# 6.1 Electromagnetic Waves

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 6.1 Electromagnetic Waves electromagnetic radiation can be described as a harmonic wave in either time or distance waves are characterized by their period, frequency, wavelength and wave number Planck's Law gives the energy of electromagnetic quanta ν and λ are related by the speed of light, which in turn is determined by the refractive index electromagnetic radiation is characterized by both an electric field and magnetic field 6.1 : 1/11

2 Temporal Harmonic Wave An electromagnetic wave can be described in either. When amplitude is measured as the wave passes a fixed location the result is a temporal wave. amplitude (V/m) 1 t The wave is given by -1 time (fs) where t is the period. Usually the expression is written using frequency, where ν = 1/t. ν has units of. In some cases it is convenient to use angular frequency, ω = 2πν. ω also has units of (which may be called radians per second). ( πν ) ( ω ) E = E cos 2 t E = E cos t 6.1 : 2/11

3 Spatial Harmonic Wave When a "snapshot" of the wave is taken, the wave will extend over distance in the laboratory. The wave is given by amplitude (V/m) 1 λ where λ is the wavelength. In the visible λ has units of, in the infrared units of. -1 distance (nm) 6.1 : 3/11 ν = 1 λ Sometimes the expression is written using wave number, has units of reciprocal centimeters (cm -1 ). In physical optics it is convenient to use the k-vector, k = 2π/λ. The units of k are usually reciprocal meters (m -1 ). ν ( πν ) ( ) E = E cos 2 x E = E cos kx

4 Plane, Spherical and Cylindrical Waves a three dimensional plane wave is given by ( ) ( ) ( ) E = E cos k x + E cos k y + E cos k z x x y y z z a spherical wave is given by E = E cos( kr) r a cylindrical wave is given by E = E cos( kr) kr z r plane wave spherical wave 6.1 : 4/11

5 Energy per Quantum The energy per quantum is given by Planck's Law, hc E = hν = = hcν λ where h = J s. Note that E is proportional to ν and, but not λ! The concept of a quantum is only relevant when the energy delivered is above the thermodynamic noise given by 4kT, where k = J K -1. At room temperature this limit is given approximately by, 4kT 13 ν = = Hz h which is. For a bond energy of 4 kj mol -1, the bond energy per molecule is J. This is delivered by one quantum of 1 15 Hz (3 nm) radiation. All higher frequencies are considered. ν 6.1 : 5/11

6 Refractive Index For electromagnetic radiation, frequency and wavelength are related by the speed of light, c = m s -1. When electromagnetic radiation travels through material with polarizable electrons, it slows down. Because the quantum of energy remains fixed, the frequency remains fixed. This means that the wavelength decreases. The refractive index is given by the ratio of velocities,. 6.1 : 6/11 substance n 589 substance n 589 perfluorohexane 1.25 quartz 1.46 water 1.33 benzene 1.5 ethanol 1.36 glass 1.52 carbon disulfide 1.63

7 Dispersion The refractive index depends upon the wavelength, ordinarily from the violet toward the red. The change in value is called dispersion. Shown at the right are dispersion curves for three materials used to make prisms. Dispersion is greatest near an. Quartz is a good prism material for the UV, while flint glass is good for the visible and near IR. refractive index 1.75 flint glass crown glass 1.5 quartz wavelength (nm) 6.1 : 7/11

8 Propagation of Light Maxwell's equations show that a time-varying electric field (E in V m -1 ) generates a time varying magnetic field (H in A m -1 ), and that a time varying magnetic field generates a time varying electric field. Thus, electromagnetic radiation is. When E is aligned in the x-direction and the wave is traveling in the z-direction, the generated magnetic field is in the y-direction. ( π λ) ( π λ) E = E cos 2 z/ H = H cos 2 z/ x In a vacuum the ratio of E x and H y are given by the impedance of free space. E H x = 1 ε c = y Note that the two waves are in phase and that the direction of propagation is given by E H. The radiant flux density transmitted in the z-direction is given by E x H y in units of W m -2. When intensity is used the flux is given by photons s -1 m -2. y 6.1 : 8/11

9 Electromagnetic Spectrum frequency (Hz) gamma rays ultraviolet infrared radio x-rays visible microwaves wavelength (m) : 9/11

