Control of wind-induced motion of tall buildings using smart façade systems

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1 Southern Cross University rd Australasian Conerence on the Mechanics o Structures and Materials 1 Control o wind-induced otion o tall buildings using sart açade systes A Azad University o Technology Sydney B Saali University o Western Sydney T Ngo University o Melbourne Publication details Azad, A, Saali, B, Ngo, T 1, 'Control o wind-induced otion o tall buildings using sart açade systes', in ST Sith (ed., rd Australasian Conerence on the Mechanics o Structures and Materials (ACMSM, vol. II, Byron Bay, NSW, 9-1 Deceber, Southern Cross University, Lisore, NSW, pp ISBN: is an electronic repository adinistered by Southern Cross University Library. Its goal is to capture and preserve the intellectual output o Southern Cross University authors and researchers, and to increase visibility and ipact through open access to researchers around the world. For urther inoration please contact

2 rd Australasian Conerence on the Mechanics o Structures and Materials (ACMSM Byron Bay, Australia, 9-1 Deceber 1, S.T. Sith (Ed. CONTROL OF WIND-INDUCED MOTION OF TALL BUILDINGS USING SMART FAÇADE SYSTEMS A. Azad* PhD student, Centre or Built Inrastructure Research, School o Civil and Environental Engineering, University o Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia. (Corresponding Author B. Saali Proessor, Institute or Inrastructure Engineering, University o Western Sydney Loced Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 75, Australia T. Ngo Senior Lecturer, Departent o Inrastructure Engineering, University o Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. ABSTRACT The developent o non-load bearing curtain walling technology around the turn o the th centre along with an eort to reduce the energy consuption o the building and dependence on artiicial lightening, the developent o high perorance glass and eicient building syste has seen architectural trends ove toward axiising glass surace areas in order to optiise natural light. This presents an opportunity to also investigate the açade syste potential to becoe a ilter or wind-induced vibration. The açade has been rarely considered or designed as a potential windinduced vibration absorber or tall buildings. In this paper the potential o utilizing a oveable exterior açade in a double-sin açade syste is investigated and shown that with optial choices o aterials or stiness and daping o bracets connecting the two sins, a substantial portion o wind-induced vibration energy can be dissipated which leads to avoiding expensive lateral stiening systes and/or space consuing large daper systes such as tuned ass or liquid dapers. The wors have deonstrated that up to 5% o response caused by winds can be absorbed by a sart and eicient açade design, including purely passive systes with constant stiness and daping or better, by a sart syste possessing variable stiness or dierent phases o açade oveent. KEYWORDS Curtain wall, tall building, double sin acade, daper. INTRODUCTION In recent decades, buildings with signiicant usage o glass are becoing coon. The developent o non-load bearing curtain walling technology around the turn o the th century along with double sin açade (DSF syste, which have substantial cavity space between the inner and outer açade layers, have received increased interest. Building açades generally peror as environental ediators between the controlled interior and harsh exterior as well as building identiiers through their aesthetic design. On the other hand an increasing ephasis has been placed on controlling structural dynaic response. The use o space rae and ega-rae concepts, outrigger trusses, belt trusses and band aid type stiening systes can oer additional resistance to wind loads (Karee 199. Other alternatives This wor is licensed under the Creative Coons Attribution. International License. To view a copy o this license, visit 999

3 include odiication o the structural ode shapes to increase the ass participating in the dynaics o building in the undaental ode. Karee (199 proposed the concept o isolation in the ountings o the cladding to the structural syste. Buildings are isolated ro earthquae excitation by eploying isolator bearings between the building and the oundations and a siilar concept is proposed or cladding. The integrated eects o the unsteady aerodynaic loads acting on cladding are transerred to the rae which results in building otion. I the cladding is connected to the rae by an isolation ounting, then the aerodynaic loads transerred to the rae will be reduced and consequently the building otion will decrease. In order or this ounting to be eective, the ratio o excitation requency to the natural requency o the cladding should be greater than square root o two (Karee 199. In this situation the ounting syste is ore eective without any daping. The proposed syste can be aterialized by dividing the cladding on the building envelope into several segents. The preliinary calculations (Karee (199 suggest that such a ounting syste will be quite sot and pneuatic ounts ay be an appropriate choice. Such an installation ay cause the cost o a cladding syste to be very high. This can be overcoe by using these systes in staggered conigurations and the reaining portions o the building envelope ay utilize conventional cladding. The staggered arrangeent has been proposed to help reduce the correlation o windinduced pressure which in turn would result in lessening the integrated loads. Moon (5 shows that dynaic otion o tall buildings can be reduced, or exaple, by ore than 5% when the DSF açade connectors are designed to have about hal o the priary structure requency. owever, there exists a design challenge: the excessive otion o the DSF outer sins, which would disturb occupants through visible cues, and potentially underine the ventilation syste intended by DSF systes through puping cavity air around the building. SYSTEM MODELING A sipliied odel is used in order to understand the behaviour o the proposed syste. Coplex priary structure with an outer sin acade could be odelled as two degrees o reedo shown in Figure 1 priary ass represents the structure and secondary ass represent the outer sin. Usually this ind o odelling is used to represent a tuned ass daper (TMD syste, although there is a dierent way to apply the load in these cases. Loads on the tuned ass daper syste, are applied to the priary ass and then transer to the secondary ass. In this way, connection between priary and secondary asses should be tuned to ae the TMD ass requency siilar to structural requency (Den artog (1956, (Connor ; however, in the proposed syste, wind loads are applied to the secondary ass and then, through the proposed connection will transer to the priary ass. This dierence in load transer aes tuned ass daper orulations inapplicable. C C Wind Load Priary Structure U U+U Figure 1. Sipliied odel o the priary structure and açade syste connected by ovable bracets ACMSM 1 1

