Covalent Bonding and Intermolecular Forces

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Covalent Bonding and Intermolecular Forces"

Transcription

1 Intermolecular forces are electromagnetic forces that hold like molecules together. Strong intermolecular forces result in a high melting point and a solid state at room temperature. Molecules that are held together by weak intermolecular forces have a low boiling point, and are generally in the gas phase at room temperature. The following list describes the various intermolecular forces, from weakest to strongest. London Dispersion Forces: London Dispersion Forces, or LDF, occur in nonpolar molecules. This force is also sometimes referred to as induced-dipole because it occurs when some external stimulus causes a redistribution of electron density, temporarily giving nonpolar molecules a dipole. The molecules then attract other molecules that are nearby. Although this definition implies that LDF is rather weak, this intermolecular force becomes stronger as the atom (or molecule) in question becomes larger, because larger molecules have larger electron clouds. Consider the halogens (from smallest to largest: F 2, Cl 2, Br 2, I 2 ). Fluorine and chlorine have relatively few electrons and are both gases at room temperature. Since bromine has a much larger electron cloud, it generates larger London Dispersion Forces and is a liquid at room temperature. Iodine s electron cloud is very large, and it is a solid. Dipole Interaction: Dipole interactions occur when polar molecules are attracted to one another. The electrostatic attractions involved occur between the oppositely charged regions of dipolar molecules. Simply put, the negative end of one molecule is weakly attracted to the positive end of another molecule. Since the molecules in question are polar, the attraction is continually happening, unlike in LDF. Dipole interactions are about ten times as strong as London Dispersion forces. The term van Der Waals forces refers collectively to London Dispersion Forces or Dipole Interaction. These are the weakest of all molecular interactions, and are caused by the motion of electrons. Hydrogen Bonding: Hydrogen bonds occur in molecules that contain hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to a highly electronegative atom, like nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine. The N, O, or F atom takes hold of the electrons that it shares with hydrogen. The hydrogen is therefore somewhat electron deficient, and is attracted to a lone pair of unbonded electrons on another highly electronegative atom from a different molecule. The attraction connects the hydrogen with that other molecule. Hydrogen bonding is very strong (ten times as strong as dipole interaction), and accounts for many of the properties of water, such as the fact that water is a liquid rather than a gas at ordinary temperatures. Lewis Dot Structures that reflect hydrogen bonding do so through the use of a dotted line, as seen at the right. Metallic Bonding: As we learned earlier, metals are made up of closely packed cations rather than neutral atoms. The cations are surrounded by mobile valence electrons which can drift freely from one part of the metal to another. These freely floating valence electrons are generally referred to as the sea of electrons. The positive metal cations are held in place, as the valence electrons stream around them. The sea of electrons explains many of the properties of metals. Ionic Bonding: At room temperature, most ionic compounds are crystalline solids. The component ions in such crystals are arranged in a repeating three-dimensional pattern, known as a crystal lattice. In solid NaCl, each sodium ion is surrounded by six chloride ions, and each chloride ion is surrounded by six sodium ions. In this arrangement, each ion is attracted strongly to each of its neighbors and repulsions are minimized. The large attractive forces result in a very stable structure. Covalent Network Solid: A covalent network solid is a repeating pattern of atoms held together by a network of covalent bonds. These very stable substances are always solid at room temperature. In order to break a network solid, like diamond or graphite, into its component atoms, millions of covalent bonds must be broken.

2 Worksheet Intermolecular Forces Answer the following questions. 1. How does a network solid differ from most other covalent compounds? 2. Which of the following are characteristic of most covalent compounds? a. high melting point b. shared bonding electrons c. low water solubility d. existence as molecules e. composed of a metal and a nonmetal 3. Depict the hydrogen bonding between two ammonia molecules and between one ammonia molecule and one water molecule. Remember Ammonia is NH 3 4. Which compound in each pair exhibits the stronger intermolecular bonding? a. H 2 S, H 2 O c. HBr, HCl b. HCl, HF d. NH 3, H 2 O 5. What is a hydrogen bond? 6. Why do compounds with strong intermolecular attractive forces have higher boiling points than compounds with weak intermolecular attractive forces?

3 Review Part One I: DRAW the Lewis Dot Diagrams for the following. IDENTIFY the shape of the molecule just under each drawing. SCl 2 OF 2 AsCl 3 CF 4 SiO 2 PI 5 II: Which of the above compounds are polar molecules?