10 Spectral Regions and Phenomena (1) radio waves: below 1 GHz, natural units Hz P nuclear magnetic resonance, used to determine bonding in molecules P electron spin resonance, used to determine location of unpaired electrons microwaves: 1 GHz to 1 THz, natural units Hz or cm -1 P, used to determine bond angles and lengths of small molecules in the gas phase infrared (below red): 1, cm -1 to 5 cm -1, natural units cm -1 or μm P of molecules, used to determine functional groups existing within a molecule visible: 4 nm to 75 nm, natural units nm or cm -1 P valence shell electronic transitions, used to identify atoms in a sample and concentration P molecular electronic transitions involving, used to determine structure and concentration 6.1 : 1/11

11 Spectral Regions and Phenomena (2) ultraviolet (beyond violet): 1 nm to 38 nm, natural units nm or D P valence shell, used to identify atoms in a sample and their concentration P molecular electronic transitions involving single bonds, used to determine structure and concentration x-rays:.1 D to 1 D, natural units D P, used to identify atoms in solids and provide information about adjacent bonded atoms gamma rays: greater than.1 MeV, natural units electron volts (1 ev = J) P, used to identify isotopes 6.1 : 11/11

### physics 112N electromagnetic waves

physics 112N electromagnetic waves electromagnetic waves? Faraday s law told us that time-varying magnetic fields generate electric fields James Clerk Maxwell found that time-varying electric fields generate

### Spectroscopy. SI Base Units

Spectroscopy SI Base Units m - meter - length s - second - time kg - kilogram - mass K - kelvin - thermodynamic temperature A - ampere - electric current cd - candela - luminous intensity mol - amount

### Bronx High School of Science Regents Physics

Bronx High School of Science Regents Physics 1. Orange light has a frequency of 5.0 10 14 hertz in a vacuum. What is the wavelength of this light? (A) 1.5 10 23 m (C) 6.0 10 7 m (B) 1.7 10 6 m (D) 2.0

Forms of Energy There are many types of energy. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Potential energy is energy that results from position, such as the energy in water going over a dam. Electrical energy

Electromagnetic Radiation Wave - a traveling disturbance, e.g., displacement of water surface (water waves), string (waves on a string), or position of air molecules (sound waves). [ π λ ] h = h sin (

Activity 17 Electromagnetic Radiation Why? Electromagnetic radiation, which also is called light, is an amazing phenomenon. It carries energy and has characteristics of both particles and waves. We can

### Wave Properties of Electromagnetic Radiation

Wave Properties of Electromagnetic Radiation Two options are available for analytical utility when an analyte interacts with a beam of electromagnetic radiation in an instrument 1. We can monitor the changes

### Lecture 2: Radiation/Heat in the atmosphere

Lecture 2: Radiation/Heat in the atmosphere TEMPERATURE is a measure of the internal heat energy of a substance. The molecules that make up all matter are in constant motion. By internal heat energy, we

### Preview of Period 3: Electromagnetic Waves Radiant Energy II

Preview of Period 3: Electromagnetic Waves Radiant Energy II 3.1 Radiant Energy from the Sun How is light reflected and transmitted? What is polarized light? 3.2 Energy Transfer with Radiant Energy How

### From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation?

From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation? From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly

### CHAPTER 6: ANSWERS TO ASSIGNED PROBLEMS Hauser- General Chemistry I revised 8/03/08

CHAPTER 6: ANSWERS TO ASSIGNED PROBLEMS Hauser- General Chemistry I revised 8/03/08 6.9 What are the basic SI units for? (a) the wavelength of light meters, although colors are usually reported in 3 digit

### 2. The graph shows how the displacement varies with time for an object undergoing simple harmonic motion.

Practice Test: 29 marks (37 minutes) Additional Problem: 31 marks (45 minutes) 1. A transverse wave travels from left to right. The diagram on the right shows how, at a particular instant of time, the

### Satellite Remote Sensing SIO 135/SIO 236. Electromagnetic Radiation and Polarization

Satellite Remote Sensing SIO 135/SIO 236 Electromagnetic Radiation and Polarization 1 Electromagnetic Radiation Models «To understand the interaction that the EMR undergoes before it reaches the sensor,

