# ! Gravitational Force Mini-Unit Grade: 5th Grade! UNIT OVERVIEW: The unit will cover the Next Generation Science Standard on gravitational force in

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1 Gravitational Force Mini-Unit Grade: 5th Grade UNIT OVERVIEW: The unit will cover the Next Generation Science Standard on gravitational force in fifth grade. This unit will explore gravity on earth and how it is exerted on objects. Students will discover that gravity exerts a downward force and that its pull is dependent on the mass of the object and the force on that object. GOALS Next Generation Science Standards 5-PS2-1 Support an argument that the gravitational force exerted by Earth on objects is directed down. Common Core- English Language Arts RI.5.1 Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. (5-PS2-1) RI.5.9 Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably. (5-PS2-1) W.5.1 Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. (5-PS2-1) UNIT OBJECTIVES Students will understand that: an object s gravitational pull is effected by both the objects weight and the force put on the object. gravity exerts a downward force to objects on earth. Essential Questions: How did the apple help Isaac Newton to develop his theory of universal gravitation?

2 Why do some objects fall quicker then others? Why do objects always land on the surface of the earth? Students will be able to: Explain Isaac Newton s theory of universal gravitation. (comprehension) Demonstrate earth s gravitational force. (retrieval) Argue that the gravitational force exerted by earth on objects is directed down. (analysis) Students will know: Important Details and vocabulary: Isaac Newton s Theory of Universal Gravitation, gravity, force, and mass Lesson One: Isaac Newton and the Apple Overview: Students will learn about Newton s Law of Gravitational Force. They will hear the story about hoe Isaac Newton discovered gravity because of an apple landing on his head. Students will explore through various resources what gravity is. Objectives: Students will understand that gravity exerts a downward force to objects on earth. Students will be able to explain Isaac Newton s theory of universal gravitation. (Comprehension) Students will be able to answer the following questions (essential questions): How did the apple help Isaac Newton to develop his theory of universal gravitation Standards the lesson will cover: Next Generation Science Standards: 5-PS2-1 Support an argument that the gravitational force exerted by Earth on objects is directed down.

4 sciencemethodsproject.wikispaces.com (class wiki) Laptops eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/ (Word Web Graphic Organizer) Flip Chart Markers Procedure: 1. Ask students if they have ever seen and apple tree full of apples, maybe when they went apple picking. Ask the students to picture the tree and its surroundings. Have the students share what they notice about the surroundings. Students can close their eyes to help them visualize. (Goal: is to have the students mention the fallen apples around the tree) 2. Tell the students that they will be hearing about a man named Isaac Newton (Students should have some prior knowledge of this man). Give students the opportunity to share who he is. 3. The teacher will then read the story ( newton.php) 4. When the teacher has finished reading the story, pass out the think-pair-share worksheets and write the following questions on the board: Why did the apple fall out of the tree? Does everything fall? What makes things fall? 5. The teacher will explain to the students that they will need to think about these questions and write their thoughts on their graphic organizer. Students will have about three minutes to complete this. 6. Next, the teacher will instruct the students to partner up (sometimes teacher partnering is better). In these partner groups, they will need to discuss their ideas with their partner and then come to an agreement on the information/ thoughts that they will present out to the class. Students should have 5-7 minutes to do this (Their partner thoughts and their ideas they will share with the class need to be recorded on the graphic organizer).

6 Students will take their knowledge from the previous day and try to replicate Isaac Newton by coming up with their own story and experiment on gravity. Students will be working in groups to prove that the gravitational force on an object is directed down towards the earths surface. Objectives: Students will understand that gravity exerts a downward force to objects on earth. Students will be able to Argue that the gravitational force exerted by earth on objects is directed down. (Comprehension) Students will know important details and vocabulary: Isaac Newton s Theory of Universal Gravitation, gravity, force, and mass. Students will be able to answer the following question (essential question): -Why do objects always land on the surface of the earth? Standards the lesson will cover: Next Generation Science Standards: 5-PS2-1 Support an argument that the gravitational force exerted by Earth on objects is directed down. Prior Knowledge: Based on the standards, students should have already learned about Isaac Newton and his other laws of motion in third grade. Students will have to understand mass (weight) of objects. Students will also need to already understand that when an object is thrown in the air or dropped that it falls towards the surface of the earth. If students do not already understand that this is because of gravity then this lesson will teach that. Methods/ Strategies Cooperative Learning: Group Investigation- Students will be working in small groups to create their own experiment and story Student presentations- Students are going to present to the class their own Newton Story and explain the force of gravity on an object.