4 Unit 08 Covalent Bonding and Intermolecular Forces Worksheet 8.15 Review Part Two V: Draw Lewis structures for the following atoms and ions under their names. Sulfur Sulfide ion Sodium Sodium ion VI: Draw a Lewis structure of the compound formed when Sodium ionically bonds with Sulfur. VIII: What will form stronger bonds, NH 3 or NF 3? IX: What is stronger, Ionic Bond or Hydrogen Bond? X: What is stronger, Dipole-Dipole Interaction or Covalent Bonds? XI: What type of intermolecular bonds will hold molecules of PCl 3 together? XII: What type of intermolecular bonds will hold molecules of CO 2 together? XIII: Which covalent bond is most polar? H-H, H-N, H-F, or H-O?

5

Drawing Lewis Structures

Drawing Lewis Structures Drawing Lewis Structures 1. Add up all of the valence electrons for the atoms involved in bonding 2. Write the symbols for the elements and show connectivity with single bonds (2 electrons shared). a.

More information

Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds. Intermolecular Forces

Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds. Intermolecular Forces Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds Intermolecular Forces Physical Properties & Bond Types Physical properties of substances are affected by the attractive forces between particles Greater attraction

More information

CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.

CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10. CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.102 10.1 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN IONS Ion-ion Interactions and Lattice Energy

More information

Packet 4: Bonding. Play song: (One of Mrs. Stampfel s favorite songs)

Packet 4: Bonding. Play song:  (One of Mrs. Stampfel s favorite songs) Most atoms are not Packet 4: Bonding Atoms will, or share electrons in order to achieve a stable. Octet means that the atom has in its level. If an atom achieves a stable octet it will have the same electron

More information

Test 8: Review Questions

Test 8: Review Questions Name: Thursday, February 14, 2008 Test 8: Review Questions 1. Based on bond type, which compound has the highest melting point? 1. CH OH 3. CaCl 3 2 2. C H 4. CCl 6 14 4 2. Which compound contains ionic

More information

Lesmahagow High School CfE Higher Chemistry. Chemical Changes & Structure Structure and Bonding

Lesmahagow High School CfE Higher Chemistry. Chemical Changes & Structure Structure and Bonding Lesmahagow High School CfE Higher Chemistry Chemical Changes & Structure Structure and Bonding Page 1 of 26 No. Learning Outcome Understanding? 1 2 The bonding types of the first twenty elements; metallic

More information

Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 7 Covalent molecules, networks and layers

Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 7 Covalent molecules, networks and layers E1. a Give the electronic configuration for an atom of beryllium. b How many electrons are in the outer shell of an atom of beryllium in the molecule BeH 2? AE1. a 1s 2 2s 2 b 4 E2. The noble gases helium

More information

CHAPTER NOTES CHAPTER 16. Covalent Bonding

CHAPTER NOTES CHAPTER 16. Covalent Bonding CHAPTER NOTES CHAPTER 16 Covalent Bonding Goals : To gain an understanding of : NOTES: 1. Valence electron and electron dot notation. 2. Stable electron configurations. 3. Covalent bonding. 4. Polarity

More information

Chapter No 4 Structure of molecules. Superior Lalazar Public School and College Thana.

Chapter No 4 Structure of molecules. Superior Lalazar Public School and College Thana. Chapter No 4 Structure of molecules Superior Lalazar Public School and College Thana www.slpsorg.com Chemical Bond: The force of attractions which holds atoms or ions together is called chemical bonds.

More information

Which substance contains positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) O2(s) B) Cu(s) C) CuO(s) D) SiO2(s)

Which substance contains positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) O2(s) B) Cu(s) C) CuO(s) D) SiO2(s) BONDING MIDTERM REVIEW 7546-1 - Page 1 1) Which substance contains positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) O2(s) B) Cu(s) C) CuO(s) D) SiO2(s) 2) The bond between hydrogen and oxygen in

More information

CHAPTER 6 Chemical Bonding

CHAPTER 6 Chemical Bonding CHAPTER 6 Chemical Bonding SECTION 1 Introduction to Chemical Bonding OBJECTIVES 1. Define Chemical bond. 2. Explain why most atoms form chemical bonds. 3. Describe ionic and covalent bonding.. 4. Explain

More information

Type of Chemical Bonds

Type of Chemical Bonds Type of Chemical Bonds Covalent bond Polar Covalent bond Ionic bond Hydrogen bond Metallic bond Van der Waals bonds. Covalent Bonds Covalent bond: bond in which one or more pairs of electrons are shared

More information

Introduction to Ionic Bonds

Introduction to Ionic Bonds Introduction to Ionic Bonds The forces that hold matter together are called chemical bonds. There are four major types of bonds. We need to learn in detail about these bonds and how they influence the

More information

In the box below, draw the Lewis electron-dot structure for the compound formed from magnesium and oxygen. [Include any charges or partial charges.