### Particle in a Box : Absorption Spectrum of Conjugated Dyes

Particle in a Box : Absorption Spectrum of Conjugated Dyes Part A Recording the Spectra and Theoretical determination of λ max Theory Absorption bands in the visible region of the spectrum (350-700 nm)

### CHAPTER 12 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY. and MASS SPECTROSCOPY

KOT 222 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY II CHAPTER 12 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY and MASS SPECTROSCOPY Part I Infrared Spectroscopy What is Spectroscopy? Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction of matter and electromagnetic

### Sample Exercise 6.1 Concepts of Wavelength and Frequency

Sample Exercise 6.1 Concepts of Wavelength and Frequency Two electromagnetic waves are represented below. (a) Which wave has the higher frequency? (b) If one wave represents visible light and the other

### Energy. Mechanical Energy

Principles of Imaging Science I (RAD119) Electromagnetic Radiation Energy Definition of energy Ability to do work Physicist s definition of work Work = force x distance Force acting upon object over distance

### CHAPTER 2: Electromagnetic Radiation Principles

CHAPTER 2: Electromagnetic Radiation Principles REFERENCE: Remote Sensing of the Environment John R. Jensen (2007) Second Edition Pearson Prentice Hall DETECTING THE REMOTE SIGNAL 1 Electromagnetic Energy

### Finding The Energy of a Photon. F Scullion Some useful rearrangement triangles. Also note that 1 mole = 6.

1 Atomic Theory. Finding The Energy of a Photon F Scullion www.justchemy.com Some useful rearrangement triangles The Relationship between light and energy Converting frequency to wavelength Also note that

### Infrared Spectroscopy: Theory

u Chapter 15 Infrared Spectroscopy: Theory An important tool of the organic chemist is Infrared Spectroscopy, or IR. IR spectra are acquired on a special instrument, called an IR spectrometer. IR is used

### Practice Problems (Set #1) Properties of Electromagnetic Radiation. 1. Why don't we notice the wave nature of matter in our everyday experience?

Practice Problems (Set #1) Properties of Electromagnetic Radiation 1. Why don't we notice the wave nature of matter in our everyday experience? Since matter has huge mass, the wavelength will be very large

### 21 The Nature of Electromagnetic Waves

21 The Nature of Electromagnetic Waves When we left off talking about the following circuit: I E v = c B we had recently closed the switch and the wire was creating a magnetic field which was expanding

### Light, Light Bulbs and the Electromagnetic Spectrum

Light, Light Bulbs and the Electromagnetic Spectrum Spectrum The different wavelengths of electromagnetic waves present in visible light correspond to what we see as different colours. Electromagnetic

### EM Waves Practice Problems

EM Waves Practice Problems PSI AP Physics B Name Multiple Choice 1. Which of the following theories can explain the bending of waves behind obstacles into shadow region? (A) Particle theory of light (B)

Chapter 2: Electromagnetic Radiation Radiant Energy I Goals of Period 2 Section 2.1: To introduce electromagnetic radiation Section 2.2: To discuss the wave model of radiant energy Section 2.3: To describe

### Lecture 1. The nature of electromagnetic radiation.

Lecture 1. The nature of electromagnetic radiation. 1. Basic introduction to the electromagnetic field: Dual nature of electromagnetic radiation Electromagnetic spectrum. Basic radiometric quantities:

### Objectives. What are X-rays? X. Julian Moger 1. PAM1014 Introduction to Radiation Physics. Electromagnetic Radiation. Electromagnetic Radiation

PM1014 Introduction to Radiation Physics Objectives Electromagnetic Waves Properties of Electromagnetic Spectrum Inverse Square Law What are s? X Radio & TV Microwave Visible UV s γ-rays 10 1 10-1 10-2

### Chapter 6 Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table

Chapter 6 Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The Navy uses electromagnetic radiation of extremely long wavelengths to communicate with submerged submarines. The Navy's ELF (Extremely

### Chapter 6 Electromagnetic Radiation and the Electronic Structure of the Atom

Chapter 6 In This Chapter Physical and chemical properties of compounds are influenced by the structure of the molecules that they consist of. Chemical structure depends, in turn, on how electrons are

### Farbe. Physics of Color

Farbe Physics of Color Light Basic Properties visible light is electromagnetic radiation in a particular region of the entire spectrum distinguishing criterion: its frequency ~780 380 nm 380 780 THz AM

### Chapter 6 Electronic Structure of Atoms

Chapter 6 Electronic Structure of Atoms 1. Electromagnetic radiation travels through vacuum at a speed of m/s. (a). 6.626 x 26 (b). 4186 (c). 3.00 x 8 (d). It depends on wavelength Explanation: The speed

### 1. Examples: Wave motion is generating, when disturbance is generating in a wave source and the disturbance is propagating in time and in space.