7 Assessment Formative Assessment: In small groups students are going to have to use their knowledge of Newton and the Apple to help recreate their own version of the story and then explain how it proves the pull of gravity. Summative Assessment: Students will have to fill out an exit slip answering the essential question for this lesson: Why do objects always land on the surface of the earth? Materials: Handout- The fall of the apple Various classroom objects Exit Slips (on the wiki- sciencemethodsproject.wikispaces.com) Laptops Procedure 1. The teacher will tell the students that they will be recreating the story of Isaac Newton and the apple from the previous day. The teacher will go over the essential question that in the end students will be answering (Why do objects always land on the surface of the earth?) 2. The teacher will then split the class into groups of 3 to 4 students. The teacher will then pass out the worksheets that the groups will have to fill out. The teacher will then explain that the students will need to choose an object/ objects to recreate the fall of the apple. The students need to be ready to explain how their reenactment shows the pull of gravity and the need to have a plan on how they will share this information with the class. The teacher will give the students some examples of how to show this (Creating their own story, a play, a poster). The teacher should also let the students know to use objects around the classroom to help them. 3. The teacher should have the students quickly review the story of the apple so that it is clear that they understand what they are recreating. 4. The students will get to work and the teacher will be responsible for circulating and making sure that the groups are focused and on task (teacher as facilitator). This should take about 30 minutes.

8 5. When everyone is finished, the students will then share their recreations with the class. The teacher will need to ask clarifying questions if the student presentations/ recreations are not clear. Students will pass in their group worksheet so that the teacher can see the thoughts of the group. 6. Once everyone is finished, the students will be directed to grab laptops and instructed to go to the class wiki (sciencemethodsproject.wikispaces.com). They will be told to go to the discussion tab and answer the question posted there. They are reminded to use complete sentences and include as much detail from their recreations as they can. Lesson Three: Overview: Students will use their knowledge from the past couple of lessons to help build on the idea that gravity is a force that directs an object towards the earths surface by making observations about the effects that mass have on gravity. Students will be looking at different objects with different masses and different surface areas to come to a conclusion as to why different objects appear to have stronger gravitational pull. Objectives: Students will understand that an object s gravitational pull is effected by both the objects weight and the force put on the object. Students will be able to demonstrate earth s gravitational force. Students will know important details and vocabulary: Isaac Newton s Theory of Universal Gravitation, gravity, force, inertia, and mass. Students will be able to answer the following question (essential question): Why do some objects fall quicker then others?

9 Standards the lesson will cover: Next Generation Science Standards: 5-PS2-1 Support an argument that the gravitational force exerted by Earth on objects is directed down. Prior Knowledge Based on the standards, students should have already learned about Isaac Newton and his other laws of motion in third grade. Students will have to understand specifically mass (weight) of objects and inertia. Students will also need to already understand that when an object is thrown in the air or dropped that it falls towards the surface of the earth, what will be/ should be new is the idea that a heavier object does not always fall to the ground faster then a lighter object. Methods/ Strategies Cooperative Learning- Partner Groups: Students will work in partner groups to conduct their experiments on the gravitational pull on objects with different masses. Problem-based learning: Students need to investigate whether or not objects of different weight and size fall to the ground at different rates. Class Discussion: At the end of the lesson, students will have an opportunity to discuss what happened with the objects with the teacher. Assessment Formative Assessment: The students will be working to understand the gravitational pull on objects here on earth. Students will be asked to make an educated guess as to what happens when objects fall to the ground and then they will need to test their theory out. Students will then be asked to reflect (conclusion) on what happened and why it happened. Materials: Science Lab worksheet