In the box below, draw the Lewis electron-dot structure for the compound formed from magnesium and oxygen. [Include any charges or partial charges. Name: 1) Which molecule is nonpolar and has a symmetrical shape? A) NH3 B) H2O C) HCl D) CH4 7222-1 - Page 1 2) When ammonium chloride crystals are dissolved in water, the temperature of the water decreases.

More information

Bonding Practice Problems

Bonding Practice Problems NAME 1. When compared to H 2 S, H 2 O has a higher 8. Given the Lewis electron-dot diagram: boiling point because H 2 O contains stronger metallic bonds covalent bonds ionic bonds hydrogen bonds 2. Which

More information

POLAR COVALENT BONDS Ionic compounds form repeating. Covalent compounds form distinct. Consider adding to NaCl(s) vs. H 2 O(s):

POLAR COVALENT BONDS Ionic compounds form repeating. Covalent compounds form distinct. Consider adding to NaCl(s) vs. H 2 O(s): POLAR COVALENT BONDS Ionic compounds form repeating. Covalent compounds form distinct. Consider adding to NaCl(s) vs. H 2 O(s): Sometimes when atoms of two different elements form a bond by sharing an

More information

Bonding. Metallic Ionic Covalent. (Elements) (Compounds) (Elements and Compounds)

Bonding. Metallic Ionic Covalent. (Elements) (Compounds) (Elements and Compounds) CfE Higher Chemistry Unit One Chemical Changes and Structure Chapter Four Bonding in Compounds Types Of Bonding In Compounds Bonding Metallic Ionic Covalent (Elements) (Compounds) (Elements and Compounds)

More information

Solid Type of solid Type of particle

Solid Type of solid Type of particle QUESTION (2015:3) Complete the table below by stating the type of solid, the type of particle, and the attractive forces between the particles in each solid. Solid Type of solid Type of particle Cu(s)

More information

The breaking of bonds and the forming of bonds occur during chemical reactions.

The breaking of bonds and the forming of bonds occur during chemical reactions. Chemical Bonding The breaking of bonds and the forming of bonds occur during chemical reactions. Aspirin The formula for a molecule of aspirin is C 9 H 8 O 4 Is it an ionic or covalent (molecular) compound?

More information

Chemical Bonding. Elements of the Lewis Theory. More Lewis Theory. Electron Dot Diagrams. Lewis Structures, Polarity and Bond Classification

Chemical Bonding. Elements of the Lewis Theory. More Lewis Theory. Electron Dot Diagrams. Lewis Structures, Polarity and Bond Classification Elements of the Lewis Theory Chemical Bonding Lewis Structures, Polarity and Bond Classification 1. Valence electrons play a fundamental role in chemical bonding 2. Sometimes bonding involves the TRANSFER

More information

Chapter 8 Covalent Bonding

Chapter 8 Covalent Bonding Chemistry Chapter 8 Covalent Bonding Name Date Covalent Bonds Formed between. Covlent compounds electrons so that each atom has an of electrons in its highest occupied energy level. Covalent compounds

More information

Topic 4. Chemical bonding and structure

Topic 4. Chemical bonding and structure Topic 4. Chemical bonding and structure There are three types of strong bonds: Ionic Covalent Metallic Some substances contain both covalent and ionic bonding or an intermediate. 4.1 Ionic bonding Ionic

More information

Unit 4 Bonding Exam. 1) Which of the following bonds exhibits the greatest ionic character? a) H - F b) H - I c) H - Br d) H - Cl

Unit 4 Bonding Exam. 1) Which of the following bonds exhibits the greatest ionic character? a) H - F b) H - I c) H - Br d) H - Cl Unit 4 Bonding Exam Name Multiple Choice 2 pts. each 1) Which of the following bonds exhibits the greatest ionic character? a) H - F b) H - I c) H - Br d) H - Cl 2) Generally, how many valence electrons