Wave motion 1. Examples: Wave motion can be observed when a water surface is disturbed. In this case waves move outwards across the water surface from the point of disturbance. Wave motion along the string.

### OPTOELECRONIC DEVICES

OPTOELECRONIC DEVICES Optoelectronic Devices - the electronic technology in which optical radiation is emitted, modified, or converted (as in electrical-to-optical or optical-toelectrical). Related technologies:

### Introduction to Spectroscopy.

Introduction to Spectroscopy. ARCHIMEJ TECHNOLOGY The SPECTROSCOPY 2.0 Company To understand what the core of our project is about, you need to grasp some basic notions of optical spectroscopy. This lesson

### Amplitude Y is the maximum value of the wave variable ( displacement in this case ).

NATURE OF VISIBLE LIGHT: Our current knowledge is that light exhibits a dual nature or behavior. It behaves as electromagnetic ( EM for short ) waves or as a particles ( photons ). General description

### Electromagnetic Radiation and Atomic Spectra POGIL

Name _Key AP Chemistry Electromagnetic Radiation and Atomic Spectra POGIL Electromagnetic Radiation Model 1: Characteristics of Waves The figure above represents part of a wave. The entire wave can be

### sinusoidal electromagnetic waves

CH32: Electromagnetic Waves Maxwell s equations and electromagnetic waves sinusoidal electromagnetic waves Passage of electromagnetic waves through matter Energy and momentum of electromagnetic waves *(Not

### CHM111 Lab Atomic Emission Spectroscopy Grading Rubric

Name Team Name CHM111 Lab Atomic Emission Spectroscopy Grading Rubric Criteria Points possible Points earned Lab Performance Printed lab handout and rubric was brought to lab 3 Followed procedure correctly

### WAVES AND PARTICLES. (v) i.e (vi) The potential difference required to bring an electron of wavelength to rest

WAVES AND PARTICLES 1. De Broglie wavelength associated with the charges particles (i) The energy of a charged particle accelerated through potential difference q = charge on the particel (ii) Momentum

Eighth Grade Electromagnetic Radiation and Light Assessment 1a. Light waves are the only waves that can travel through. a. space b. solids 1b. Electromagnetic waves, such as light, are the only kind of

### AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 7 Notes - Atomic Structure and Periodicity

AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 7 Notes - Atomic Structure and Periodicity 7.1 Electromagnetic Radiation A. Types of EM Radiation (wavelengths in meters) 10-1 10-10 10-8 4 to 7x10-7 10-4 10-1 10 10 4 gamma

### Problem Set 1 Solutions

Chemistry 36 Dr. Jean M. Standard Problem Set Solutions. The first 4 lines in the visible region of atomic line spectrum of hydrogen atom occur at wavelengths of 656., 486., 434.0, and 40. nm (this is

### 11/15/2016. Electromagnetic (EM) waves are waves caused by oscillations occurring simultaneously in electric and magnetic fields

Electromagnetic (EM) waves are waves caused by oscillations occurring simultaneously in electric and magnetic fields A 2D transverse wave The EM and Visible Spectra They DO NOT require any medium in order

### Chapter 25 Electromagnetic Waves

Chapter 25 Electromagnetic Waves Units of Chapter 25 The Production of Electromagnetic Waves The Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves The Electromagnetic Spectrum Energy and Momentum in Electromagnetic

### Introduction. Chapter 12 Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy. Electromagnetic Spectrum. Types of Spectroscopy 8/29/2011

Organic Chemistry, 6 th Edition L. G. Wade, Jr. Chapter 12 Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy Introduction Spectroscopy is an analytical technique which helps determine structure. It destroys

### Physical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect

Objectives: PS-7.1 Physical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect Illustrate ways that the energy of waves is transferred by interaction with

### AP Chemistry Chapter 6 Lecture Notes- Electrons! 6.1 The Wave Nature of Light. 6.2 Quantized Energy and Photons. Chapter 6 Homework

