s law of universal gravitation n Newton s law of universal gravitation: units force of gravity = [ G x mass1 x mass2 ] / [distance] 2 Force of gravity is in newtons [N], masses are in [kg], distance is in [meter], and G is a number called the gravitational constant big G è The more massive objects are, the greater the force between them will be; the farther apart they are, the less the force will be
48 The universal force of gravity Weight and Gravity n Weight and Gravity  Law of universal gravitation says that there is a force between any two objects in the universe  Gravitational attraction between you and Earth pull down and the ground exerts a force equal and opposite to that of gravity When you are standing on a scale, the scale shows the exerted opposing gravity è your weight! (weight = gravity)  Weight depends on where you are  Mass is an absolute value: the amount of matter
49 Next topic is, Energy: Chapter 2
NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION
NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION Background: Aristotle believed that the natural state of motion for objects on the earth was one of rest. In other words, objects needed a force to be kept in motion. Galileo studied
More informationSection Review Answers. Chapter 12
Section Review Answers Chapter 12 Section 1 1. Answers may vary. Students should say in their own words that an object at rest remains at rest and an object in motion maintains its velocity unless it experiences
More informationChapter 3: Force and Motion
Force and Motion Cause and Effect Chapter 3 Chapter 3: Force and Motion Homework: All questions on the Multiple Choice and the oddnumbered questions on Exercises sections at the end of the chapter. In
More informationUnderstanding the motion of the Universe. Motion, Force, and Gravity
Understanding the motion of the Universe Motion, Force, and Gravity Laws of Motion Stationary objects do not begin moving on their own. In the same way, moving objects don t change their movement spontaneously.
More information4.1 Describing Motion. How do we describe motion? Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity
Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity 4.1 Describing Motion Our goals for learning:! How do we describe motion?! How is mass different from weight? How do we
More informationMeasurements of Speed. Speed. v = d t. PowerPoint Lectures to accompany Physical Science, 6e
PowerPoint Lectures to accompany Physical Science, 6e Chapter 2 Motion Homework: All the multiple choice questions in Applying the Concepts and Group A questions in Parallel Exercises. Motion is.. A change
More informationNewton s Laws of Motion. Chapter 4
Newton s Laws of Motion Chapter 4 Changes in Motion Section 4.1 Force is simply a push or pull It is an interaction between two or more objects Force is a vector so it has magnitude and direction In the
More informationThe Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity. Chapter 4 Lecture
Chapter 4 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity
More informationWarm up. Forces. Sir Issac Newton. Questions to think about
Warm up Have you ever tried to pull something that just wouldn t budge? Describe a situation in which you pulled or tried to pull something. What made the job easier? Forces Sir Issac Newton Newton said
More informationChapter 4 Newton s Laws: Explaining Motion
Chapter 4 Newton s s Laws: Explaining Motion Newton s Laws of Motion The concepts of force, mass, and weight play critical roles. A Brief History! Where do our ideas and theories about motion come from?!
More informationTHE NATURE OF FORCES Forces can be divided into two categories: contact forces and noncontact forces.
SESSION 2: NEWTON S LAWS Key Concepts In this session we Examine different types of forces Review and apply Newton's Laws of motion Use Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation to solve problems Xplanation
More informationMaking Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity
Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity 1. Newton s Laws 2. Conservation Laws Energy Angular momentum 3. Gravity Review from last time Ancient Greeks: Ptolemy; the geocentric
More informationNewton s Laws of Motion
Newton s Laws of Motion The Earth revolves around the sun in an elliptical orbit. The moon orbits the Earth in the same way. But what keeps the Earth and the moon in orbit? Why don t they just fly off
More informationSTAAR Science Tutorial 25 TEK 8.6C: Newton s Laws
Name: Teacher: Pd. Date: STAAR Science Tutorial 25 TEK 8.6C: Newton s Laws TEK 8.6C: Investigate and describe applications of Newton's law of inertia, law of force and acceleration, and law of actionreaction
More informationChapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity
Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity How do we describe motion? Precise definitions to describe motion: Speed: Rate at which object moves sp e e d = d ista
More informationIsaac Newton was a British scientist whose accomplishments included
80 Newton s Laws of Motion R EA D I N G Isaac Newton was a British scientist whose accomplishments included important discoveries about light, motion, and gravity. You may have heard the legend about how
More informationDescribed by Isaac Newton
Described by Isaac Newton States observed relationships between motion and forces 3 statements cover aspects of motion for single objects and for objects interacting with another object An object at rest
More informationChapter 12  Forces and Motion
Chapter 12  Forces and Motion A. What is a force? 1. It is a push or pull. 2. Force can cause resting objects to move. 3. Force can cause acceleration by changing the object s speed or direction. 4. Newtons
More informationToday. Laws of Motion. Conservation Laws. Gravity
Today Laws of Motion Conservation Laws Gravity Laws of Motion Motion notions: slow fast Speed: Rate at which object moves fast change in direction slow example: speed of 10 m/s Velocity: Speed and direction
More informationUnderstanding the motion of the Universe. Motion, Force, and Gravity
Understanding the motion of the Universe Motion, Force, and Gravity Laws of Motion Stationary objects do not begin moving on their own. In the same way, moving objects don t change their movement spontaneously.