More information

When it comes to Chemical Bonding, I can ANSWERS

When it comes to Chemical Bonding, I can ANSWERS When it comes to Chemical Bonding, I can ANSWERS 1. The 3 types of chemical bonds are IONIC, COVALENT, and METALLIC bonds. 2. When atoms have 8 valence electrons they are most stable. (exception 2 for

More information

INTERMOLECULAR FORCES

INTERMOLECULAR FORCES INTERMOLECULAR FORCES Intermolecular forces- forces of attraction and repulsion between molecules that hold molecules, ions, and atoms together. Intramolecular - forces of chemical bonds within a molecule

More information

Name: Intermolecular Forces Practice Exam Date:

Name: Intermolecular Forces Practice Exam Date: Name: Intermolecular Forces Practice Exam Date: 1. At STP, fluorine is a gas and bromine is a liquid because, compared to fluorine, bromine has 1) stronger covalent bonds 2) stronger intermolecular forces

More information

Recall that ionic bonds form when the combining atoms give up or accept electrons. Another way that atoms can combine is by sharing electrons.

Recall that ionic bonds form when the combining atoms give up or accept electrons. Another way that atoms can combine is by sharing electrons. Molecular Compounds and Covalent Bonds Recall that ionic bonds form when the combining atoms give up or accept electrons. Another way that atoms can combine is by sharing electrons. Atoms that are held

More information

CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW

CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW Answer the following questions. CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW 1. What are the three kinds of bonds which can form between atoms? The three types of Bonds are Covalent, Ionic and Metallic. Name Date Block 2.

More information

Bonding Web Practice. Trupia

Bonding Web Practice. Trupia 1. If the electronegativity difference between the elements in compound NaX is 2.1, what is element X? bromine fluorine chlorine oxygen 2. Which bond has the greatest degree of ionic character? H Cl Cl

More information

Learn Chemistry. Starter for Ten 3. Bonding. Registered Charity Number

Learn Chemistry. Starter for Ten 3. Bonding.  Registered Charity Number Learn Chemistry Starter for Ten 3. Bonding Developed by Dr Kristy Turner, RSC School Teacher Fellow 2011-2012 at the University of Manchester, and Dr Catherine Smith, RSC School Teacher Fellow 2011-2012

More information

H 2O gas: molecules are very far apart

H 2O gas: molecules are very far apart Non-Covalent Molecular Forces 2/27/06 3/1/06 How does this reaction occur: H 2 O (liquid) H 2 O (gas)? Add energy H 2O gas: molecules are very far apart H 2O liquid: bonding between molecules Use heat

More information

Chemistry I: Bonding Unit Worksheet. Period Date Chemical Bonding

Chemistry I: Bonding Unit Worksheet. Period Date Chemical Bonding Name Chemistry I: Bonding Unit Worksheet Period Date Chemical Bonding IONIC AND METALLIC BONDING SECTION 7.1 IONS (pages 187 193) This section explains how to use the periodic table to infer the number

More information

Chapter 14 Liquids: Condensation, Evaporation, and Dynamic Equilibrium. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop

Chapter 14 Liquids: Condensation, Evaporation, and Dynamic Equilibrium. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter 14 Liquids: Condensation, Evaporation, and Dynamic Equilibrium An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter Map Condensation (Gas to Liquid) Evaporation Particle Escape For a particle to

More information

Unit 5 Lesson 4 Ionic, Covalent, and Metallic Bonding. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 5 Lesson 4 Ionic, Covalent, and Metallic Bonding. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Opposites Attract What is an ion? An atom has a neutral charge because it has an equal number of electrons and protons. An ion is a particle with a positive or negative charge. An ion forms when an atom

More information

Lewis Dot Symbols for Representative Elements

Lewis Dot Symbols for Representative Elements CHEM 110 - Section 4 Guest Instructor: Prof. Elizabeth Gaillard Fall 2011 Lewis Dot Symbols for Representative Elements Principal Types of Chemical Bonds: Ionic and Covalent Ionic bond - a transfer of

More information

A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together is called a(n)

A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together is called a(n) Chemistry I ATOMIC BONDING PRACTICE QUIZ Mr. Scott Select the best answer. 1) A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together is

More information

CHAPTER 6 REVIEW. Chemical Bonding. Answer the following questions in the space provided.