AP Chemistry Chapter 6 Lecture Notes- Electrons! Chapter 6 Homework 6.1 The Wave Nature of Light pg 253 #3, 4, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 25, 29 The electronic structure of an atom refers to the arrangement of

### Time out states and transitions

Time out states and transitions Spectroscopy transitions between energy states of a molecule excited by absorption or emission of a photon hν = E = E i -E f Energy levels due to interactions between parts

### where h = 6.62 10-34 J s

Electromagnetic Spectrum: Refer to Figure 12.1 Molecular Spectroscopy: Absorption of electromagnetic radiation: The absorptions and emissions of electromagnetic radiation are related molecular-level phenomena

### PHYSICS 2 Grade 12. Unit of Credit: 1 Year (Elective) Prerequisite: Physics 1 and Algebra 2

PHYSICS 2 Grade 12 Unit of Credit: 1 Year (Elective) Prerequisite: Physics 1 and Algebra 2 Course Overview: Physics 2 is an attempt to further understand the universe, and is therefore, a study of matter,

### AP CHEMISTRY CHAPTER REVIEW CHAPTER 6: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE

AP CHEMISTRY CHAPTER REVIEW CHAPTER 6: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE You should be familiar with the wavelike properties of light: frequency ( ), wavelength ( ), and energy (E) as well as

### ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES physicswithikgogia Page 1 www.physicsbeckons.wordpress.com physicswithikgogia Page 2 physicswithikgogia Page 3 physicswithikgogia Page 4 physicswithikgogia Page 5 Properties: 1. Variations

### Chapter 22 Electromagnetic Waves. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 22 Electromagnetic Waves The Production of Electromagnetic Waves Any time an electric charge is accelerated, it will radiate electromagnetic waves. The Production of Electromagnetic Waves An electromagnetic

### ASTRONOMY 161. Introduction to Solar System Astronomy. Class 11

ASTRONOMY 161 Introduction to Solar System Astronomy Class 11 Telescopes Friday, February 2 Telescopes: Key Concepts (1) Telescopes use either a lens or a mirror to gather light. (2) The main purposes

### Chapter 13 Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy

Chapter 13 Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy Copyright 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 Overview of Mass Spectrometry Mass spectrometry

### 13- What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the subshell 3d? a) 1 b) 3 c) 5 d) 2

Assignment 06 A 1- What is the energy in joules of an electron undergoing a transition from n = 3 to n = 5 in a Bohr hydrogen atom? a) -3.48 x 10-17 J b) 2.18 x 10-19 J c) 1.55 x 10-19 J d) -2.56 x 10-19

### Waves Sound and Light

Waves Sound and Light r2 c:\files\courses\1710\spr12\wavetrans.doc Ron Robertson The Nature of Waves Waves are a type of energy transmission that results from a periodic disturbance (vibration). They are

### Sample Exercise 6.1 Concepts of Wavelength and Frequency

Sample Exercise 6.1 Concepts of Wavelength and Frequency Two electromagnetic waves are represented in the margin. (a) Which wave has the higher frequency? (b) If one wave represents visible light and the

### Name Date Class ELECTRONS IN ATOMS. Standard Curriculum Core content Extension topics

13 ELECTRONS IN ATOMS Conceptual Curriculum Concrete concepts More abstract concepts or math/problem-solving Standard Curriculum Core content Extension topics Honors Curriculum Core honors content Options

### Light. (Material taken from: Optics, by E. Hecht, 4th Ed., Ch: 1,2, 3, 8)

(Material taken from: Optics, by E. Hecht, 4th Ed., Ch: 1,2, 3, 8) is an Electromagnetic (EM) field arising from the non-uniform motion of charged particles. It is also a form of EM energy that originates

### Unit 1 Atomic Structure

Unit Atomic Structure 4. Defining the Atom I. Atomic Theory A. Modern Atomic Theory. All matter is made up of very tiny particles called atoms. Atoms of the same element are chemically alike 3. Individual

### PS-7.2 Compare the nature and properties of transverse and longitudinal/compressional mechanical waves.

PS-7.1 Illustrate ways that the energy of waves is transferred by interaction with matter (including transverse and longitudinal /compressional waves). Understand that a wave is a repeating disturbance