4 Connection properties concerning stiness and daping have been odelled and varied to achieve the appropriate response. For achieving optial perorance o the proposed syste, the connection requency is tuned to the priary ass requency. Dynaic orce is applied to the secondary ass and through the connections, between the priary ass and the secondary ass, is transerred to ain raes. The outer sin ass is assued to be around 1% o the priary structure ass. DYNAMIC RESPONSES OF TE SYSTEM Below are the governing equations o the syste shown in Figure 1. u cu u c u u (1 ( u u c u u p ( priary structure ass; DSF outer sin ass; priary structure stiness; DSF connector stiness; c priary structure viscous daping paraeter; c DSF connector viscous daping paraeter; p applied loading; u priary structure axiu lateral displaceent; and u DSF outer sin axiu lateral displaceent. It is convenient to wor with the solution expressed in ters o coplex quantities. The orce is expressed as p it pe ˆ ( orcing requency and pˆ is a real quantity. The response is taen as u it ue ( u d it ude (5 the response aplitudes, u and u, are considered to be coplex quantities. Then the corresponding solution is given by either the real or iaginary parts o u and u. Substituting Eqs. ( (5 into the set o governing Eqs. (1 and ( results in u icu u ic u u (6 ( u u ic u u pˆ (7 Considering the ollowing relations: natural requency o the priary structure, and (8 c (9 ACMSM 1 11

5 ACMSM 1 1 priary structure daping ratio, and (1 natural requency o the DSF outer sin. stiness o the bracets which is a variable relating to the input requency, and c (11 açade connector daping ratio. Deining as the DSF outer sin to priary ass ratio, then (1 Deining as the DSF outer sin requency to priary structure requency ratio, then (1 and deining as the ratio o orcing requency to priary structure requency ratio, then (1 The dynaic apliication actor can then be obtained ro the equations o otion. ( ( (15 ( ( 1 ( (16 CASE STUDY To illustrate the perorance o the syste, dynaic apliication actor is plotted with values ranging ro to. The ass ratio between DSF and priary structure is assued to be 1% and also DSF requently to priary structure, requency is assued to be 5,.5 and.1, which represent the syste ro Conventional Façade to low stiness connectors. In this study, a requency ratio o about 5 represents a syste with rigid connector or conventional açade. For a daped single degree o

6 reedo (SDOF syste subjected to haronic load, dynaic apliication actor could be obtained as ollows: 1 (17 SDOF (a Plot (b plot Figure 1. Dynaic apliication actors or the priary structure ( and DSF outer sin ( with (DSF outer sin requency/priary structure requency =5 Solving Eq.17 leads to the axiu dynaic apliication with the value o 5 which is exactly the sae as the syste with sti connector as shown in igure a. In Figure b, dynaic apliication actor is less than 1 which eans that there is no dynaic apliication or the DSF in this case (a Plot (b plot Figure. Dynaic apliication actors or the priary structure ( and DSF outer sin ( with (DSF outer sin requency/priary structure requency =.5 Reducing the stiness o connectors to the point the DSF requency has hal the value o the priary structure, which is the requency that leads to a noticeable reduction in a dynaic response o priary Structure, is shown in Figure a and shows that around 1, the axiu occurs when the orcing requency is alost the sae as the DSF connector requency. With =.5, Figure b shows the DSF dynaic apliication actor increased to about 1 with % daping. Copared to conventional case, without the proposed DSF syste, the dynaic response o the priary structure ACMSM 1 1

7 is reduced by ore than 5%. What needs to be considered in this case is the high dynaic apliication actor o DSF, which is not practical. To ae it practical the ollowing is presented. The ollowing case represents dierent connector stiness based on input load requency. Using low stiness connector in the zone, which is critical or the structural response and at the sae tie having low dynaic apliication actor shows that by using sart açade, a 5% reduction is achievable (a Plot (b plot Figure. Dynaic apliication actors or the priary structure ( and DSF outer sin ( with (DSF outer sin requency/priary structure requency =.5. The above equations are obtained based on a linear syste and constant values or stiness and daping ratio. owever, using a low requency could reduce the response o structure by 5%, but also it will increase the relative displaceent o açade panels. Changing the DSF connector stiness corresponding to input load could help to control excessive oveent o açade panels by having a siilar reduction in response o the structure. CONCLUSIONS Double sin açade in tall buildings is one o the ost advanced ors o açade systes available today; and this study investigated another potential unctional aspect o double sin açades in tall buildings as lateral otion control devices. The results o this study show that using açade as structural eleents is conceivable. Using outer sins to ilter input energy has signiicant eects on the response o the priary structure. Previous research shows that this syste has potential to dissipate vibration energy, although it is ar ro reality. This study presents a unique solution to ae ovable açade practical, by controlling the connector stiness that could reduce the priary structure response and also liit the oveent o outer sin açade. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors wish to acnowledge the inancial support o the Perasteelisa Pty Liited group and ARC, through grant LP1119. REFERENCES Connor, J.J. ( Introduction to structural otion control, Prentice all. Den artog, J. 1956, 'Mechanical Vibrations,(1956, 87', MaGraw-ill. Karee, A. (199 Dynaic response o high-rise buildings to stochastic wind loads', Journal o Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynaics, vol., no. 1, pp Moon, K.-S. (5 Dynaic interrelationship between technology and architecture in tall buildings, Massachusetts Institute o Technology. ACMSM 1 1

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