CHAPTER 6 REVIEW. Chemical Bonding. Answer the following questions in the space provided. Name Date lass APTER 6 REVIEW hemical Bonding SETIN 1 SRT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. a A chemical bond between atoms results from the attraction between the valence

More information

Chapter 11. Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms

Chapter 11. Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms Chapter 11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms 1 11.1 Periodic Trends in atomic properties 11.1 Periodic Trends in atomic properties design of periodic table is based on observing properties

More information

Problem Set VIII Liquids, Solids, Intermolecular Forces and Phase Diagrams

Problem Set VIII Liquids, Solids, Intermolecular Forces and Phase Diagrams Chem 121 Problem set VIII LUTI - 1 Problem et VIII Liquids, olids, Intermolecular orces and Phase Diagrams 1a) this is a point on the vapour pressure curve 1b) gas 1c) gas to liquid Water C 2 2a) solid

More information

Covalent Bonding Notes

Covalent Bonding Notes Covalent Bonding Notes Ionic vs Covalent Bonding Ionic: electron(s) leave one atom & gained by another atom to satisfy both atoms octets, this results in the formation of ions. The resulting opposite charges

More information

Chemical Bonding. There are three types of bonding:

Chemical Bonding. There are three types of bonding: Chemical Bonding What is a chemical bond? If a system has a lower energy when the atoms are close together than when apart, then bonds exist between those atoms. A bond is an electrostatic force that holds

More information

2C Intermolecular forces, structure and properties:

2C Intermolecular forces, structure and properties: Electronegativity and polarity Polar and non-polar bonds: 1) Non-Polar bonds: 2C Intermolecular forces, structure and properties: A covalent bond shares an electron pair: In a hydrogen molecule, the electrons

More information

comparing ionic and covalent bonding.notebook October 16, 2014 Bond strength IMF strength Oct 6 10:43 AM Oct 14 10:06 PM

comparing ionic and covalent bonding.notebook October 16, 2014 Bond strength IMF strength Oct 6 10:43 AM Oct 14 10:06 PM Bond strength IMF strength Oct 6 10:43 AM Oct 14 10:06 PM 1 Oct 14 10:07 PM Oct 14 10:07 PM 2 Oct 14 10:10 PM Oct 14 10:11 PM 3 comparing ionic and covalent bonding.notebook October 16, 2014 Hardness Ionic

More information

Bonding in Elements and Compounds. Covalent

Bonding in Elements and Compounds. Covalent Bonding in Elements and Compounds Structure of solids, liquids and gases Types of bonding between atoms and molecules Ionic Covalent Metallic Many compounds between metals & nonmetals (salts), e.g. Na,

More information

Covalent Bonds. A group of atoms held together by covalent bonds is called a molecule.

Covalent Bonds. A group of atoms held together by covalent bonds is called a molecule. Covalent Bonds The bond formed when atoms share electrons is called a covalent bond. (Unlike ionic bonds, which involve the complete transfer of electrons). A group of atoms held together by covalent bonds

More information

Atom nucleus (protons and neutrons) electron cloud (electrons)

Atom nucleus (protons and neutrons) electron cloud (electrons) Atom nucleus (protons and neutrons) electron cloud (electrons) Atomic Number equal to the number of protons Mass Number protons + neutrons Charge when # of electrons # of protons Negatively Charged Ion

More information

Chapter 11. Intermolecular Forces Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 11. Intermolecular Forces Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 Intermolecular Forces 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. States of Matter Dependent on 2 things: Closeness Motion States of Matter Liquid & solid: atoms/molecules/ ions perpetually touching. condensed

More information

Chemical Bonding. 6 th Year Chemistry Higher Level Sinéad Nolan

Chemical Bonding. 6 th Year Chemistry Higher Level Sinéad Nolan 6 th Year Chemistry Higher Level Sinéad Nolan Chemical Bonding No part of this publication may be copied, reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording,

More information

Section 16.1 The Nature of Covalent Bonding. Chapter 16 Covalent Bonding. Covalent bonds. How does H 2 form? Covalent bonding

Section 16.1 The Nature of Covalent Bonding. Chapter 16 Covalent Bonding. Covalent bonds. How does H 2 form? Covalent bonding Chapter 16 Covalent Bonding Adapted from notes by Stephen Cotton Section 16.1 The Nature of Covalent Bonding BJECTIVES: Use electron dot structures to show the formation of single, double, and triple covalent