### Experiment #5: Qualitative Absorption Spectroscopy

Experiment #5: Qualitative Absorption Spectroscopy One of the most important areas in the field of analytical chemistry is that of spectroscopy. In general terms, spectroscopy deals with the interactions

### Atomic Structure Ron Robertson

Atomic Structure Ron Robertson r2 n:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\atomicstructuretrans.doc I. What is Light? Debate in 1600's: Since waves or particles can transfer energy, what is

### Section 1 Electromagnetic Waves

Section 1 Electromagnetic Waves What are electromagnetic waves? What do microwaves, cell phones, police radar, television, and X-rays have in common? All of them use electromagnetic waves Electromagnetic

### Chapter 23: Electromagnetic waves. What will we learn in this chapter?

Chapter 23: Electromagnetic waves Arecibo 305m radio telescope What will we learn in this chapter? Contents: Speed of EM waves The EM spectrum Transmitted energy Nature of light Reflection and Refraction

### Unit Study Guide: Waves and Heat Transfer

Name Date Per Unit 8.4.1 Study Guide: Waves and Heat Transfer I Can Statements I Can Statements are the learning targets for each unit. By the time you take the test for this unit, you should be able to

Chapter 2 Electromagnetic Radiation Bohr demonstrated that information about the structure of hydrogen could be gained by observing the interaction between thermal energy (heat) and the atom. Many analytical

### Spectrophotometry. Theory

is any technique that uses light to measure chemical concentrations. Theory When a sample absorbs electromagnetic radiation it undergoes a change in energy. The interaction happens between the sample and

### Radio Waves. Where do they come from?

Radio Waves Where do they come from? Radio waves belong to a family The electromagnetic spectrum (EM) is a continuum of waves, sometimes called electromagnetic radiation. These waves may be created in

### λν = c λ ν Electromagnetic spectrum classification of light based on the values of λ and ν

Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure Nuclear atom small, heavy, positive nucleus surrounded by a negative electron cloud Electronic structure arrangement of the electrons around the nucleus Classical mechanics

### Chapter 27 Early Quantum Physics and the Photon

Chapter 27 Early Quantum Physics and the Photon 1. A problem with the classical theory for radiation from a blackbody was that the theory predicted too much radiation in the wavelengths. A. ultraviolet

### Atomic Emission Spectra

Atomic Emission Spectra Objectives The objectives of this laboratory are as follows: To build and calibrate a simple box spectroscope capable of measuring wavelengths of visible light. To use this spectroscope

### The Electromagnetic Spectrum

The Electromagnetic Spectrum 1 Look around you. What do you see? You might say "people, desks, and papers." What you really see is light bouncing off people, desks, and papers. You can only see objects

### Chapter 35: Quantum Physics

Newton himself was better aware of the weakness inherent in his intellectual edifice than the generations which followed him. This fact has always aroused my admiration. Albert Einstein 35.1 The Particle

### Chapter 11 Modern Atomic Theory

Chapter 11 Modern Atomic Theory Rutherford s Atom The concept of a nuclear atom (charged electrons moving around the nucleus) resulted from Ernest Rutherford s experiments. Question left unanswered: how

### The Derivation of the Planck Formula

Chapter 1 The Derivation of the Planck Formula Topics The Planck formula for black-body radiation Revision of waves in a box Radiation in thermal equilibrium The equipartition theorem and the ultraviolet

### A It is halved. B It is doubled. C It is quadrupled. D It remains the same.

WAVES UNIT REVIEW EN: CALIFORNIA STATE QUESTIONS: 1. A sound wave is produced in a metal cylinder by striking one end. Which of the following occurs as the wave travels along the cylinder? A Its amplitude

### Calculating particle properties of a wave

Calculating particle properties of a wave A light wave consists of particles (photons): The energy E of the particle is calculated from the frequency f of the wave via Planck: E = h f (1) A particle can

### The Nature of Light. As a particle

The Nature of Light Light is radiant energy. Travels very fast 300,000 km/sec! Can be described either as a wave or as a particle traveling through space. As a wave A small disturbance in an electric field

### UNIT 28: ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES AND POLARIZATION Approximate Time Three 100-minute Sessions

Name St.No. - Date(YY/MM/DD) / / Section Group # UNIT 28: ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES AND POLARIZATION Approximate Time Three 100-minute Sessions Hey diddle diddle, what kind of riddle Is this nature of light?

