Advantages of CDMA. spectrumcapacity: FDMA TDMA CDMA. FDMA---Different user use different frequency

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1 CDMA

2 Advantages of CDMA High Highspectrum spectrumcapacity: capacity: times timesthan thangsm GSM FDMA FDMA---Different user use different frequency Power Tim e TDMA---Different user use different time slot of one frequency TDMA Power Tim e CDMA---Different user use same frequency at the same time,but with different spreading code cy en u eq Fr cy en u q Fre CDMA Power Tim e y nc e u eq Fr

3 Advantages of CDMA large coverage almost 2 times than GSM, save money for for operator Example:cover 1000 km 22 :GSM needs 200 BTS,CDMA only needs BTS

4 Advantages of CDMA High privacy,hard to to wiretapping Spread signal Information signal Demodulated signal TX RX Spread code Spread code

5 Advantages of CDMA Use Usesoft softhandoff, handoff,decrease decreasedrop-call drop-callrate rate CDMA: CDMA: make makebefore beforebreak ---soft break ---softhandoff handoff Other Othersystems: systems: make makeafter afterbreak ---hard break ---hardhandoff handoff

6 Advantages of CDMA Perfect Power Control and voice activation make the MS Power low, healthy for humanbody green mobile phone. Mean Power Max Max Power GSM: 125mW 2W 2W CDMA: 2mW 200mW

7 Steps in Generating a CDMA signal: 1. Voice is digitized (A/D conversion) 2. Digital voice is vocoded 3. Digital signal is encoded and interleaved 4. Encoded signal are spread (channelized) 5. The digital signal converted and transmitted as radio signal.

8 CDMA Block Diagram

9 Vocoder ( Voice Compression)

10 The vocoder, used in a CDMA system, compresses the voice signal into various data rates. The data rate is dynamically determined by the users speech activity. The vocoders are located at the BSC and in the phone.

11 Encoding & Interleaving

12 Interleaving is a simple, but powerful, method of reducing the effects of burst errors and recovering bits when burst errors occur. the symbols from each group are interleaved in a pattern that the receiver knows. The interleaver is located at the BTS and in the phone.

13 Spreading & Channelization The encoded voice data is encoded using a code that will separate it from other encoded voice data. This process, known as channelization, will spread the encoded symbols over the entire bandwidth of the CDMA channel.

14 Transmission The channelized data from all calls will be combined into a one signal that is transmitted is converted to an analog RF signal which is transmitted over the air. Receiver Decoding / Despreading The code used to channelize and spread the encoded voice data is known to the receiver. The receiver will use the code to despread/decode the signal andrecover the encoded voice data. Codes used in CDMA Orthogonal (Walsh) codes are used on the forward link to channelize users. Pseudorandom noise (PN) code is used on the reverse link to channelize users.

15 Multipath & CDMA

16 Rake Receivers The rake receiver is multiple receivers in one. A rake receiver is a radio receiver designed to counter the effects of multipath fading. It does this by using several "sub-receivers" called fingers, that is, several correlators each assigned to a different multipath component. both the base station and mobile receivers use RAKE receiver techniques.

17 Power Control The objective of power control is to ensure that signals from all mobiles are received at the Base Station with the same received power. The CDMA network independently controls the power of each mobile.

18 Open Loop Open loop is a estimate of what power the phone should use to transmit. The estimate is determined based on the strength of the mean signal power received by the mobile. Closed Loop Closed loop is used when there is a call. The network will send a command to the mobile to either increase or decrease power. The command is determined on the quality of the information received at the BTS.

19 Forward Link Power Control The BTS independently adjusts the power for each forward traffic channel based on information received from the mobile.

20

21 The Pilot Channel The pilot channel is constantly transmitted. The mobile uses the pilot signal to acquire the system. After the mobile has acquired the system the pilot is used for signal strength measurement. The strength of the pilot is used to determine the power required for mobile transmit.

22 The Sync Channel The sync channel is constantly transmitted providing critical timing information to the mobile. The mobile will decode the sync channel message during the power up sequence. Once the mobile is synchronized with the base station the sync channel is ignored.