11 FINAL ASSESSMENT: Standards: Next Generation Science Standards 5-PS2-1 Support an argument that the gravitational force exerted by Earth on objects is directed down. Common Core State Standards- Language Arts RI.5.9 Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably. (5-PS2-1) W.5.1 Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. (5-PS2-1) Task: Write an opinion piece stating that the force of gravity exerted by Earth on objects is directed down. Use evidence from both text and real life experiences to support your claim. How: 1. Start by using the OREO worksheets to help organize your thoughts and reasons. 2. Then write in paragraph form. 3. Refer to the rubric for other items you will be graded on. 4. Check with the teacher for editing purposes 5. Type up in a word document and post it on the class wiki under assessments ( sciencemethodsproject.wikispaces.com/assessment). Rubric: Standard PS2-1 My paper argues that the gravitational force exerted by Earth on objects is directed down using multiple sources (both text and real life) to support my opinion. My paper supports an argument that the gravitational force exerted by Earth on objects is directed down. My paper does not clearly support argument that the gravitational force exerted by Earth on objects is directed down. My paper does not support an argument that gravitational force exerted by Earth on objects is directed down.

12 RI.5.9 W.5.1 W.5.1A W.5.1B W.5.1C W.5.1D My paper integrates information from different types of sources along with real world examples on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably Masters all four elements of opinion writin Student s topic is attention grabbing. They clearly state their opinion and supports it with clear details All facts, details and opinions are perfectly placed and supported thoroughly. Paper flows seamlessly together Student can link their opinions to their reasons using effective transitions Conclusion restates opinion, and is memorable for the reader. My paper integrates information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably The average of substandard scores are within the proficient (3) range Student has a clear topic and opinion. Paper is in order and makes sense to the reader. All facts, details, and opinions are logically ordered. Student can link their opinions to their reasons using transitions. Conclusion restates the opinion, and ties up the end of the piece. My paper integrates some information from texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably The average of substandard scores are within the partially proficient (2) rang Student has a topic but opinion on the topic is not clear. Student have some details that support their topic. Facts, details, and opinions are unorganized and do not fully support the topic Student uses some transitions to link their opinions and reasons. restates opinion, however, ending still needs more details. My paper integrates little or no information from texts in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably The majority of sub-standard scores are below the partially proficient (2) rang Student has no clear topic or opinion and has very little facts There is no logical order to the paper and has very little details to support the topic. Student does not link their opinions and reasons together. missing or not clear.

13 Lesson One Resources For Kids: Look in the Sciencesaurus For Lesson: Think-Pair-Share-Diagram-Chart-Instructions.html %20Prior%20Knowledge.pdf

14 Lesson Two Resources Name: Date: The Apple Doesn t fall far from the tree Directions: In your groups, recreate Isaac Newton and the gravitational pull of the Apple using a different object. Be creative and be prepared to share What is your object? How will you show the force of gravity on the object? Show or explain your groups story below (remember be prepared to share)

15 Lesson Two Resources Exit Slips (to be done in the wiki, however in the case of no technology) Name: Date: Answer the following question. Remember to use complete sentences and examples from your recreations today. Why do objects always land on the surface of the earth? Name: Date: Answer the following question. Remember to use complete sentences and examples from your recreations today. Why do objects always land on the surface of the earth?

16 Lesson Three Resources Name: Date: Science Lab- Hypothesis (educated guess): OBJECTS Pencil & Marker OBSERVATIONS Books Paper Free Choice Conclusion: Was your hypothesis correct? (yes or no) and explain.

17 Lesson Three Resources Name: Date: Which One Falls Fastest? (Science Lab Directions, Lesson 3) 1. Make sure that your name is one your lab paper. 2. Collect all the materials listed here: -2 pieces of paper (one crumpled into a ball, the other flat -Pencil -Marker -2 Books (different sizes and or weight) -2 other items of your choice 3. Make a hypothesis (educated guess) as to what you think might happen with these items when they are dropped from the same hight. 4. Use the classroom tables to drop the items, make sure that when you drop the items that you are dropping them at the same time and from the same hight. 5. Drop the 2 books, record what happened on your table. 6. Drop the marker and the pencil, record what happened on your table. 7. Drop the crumpled paper and the flat paper, what happened? 8. Drop the book and the crumpled paper, what happened? 9. Record the items that you chose. Now drop them, what happened?

18 10. Finish filling out your science lap worksheet

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