More informationAstro Lecture 11 Newton s laws
Astro 11001 Lecture 11 Newton s laws Twin Sungrazing comets 11/02/09 Habbal Astro11001 Lecture 11 1 http://umbra.nascom.nasa.gov/comets/movies/soho_lasco_c2.mpg Understanding Newton s 3 rd law Weight
More informationGravitation. Gravitation
1 Gravitation Newton s observations A constant center seeking force is required to keep an object moving along a circular path. You know that the moon orbits the earth and hence there should be a force
More informationChapter 4 Dynamics: Newton s Laws of Motion. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton s Laws of Motion Force Units of Chapter 4 Newton s First Law of Motion Mass Newton s Second Law of Motion Newton s Third Law of Motion Weight the Force of Gravity; and the Normal
More informationQuantities needed to describe the motion of an object: Need to know how position changes with time
Chapter 1 : Laws of Motion Quantities needed to describe the motion of an object: Need to know how position changes with time Position is location in space with respect to some other position The Reference
More informationAstro 11001 Lecture 10 Newton s laws
Astro 11001 Lecture 10 Newton s laws Twin Sungrazing comets 9/02/09 Habbal Astro11001 Lecture 10 1 http://umbra.nascom.nasa.gov/comets/movies/soho_lasco_c2.mpg What have we learned? How do we describe
More informationExplaining Motion:Forces
Explaining Motion:Forces Chapter Overview (Fall 2002) A. Newton s Laws of Motion B. Free Body Diagrams C. Analyzing the Forces and Resulting Motion D. Fundamental Forces E. Macroscopic Forces F. Application
More informationNewton s First Law (Law of Inertia) An object will remain at rest or in a constant state of motion unless acted upon by net external forces.
Newton s Third Law Newton s First Law (Law of Inertia) F = 0 An object will remain at rest or in a constant state of motion unless acted upon by net external forces. Newton s First Law If F = 0 => No Change
More information5. Universal Laws of Motion
5. Universal Laws of Motion If I have seen farther than others, it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants. Sir Isaac Newton (1642 1727) Physicist 5.1 Describing Motion: Examples from Daily
More informationNewton s Laws of Motion (Ch 5)
Newton s Laws of Motion (Ch 5) Force Isaac Newton 16421727 English physicist & mathematician By the age of 31, discovered: laws of motion universal gravitation calculus Eccentric read Coming of Age in
More informationPhysics: Principles and Applications, 6e Giancoli Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton's Laws of Motion
Physics: Principles and Applications, 6e Giancoli Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton's Laws of Motion Conceptual Questions 1) Which of Newton's laws best explains why motorists should buckleup? A) the first law
More informationSection 3 Newton s Laws of Motion
Section 3 Newton s Laws of Motion Key Concept Newton s laws of motion describe the relationship between forces and the motion of an object. What You Will Learn Newton s first law of motion states that
More informationThe Motions of Celestial Bodies, and Newton s Laws of Motion
The Motions of Celestial Bodies, and Newton s Laws of Motion Announcements The results of Quiz 1 are posted in OWL Looking ahead: Homework 1 is ongoing, and is due on Thu, Sept. 29 th ; Homework 2 will
More information2.2 NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION
2.2 NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION Sir Isaac Newton (16421727) made a systematic study of motion and extended the ideas of Galileo (15641642). He summed up Galileo s observation in his three laws of motion
More informationb. Velocity tells you both speed and direction of an object s movement. Velocity is the change in position divided by the change in time.
