ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

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1 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES physicswithikgogia Page 1

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6 Properties: 1. Variations in both electric and magnetic fields are in same phase. Hence both attain their maxima and minima simultaneously and at same position as shown below.. 2. The directions of electric and magnetic fields are mutually perpendicular to each other and also to the direction of propagation of the wave. 3.The electric field intensity E and magnetic field intensity B are related as where E0 and B0 are the amplitudes of the respective fields and c is speed of light. 4. The velocity of electromagnetic waves in free space, c = 1 / μ0ε0 5. The velocity of electromagnetic waves in a material medium Is given by v = 1 / με where μ and ε are absolute permeability and absolute permittivity of the material medium. 6. Electromagnetic waves obey the principle of superposition. 7. Electromagnetic waves carry energy as they propagate through space. This energy is divided equally between electric and magnetic fields. 8. Electromagnetic waves can transfer energy as well as momentum to objects placed in their paths. 9.For discussion of optical effects of em wave, more significance is given to electric field, E due to fact that electric force is much stronger than the magnetic field force. Therefore, electric field is called light vector. physicswithikgogia Page 6

7 Different Parts of E M Spectrum 1. GAMMA-RAYS WAVELENGTH RANGE: They overlap the upper limit wavelength of the x-ray. Their wavelength range is m to m. FREQUENCY RANGE: The gamma rays have a frequency range of 3 X Hz TO 3 X Hz. SOURCE: They are emitted by RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES USES: Provide INFORMATION ABOUT STRUCTURE OF NUCLEI, Used in treatment of cancer Sterilization of medical equipment after packing Production of better verities of crops ASTRONOMICAL RESEARCH, ETC. 2. X-RAYS WAVELENGTH RANGE THEIR WAVELENGTH RANGE IS 6 x m TO 10-9 m. frequency Range The gamma rays have a frequency range of 3 X 1017 Hz TO 3 X 1019 Hz. They are emitted by bombarding metal having large atomic number with fast moving electrons. Uses X-ray photography Medical diagonostics Used in treatment of cancer Treatment of skin disease & tumors Locating cracks and flaws in finished metal objects Search of objectionable goods in luggage of travelers Study of crystal structure physicswithikgogia Page 7

8 3.Ultra violet rays Wavelength range They overlap the upper limit wavelength of the x-ray. Their wavelength range is 6 x m to 3.8 x 10-7 m. Frequency range The gamma rays have a frequency range of 8 x hz to 3 x hz. They are emitted in electric discharge through gaseous atoms and molecules are present in solar radiations. Uses Medical applications Sterilization Killing bacteria and germs in food stuff Detection of invisible writing Detection of forged documents Study of finger prints 4. LIGHT WAVES OR VISIBLE SPECTRUM WAVELENGTH RANGE THEY occupy a band between infrared and uv waves. THEIR WAVELENGTH RANGE IS 7.8 x 10-7 m to 3.8 x 10-7 m frequency Range The light waves have a frequency range of 4 x 1014 Hz to 8 x 1014 Hz. They are produced by excited Atoms and molecules & Black bodies. Uses: Optics and Optical Instruments Vision and photography Decorative lighting physicswithikgogia Page 8

9 5. Infra red Rays WAVELENGTH RANGE THEY occupy a band between visible light and microwaves. THEIR WAVELENGTH RANGE IS 7.8 x 10-7 m TO 10-3 m. Frequency Range The Infra red rays have a frequency range of 3 X Hz TO 4 X Hz. They are emitted by Molecules Hot bodies Are present in solar radiations. Uses In Industry Medicine Astronomy Night vision devices Green house Revealing secret writings on ancient walls. 6. Micro waves Wavelength range THEY occupy a band between infrared and radiowaves. Their wavelength range is 7.8 x 10-7 m TO 10-3 m. Frequency range The microwaves have a frequency range of 3 X hz TO 4 X hz. They are emitted molecules Hot bodies Are present in solar radiations. Uses In industry Medicine Astronomy Night vision devices Green house Revealing secret writings on ancient walls. physicswithikgogia Page 9

10 7. Radio Wave WAVELENGTH RANGE THEIR WAVELENGTH RANGE IS 0.3 m to A few km. THEY occupy a band between microwaves and power frequencies. frequency Range The radio waves have a frequency range of 10 9 Hz to 3 x Hz. They are produced by Oscillating electronic circuits. Uses Radar mobile telephony analysis of atomic and molecular structure Microwave ovens for cooking. Sample Problems Q1.In a plane em wave, the electric field oscillates sinusoidally at a frequency of Hz and amplitude of 48 Vm 1. (a) What is the wavelength of the wave? (b) What is the amplitude of the oscillating magnetic field? (c) Show that the average energy density of the electric field equals the average energy density of the magnetic field. [c = ms 1 ] Q2.What is the nature of waves used in photography during haze and fog? What is their wavelength range? Ans. Infra red waves. Wavelength range m to 10 3 m Q3.Find the wavelength of electromagnetic waves of frequency Hz in free space. Give its two applications. physicswithikgogia Page 10

11 Apllications of microwaves: (i) Used in microwave ovens for cooking, baking, grilling. (ii) Used in Radar and microwave communication links. Q4.Name the electromagnetic radiations which are produced when high energy electrons are bombarded on a metal target. Ans. X-rays. Name the electromagnetic radiations having the wavelength range from 1 mm to 700 nm. Give its two important applications. Ans. The radiations are called Infrared radiations. Applications (i) Used to relieve muscular pain in human body. (ii) Used for cooking/remote control devices. physicswithikgogia Page 11

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