23 The Paging Channel The paging channel is used to transmit overhead information (i.e. commands and pages) to the mobile. When a call is being set up the commands and traffic channel assignment are sent on the paging channel. Once a traffic channel is established the paging channel is ignored by the mobile.

24 Forward Traffic Channel The forward traffic channel is used when there is a call. Voice data and control overhead information, normally sent on the paging channel, are transmitted to the mobile on the traffic channel.

25 Reverse Link Channels

26 Access Channel The access channel is used by the mobile when not assigned to a traffic channel. The access channel is used by the mobile to register with the network, originate calls, respond to pages and commands from the base station, and transmit overhead messages to the base station.

27 Reverse Traffic Channel The reverse traffic channel is used when there is a call. Voice data and control overhead information, normally sent on the access channel, are transmitted to the base station on this channel.

28 CDMA Uniqueness

29 Architecture of CDMA x Network

30 Specifications Frequency of operation: Mhz(Uplink) and Mhz (Downlink) Duplexing Mehtod: Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD) RF Spacing: 1.25 Mhz Coverage: 5 Km with hand held telephones and approx. 20 Km with fixed units.

31 MSC( Mobile Switching Center) Performs the controlling and switching of mobile subscribers within the area it serves, and it is automatic switching equipment for the traffic between MSCs or between MSC of CDMA network and switches of other public networks. Database of subscribers(hlr & VLR). Record calls for billing. Switch the calls to the PSTN.

32 Base Station Controller (BSC) BSC functions: Call control processes. Vocoding of the voice signal.

33 Base Station Transceiver System BTS functions are: CDMA processing of all signals. Transmitting and receiving of all RF signals.

34 Packet Switched Core Network To provide better connectivity to the internet a new core network i.e. PS-CN is introduced to the CDMA x network. This section includes... PDSN (Packet Data Serving Node) AAA Server Home Agent/ Foreign Agent Server

35 PDSN & AAA Server Packet Data Serving Node (PDSN) provides the the routing of data between Radio Access Network (RAN) and internet. AAA Server: PS-CN also has the responsibility to authenticate, authorize and account for the CDMA 2000 subscribers wishing to obtain packet data services to fulfill these task PDSN requires support of AAA server. Authenticate: verifying that the user is valid & allowed to use packet data services. Authorization: subscription to the service being offered is valid. Accounting: Accounting for the service used.

36 Home Agent/ Foreign Agent Server HA & FA server is used when mobile IP services are supported by CDMA 2000 PDSN. HA can be considered analogous to HLR and FA with VLR.

37 CDMA x EV-DO 1x EVDO -Evolution for Data Optimized is optimized for high speed IP wireless data to many mobile and stationary terminals running multiple applications. EVDO is designed for an always on user experience.

38 Salient features of EV-DO EV-DO uses both CDMA and TDMA. Uses its own dedicated 1.25 Mhz carrier. It can support a maximum data rate of 2.4 Mbps in forward link. It can support a maximum data rate of kbps in reverse link. No power control on forward link is required.

39 Some information on data cards EVDO cards 2.4 Mbps ( 1.1 Mbps on field) USB type Desk top & Lap top version» PCM CIA type Only laptop NIC Cards 1.44 kbps Max USB & PCM CIA Distance < 2.5 km from BTS data rate good. *** PCM CIA type slot not available in all lap top EVDV Mbps data speed.- (Evolution of Data and Voice)

40 How does EVDO compare to other 3G Technologies? Peak Data Rate by Technology: CDMA Rev A 3,000 kpbs CDMA x EVDO 2,400 kbps W-CDMA 2,000 kbps EDGE 384 kbps CDMA x 144 kbps GPRS 115 kbps GSM 14.4 kbps

41 ZTE EVDO PCMCIA & USB PCMCIA 100 NoS USB 900 NoS Speed 2.4 Mbps

42 HUAWEI USB TYPE Lap top & Desk top Voice also available Speed 144Kbps

43

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