### 5. The Nature of Light. Does Light Travel Infinitely Fast? EMR Travels At Finite Speed. EMR: Electric & Magnetic Waves

5. The Nature of Light Light travels in vacuum at 3.0. 10 8 m/s Light is one form of electromagnetic radiation Continuous radiation: Based on temperature Wien s Law & the Stefan-Boltzmann Law Light has

### The photoionization detector (PID) utilizes ultraviolet

Chapter 6 Photoionization Detectors The photoionization detector (PID) utilizes ultraviolet light to ionize gas molecules, and is commonly employed in the detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

### Essential Knowledge 5.G.1: The possible nuclear reactions are constrained by the law of conservation of nucleon number.

Curriculum Framework Essential Knowledge 5.F.1: The continuity equation describes conservation of mass flow rate in fluids. Examples should include volume rate of flow and mass flow rate. Learning Objective

### Electromagnetic Radiation and Atomic Physics

Electromagnetic Radiation and Atomic Physics Properties of Electrons, Protons, and Neutrons (The Main Constituents of Ordinary Matter) Mass Electrons have a mass of 9.11 10-31 kg. The mass of a proton

### physics 1/12/2016 Chapter 20 Lecture Chapter 20 Traveling Waves

Chapter 20 Lecture physics FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS a strategic approach THIRD EDITION randall d. knight Chapter 20 Traveling Waves Chapter Goal: To learn the basic properties of traveling waves. Slide

### Chapter 11 Atoms, Energy and Electron Configurations Objectives

Objectives 1. To review Rutherford s model of the atom 2. To explore the nature of electromagnetic radiation 3. To see how atoms emit light A. Rutherford s Atom.but there is a problem here!! Using Rutherford

### MAKING SENSE OF ENERGY Electromagnetic Waves

Adapted from State of Delaware TOE Unit MAKING SENSE OF ENERGY Electromagnetic Waves GOALS: In this Part of the unit you will Learn about electromagnetic waves, how they are grouped, and how each group

### Overview. What is EMR? Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) LA502 Special Studies Remote Sensing

LA502 Special Studies Remote Sensing Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) Dr. Ragab Khalil Department of Landscape Architecture Faculty of Environmental Design King AbdulAziz University Room 103 Overview What

### Infrared Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry

Infrared Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry Introduction It is fundamental for an organic chemist to be able to identify, or characterize, the new compound that he/she has just made. Sometimes this can

### D.S. Boyd School of Earth Sciences and Geography, Kingston University, U.K.

PHYSICAL BASIS OF REMOTE SENSING D.S. Boyd School of Earth Sciences and Geography, Kingston University, U.K. Keywords: Remote sensing, electromagnetic radiation, wavelengths, target, atmosphere, sensor,

### Light as a Wave. The Nature of Light. EM Radiation Spectrum. EM Radiation Spectrum. Electromagnetic Radiation

The Nature of Light Light and other forms of radiation carry information to us from distance astronomical objects Visible light is a subset of a huge spectrum of electromagnetic radiation Maxwell pioneered

### Examples of Uniform EM Plane Waves

Examples of Uniform EM Plane Waves Outline Reminder of Wave Equation Reminder of Relation Between E & H Energy Transported by EM Waves (Poynting Vector) Examples of Energy Transport by EM Waves 1 Coupling

### Selected Radio Frequency Exposure Limits

ENVIRONMENT, SAFETY & HEALTH DIVISION Chapter 50: Non-ionizing Radiation Selected Radio Frequency Exposure Limits Product ID: 94 Revision ID: 1736 Date published: 30 June 2015 Date effective: 30 June 2015

### Important Equations in Physics for IGCSE course. Area of triangular shaped graph = ½ base height

Important Equations in Physics for IGCSE course General Physics: 1 For constant motion: v = s t 2 For acceleration a v u a = t 3 Graph Area of a rectangular shaped graph = base height. 4 Weight and mass

### Example: Water wave. Water just moves up and down Wave travels and can transmit energy (tsunami)

Waves R Us What are Waves? Waves: moving disturbances that transmit energy without the physical transport of material - waves in a pool or waves in a wheat field or waves of people in a football field.