I. What is Motion? a. Motion  is when an object changes place or position. To properly describe motion, you need to use the following: 1. Start and end position? 2. Movement relative to what? 3. How far
More informationNewton s Laws of Motion
Newton s Laws of Motion FIZ101E Kazım Yavuz Ekşi My contact details: Name: Kazım Yavuz Ekşi Email: eksi@itu.edu.tr Notice: Only emails from your ITU account are responded. Office hour: Wednesday 10.0012.00
More informationtps Q: If the Earth were located at 0.5 AU instead of 1 AU, how would the Sun s gravitational force on Earth change?
tps Q: If the Earth were located at 0.5 AU instead of 1 AU, how would the Sun s gravitational force on Earth change? A. It would be onefourth as strong. B. It would be onehalf as strong. C. It would
More informationDynamics Why do objects move as they do? What makes an object at rest, begin to move? What makes a body accelerate or decelerate?
Dynamics Why do objects move as they do? What makes an object at rest, begin to move? What makes a body accelerate or decelerate? What makes an object move in a circle? Force A Force is simply a push
More informationNewton s Laws of Motion
Physics Newton s Laws of Motion Newton s Laws of Motion 4.1 Objectives Explain Newton s first law of motion. Explain Newton s second law of motion. Explain Newton s third law of motion. Solve problems
More informationHere is a list of concepts that you will need to include in your observations and explanations:
NEWTON S LAWS Sir Isaac Newton (16421727) is probably one of the most remarkable men in the history of science. He graduated from Cambridge University in England at the age of 23. Records indicate that
More informationToday. Laws of Motion Conservation Laws Gravity tides. What is the phase of the moon?
Today Laws of Motion Conservation Laws Gravity tides What is the phase of the moon? How is mass different from weight? Mass the amount of matter in an object Weight the force that acts upon an object You
More informationM OTION. Chapter2 OUTLINE GOALS
Chapter2 M OTION OUTLINE Describing Motion 2.1 Speed 2.2 Vectors 2.3 Acceleration 2.4 Distance, Time, and Acceleration Acceleration of Gravity 2.5 Free Fall 2.6 Air Resistence Force and Motion 2.7 First
More informationKepler, Newton and Gravitation
Kepler, Newton and Gravitation Kepler, Newton and Gravity 1 Using the unit of distance 1 AU = EarthSun distance PLANETS COPERNICUS MODERN Mercury 0.38 0.387 Venus 0.72 0.723 Earth 1.00 1.00 Mars 1.52
More informationEducational Innovations
Educational Innovations NA100/95S Newton s Apple grav i ty (gravitē) noun 1. The force that attracts a body toward the center of the earth, or toward any other physical body having mass. For most purposes
More informationNewton's Laws. Before Isaac Newton
Newton's Laws Before Isaac Newton Newton's Laws There were facts and laws about the way the physical world worked, but no explanations After Newton There was a unified system that explained those facts
More informationName Period Chapter 10 Study Guide
Name _ Period Chapter 10 Study Guide Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. Unbalanced forces do not change an object s motion. 2. Friction depends on the types of surfaces
More informationNewton s Laws of Motion
Newton s Laws of Motion Newton s Laws and the Mousetrap Racecar Simple version of Newton s three laws of motion 1 st Law: objects at rest stay at rest, objects in motion stay in motion 2 nd Law: force
More informationPhysical Science Chapter 2. Forces
Physical Science Chapter 2 Forces The Nature of Force By definition, a Force is a push or a pull. A Push Or A Pull Just like Velocity & Acceleration Forces have both magnitude and direction components
More informationNewton s Laws of Motion. I. Law of Inertia II. F=ma III. ActionReaction
Newton s Laws of Motion I. Law of Inertia II. F=ma III. ActionReaction While most people know what Newton's laws say, many people do not know what they mean (or simply do not believe what they mean).
More informationNewton s Laws of Motion
Section 3.2 Newton s Laws of Motion Objectives Analyze relationships between forces and motion Calculate the effects of forces on objects Identify force pairs between objects New Vocabulary Newton s first
More informationRocket Principles. Rockets: A Teacher's Guide with Activities in Science, Mathematics, and Technology EG108 February Outside Air Pressure
Rocket Principles Outside ir Pressure Inside ir Pressure ir Moves Balloon Moves rocket in its simplest form is a chamber enclosing a gas under pressure. small opening at one end of the chamber allows the
More informationPS5.1 Explain the relationship among distance, time, direction, and the velocity of an object.
PS5.1 Explain the relationship among distance, time, direction, and the velocity of an object. It is essential for students to Understand Distance and Displacement: Distance is a measure of how far an
More informationQ: Who established the law of universal gravitation? A: Newton. Q: What is a spring scale used for? A: To measure weight
Q: Who established the law of universal gravitation? A: Newton Q: What is a spring scale used for? A: To measure weight Q: What is the Law of Universal Gravitation? A: Everything in the universe has gravity.
More informationApril 07, 2015. Force motion examples.notebook MOTION AND FORCES. GRAVITY: a force that makes any object pull toward another object.
Force motion examples.notebook April 07, 2015 MOTION AND FORCES GRAVITY: a force that makes any object pull toward another object Feb 15 12:00 PM 1 FRICTION: a force that acts to slow down moving objects
More informationDescribe the relationship between gravitational force and distance as shown in the diagram.
Name Period Chapter 2 The Laws of Motion Review Describe the relationship between gravitational force and distance as shown in the diagram. Assess the information about gravity, mass, and weight. Read
More informationNewton s Third Law, Momentum, Center of Mass
Team: Newton s Third Law, Momentum, Center of Mass Newton s Third Law is a deep statement on the symmetry of interaction between any two bodies in the universe. How is the pull of the earth on the moon
More informationLAWS OF FORCE AND MOTION
reflect Does anything happen without a cause? Many people would say yes, because that often seems to be our experience. A cup near the edge of a table suddenly crashes to the fl oor. An apple falls from
More information2.1 Force and Motion Kinematics looks at velocity and acceleration without reference to the cause of the acceleration.
2.1 Force and Motion Kinematics looks at velocity and acceleration without reference to the cause of the acceleration. Dynamics looks at the cause of acceleration: an unbalanced force. Isaac Newton was
More informationGalileo and the physics of motion
Galileo and the physics of motion Studies of motion important : planetary orbits, cannonball accuracy, basic physics. Galileo among first to make careful observations Looked at velocity, acceleration,
More informationNewton s Third Law. Newton s Third Law of Motion. ActionReaction Pairs
Section 4 Newton s Third Law Reading Preview Key Concepts What is Newton s third law of motion? How can you determine the momentum of an object? What is the law of conservation of momentum? Key Terms momentum
More information3.1 Force, Mass, and Acceleration
Sir Isaac Newton discovered one of the most important relationships in physics: the link between the force on an object, its mass, and its acceleration. In this section, you will learn about force and
More informationName Date Class. The Nature of Force and Motion (pages ) 2. When one object pushes or pulls another object, the first object is
CHAPTER 4 MOTION AND FORCES SECTION 4 1 The Nature of Force and Motion (pages 116121) This section explains how balanced and unbalanced forces are related to the motion of an object. It also explains
More informationNewton s Wagon Newton s Laws
Newton s Wagon Newton s Laws What happens when you kick a soccer ball? The kick is the external force that Newton was talking about in his first law of motion. What happens to the ball after you kick it?
More informationUnit 4: Force and Motion Test
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. Unit 4: Force and Motion Test 1. 3. In Science class, a student has been given a small ball
More informationBHS Freshman Physics Review. Chapter 2 Linear Motion Physics is the oldest science (astronomy) and the foundation for every other science.
BHS Freshman Physics Review Chapter 2 Linear Motion Physics is the oldest science (astronomy) and the foundation for every other science. Galileo (15641642): 1 st true scientist and 1 st person to use
More informationAST 101 Lecture 7. Newton s Laws and the Nature of Matter
AST 101 Lecture 7 Newton s Laws and the Nature of Matter The Nature of Matter Democritus (c. 470380 BCE) posited that matter was composed of atoms Atoms: particles that can not be further subdivided 4
More informationPHYSICS MIDTERM REVIEW
1. The acceleration due to gravity on the surface of planet X is 19.6 m/s 2. If an object on the surface of this planet weighs 980. newtons, the mass of the object is 50.0 kg 490. N 100. kg 908 N 2. If
More informationName Class Date. true
Exercises 131 The Falling Apple (page 233) 1 Describe the legend of Newton s discovery that gravity extends throughout the universe According to legend, Newton saw an apple fall from a tree and realized
More informationConcept Review. Physics 1
Concept Review Physics 1 Speed and Velocity Speed is a measure of how much distance is covered divided by the time it takes. Sometimes it is referred to as the rate of motion. Common units for speed or
More informationPhysics 101. Chapter 5: Newton s Third Law
Physics 101 Today Chapter 5: Newton s Third Law First, let s clarify notion of a force: Previously defined force as a push or pull. Better to think of force as an interaction between two objects. You can
More information356 CHAPTER 12 Bob Daemmrich
Standard 7.3.17: Investigate that an unbalanced force, acting on an object, changes its speed or path of motion or both, and know that if the force always acts toward the same center as the object moves,
More informationQUESTIONS : CHAPTER5: LAWS OF MOTION
QUESTIONS : CHAPTER5: LAWS OF MOTION 1. What is Aristotle s fallacy? 2. State Aristotlean law of motion 3. Why uniformly moving body comes to rest? 4. What is uniform motion? 5. Who discovered Aristotlean
More informationChapter 13: Universal Gravitation
Chapter 13: Universal Gravitation I. The Falling Apple (13.1) A. Isaac Newton (16421727) 1. Formulated ideas based on earlier work by Galileo (concept of inertia) 2. Concept if object undergoes change
More informationGeneral Physics (PHY 2130)
General Physics (PHY 2130) Lecture 8 Forces Newton s Laws of Motion http://www.physics.wayne.edu/~apetrov/phy2130/ Classical Mechanics Describes the relationship between the motion of objects in our everyday
More informationRecap. A force is the product of an object s mass and acceleration. Forces are the reason why objects change their velocity. Newton s second law:
Recap A force is the product of an object s mass and acceleration. Forces are the reason why objects change their velocity. Newton s second law: Unit: 1 N = 1 kg m/s 2 Forces are vector quantities, since
More informationLesson 5 Rotational and Projectile Motion
Lesson 5 Rotational and Projectile Motion Introduction: Connecting Your Learning The previous lesson discussed momentum and energy. This lesson explores rotational and circular motion as well as the particular
More informationIntroduction to Gravity and Orbits. Isaac Newton. Newton s Laws of Motion
Introduction to Gravity and Orbits Isaac Newton Born in England in 1642 Invented calculus in early twenties Finally published work in gravity in 1687 The Principia Newton s Laws of Motion 1: An object
More informationChapter 4 Dynamics: Newton s Laws of Motion
Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton s Laws of Motion Units of Chapter 4 Force Newton s First Law of Motion Mass Newton s Second Law of Motion Newton s Third Law of Motion Weight the Force of Gravity; and the Normal
More informationName: Date: 7. A child is riding a bike and skids to a stop. What happens to their kinetic energy? Page 1
Name: Date: 1. Driving down the road, you hit an insect. How does the force your car exerts on the insect compare to the force the insect exerts on the car? A) The insect exerts no force on the car B)
More informationPhysics Exam Q1 Exam, Part A Samples
Physics Exam Q1 Exam, Part A Samples 1. An object starts from rest and accelerates uniformly down an incline. If the object reaches a speed of 40 meters per second in 5 seconds, its average speed is (A)
More information2. (P2.1 A) a) A car travels 150 km in 3 hours, what is the cars average speed?
Physics: Review for Final Exam 1 st Semester Name Hour P2.1A Calculate the average speed of an object using the change of position and elapsed time 1. (P2.1 A) What is your average speed if you run 140
More informationNewton s Laws of Motion
Kari Eloranta 2015 Jyväskylän Lyseon lukio November 30, 2015 Kari Eloranta 2015 2.2.4 Newton s First Law of Motion Definition of Newton s First Law of Motion (Law of Inertia) An object at rest remains
More informationWhy be science literate? (my perspec7ve)
Homework Why be science literate? (my perspec7ve) Different viewpoint h
More informationNewton's laws of motion
Newton's laws of motion Forces Forces as vectors Resolving vectors Explaining motion  Aristotle vs Newton Newton s first law Newton s second law Weight Calculating acceleration Newton s third law Moving
More informationNotes: Mechanics. The Nature of Force, Motion & Energy
Notes: Mechanics The Nature of Force, Motion & Energy I. Force A push or pull. a) A force is needed to change an object s state of motion. b) Net force The sum (addition) of all the forces acting on an
More informationPHY231 Section 2, Form A March 22, 2012. 1. Which one of the following statements concerning kinetic energy is true?
1. Which one of the following statements concerning kinetic energy is true? A) Kinetic energy can be measured in watts. B) Kinetic energy is always equal to the potential energy. C) Kinetic energy is always
More information1. The unit of force, a Newton, is equal to a. The amount of mass in an object c. kg m/s b. Mass X Velocity d. kg m/s 2
Forces in Motion Test FORM B Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The unit of force, a Newton, is equal to a. The amount of mass in an object
More informationFriction and Gravity. Friction. Section 2. The Causes of Friction
Section 2 Friction and Gravity What happens when you jump on a sled on the side of a snowcovered hill? Without actually doing this, you can predict that the sled will slide down the hill. Now think about
More information8th Grade Motion, Forces and Energy
Read and answer each question carefully. 1) The amount of matter in an object is known as its A) mass. B) force. C) weight. D) size. 2) An object is in motion if it is moving relative to A) the object's
More informationName: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due in class Tuesday, Jan. 20, 2015
Name: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due in class Tuesday, Jan. 20, 2015 Why are celestial motions and forces important? They explain the world around
More informationCh.4 Forces. Conceptual questions #1, 2, 12 Problem 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 15, 16, 19, 20, 21, 23, 24, 26, 27, 30, 38, 39, 41, 42, 47, 50, 56, 66
Ch.4 Forces Conceptual questions #1, 2, 12 Problem 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 15, 16, 19, 20, 21, 23, 24, 26, 27, 30, 38, 39, 41, 42, 47, 50, 56, 66 Forces Forces  vector quantity that changes the velocity
More informationPhysics 11 Assignment KEY Dynamics Chapters 4 & 5
Physics Assignment KEY Dynamics Chapters 4 & 5 ote: for all dynamics problemsolving questions, draw appropriate free body diagrams and use the aforementioned problemsolving method.. Define the following
More informationNewton s 3 rd Law Study Guide Chapter 7
1. The Big Idea is for every force there is an equal and opposite force 2. If you lean over and push on a wall, why don t you fall over? The wall pushes back on you 3. When you paddle a kayak, your paddle
More informationUnits DEMO spring scales masses
Dynamics the study of the causes and changes of motion Force Force Categories ContactField 4 fundamental Force Types 1 Gravity 2 Weak Nuclear Force 3 Electromagnetic 4 Strong Nuclear Force Units DEMO spring
More informationHow do we describe motion?
Lecture 3: The Laws of Motion and Universal Gravitation Astronomy 2020, Prof. Tom Megeath To be ignorant of motion is to be ignorant of nature Aristotle Overview of Today s Lecture 1. Newton s three laws
More informationNEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION
Name Period Date NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION If I am anything, which I highly doubt, I have made myself so by hard work. Isaac Newton Goals: 1. Students will use conceptual and mathematical models to predict
More informationAt the skate park on the ramp
At the skate park on the ramp 1 On the ramp When a cart rolls down a ramp, it begins at rest, but starts moving downward upon release covers more distance each second When a cart rolls up a ramp, it rises
More informationForces. Definition Friction Falling Objects Projectiles Newton s Laws of Motion Momentum Universal Forces Fluid Pressure Hydraulics Buoyancy
Forces Definition Friction Falling Objects Projectiles Newton s Laws of Motion Momentum Universal Forces Fluid Pressure Hydraulics Buoyancy Definition of Force Force = a push or pull that causes a change
More informationForce. A force is a push or a pull. Pushing on a stalled car is an example. The force of friction between your feet and the ground is yet another.
Force A force is a push or a pull. Pushing on a stalled car is an example. The force of friction between your feet and the ground is yet another. Force Weight is the force of the earth's gravity exerted
More informationAstro 101 F15 Test 2. Name: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Name: Astro 101 Test 2 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The Moon undergoes synchronous rotation, and as a consequence the: a. Moon does
More informationPractice Test (Chapter 10)
Practice Test (Chapter 10) 1) According to Kepler's laws, the paths of planets about the sun are A) parabolas. B) circles. C) straight lines. D) ellipses. Answer: D 2) Which of the following is not a vector
More information