More information

Chapter 13 - LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS

Chapter 13 - LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS Chapter 13 - LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS Problems to try at end of chapter: Answers in Appendix I: 1,3,5,7b,9b,15,17,23,25,29,31,33,45,49,51,53,61 13.1 Properties of Liquids 1. Liquids take the shape of their container,

More information

Ms. Campbell Ionic Bonding Practice Regents Chemistry

Ms. Campbell Ionic Bonding Practice Regents Chemistry Name Student # Ms. Campbell Ionic Bonding Practice Regents Chemistry 1. Which element reacts with oxygen to form ionic bonds? 1) calcium 2) hydrogen 3) chlorine 4) nitrogen 2. Element X reacts with chlorine

More information

Chemical Reactions Packet 2 Bonding-REG.

Chemical Reactions Packet 2 Bonding-REG. Chemical Reactions Packet 2 Bonding-REG. Ms. Rabenda Name: Period: 1 Lewis Dot Diagram Notes Illustrates the number of valence electrons. Valence electrons = Placed around the symbol of the element Helps

More information

INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking

INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking Sixth Edition by Charles H. Corwin Chapter 13 Liquids and Solids by Christopher Hamaker 1 Chapter 13 Properties of Liquids Unlike gases, liquids do

More information

Section Activity #1: Fill out the following table for biology s most common elements assuming that each atom is neutrally charged.

Section Activity #1: Fill out the following table for biology s most common elements assuming that each atom is neutrally charged. LS1a Fall 2014 Section Week #1 I. Valence Electrons and Bonding The number of valence (outer shell) electrons in an atom determines how many bonds it can form. Knowing the number of valence electrons present

More information

Chapter 4: Structure and Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds

Chapter 4: Structure and Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds Chapter 4: Structure and Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds 4.1 Chemical Bonding o Chemical Bond - the force of attraction between any two atoms in a compound. o Interactions involving valence

More information

CHEMISTRY NOTES: Structures, Shapes, Polarity and IMF s

CHEMISTRY NOTES: Structures, Shapes, Polarity and IMF s CHEMISTRY NOTES: Structures, Shapes, Polarity and IMF s DRAWING LEWIS STRUCTURES: RULES 1) Draw the skeleton structure for the molecule. The central atom will generally be the least electronegative element

More information

Covalent Bonding. How Covalent Bonds Form

Covalent Bonding. How Covalent Bonds Form Covalent Bonding 1 Covalent Bonding How Covalent Bonds Form Just as you and your friend can work together by sharing your talents, atoms can become more stable by sharing electrons. The chemical bond formed

More information

Liquids and Solids. 1. Are liquids closer in physical properties to solids or gases? Why?

Liquids and Solids. 1. Are liquids closer in physical properties to solids or gases? Why? Liquids and Solids 1. Are liquids closer in physical properties to solids or gases? Why? Liquids are more similar to solids. There are many intermolecular forces experienced by solids and liquids and very

More information

Assignment 9 Solutions. Chapter 8, #8.32, 36, 38, 42, 54, 56, 72, 100, 102, Chapter 10, #10.24, 40, 55, 63. Number of e in Valence Shell

Assignment 9 Solutions. Chapter 8, #8.32, 36, 38, 42, 54, 56, 72, 100, 102, Chapter 10, #10.24, 40, 55, 63. Number of e in Valence Shell Assignment 9 Solutions Chapter 8, #8.32, 36, 38, 42, 54, 56, 72, 100, 102, Chapter 10, #10.24, 40, 55, 63. 8.32. Collect and Organize Of B 3+, I, Ca 2+, and Pb 2+ we are to identify which have a complete

More information

Ch. 4 NOTES ~ Formation of Compounds NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics. I.

Ch. 4 NOTES ~ Formation of Compounds NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics. I. Ch. 4 NOTES ~ Formation of Compounds NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics. I. Element Review THE SEVEN DIATOMIC MOLECULES ( Super Seven ): H 2 F 2 O

More information

Ch. 4 NOTES ~ Formation of Compounds NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics.

Ch. 4 NOTES ~ Formation of Compounds NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics. Ch. 4 NOTES ~ Formation of Compounds NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics. I. Element Review THE SEVEN DIATOMIC MOLECULES ( Super Seven ): H 2 F 2 O

More information

11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms. Chapter Outline. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties

11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms. Chapter Outline. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties 11 Chemical Bonds The Formation of Compounds from Atoms Chapter Outline 11.1 11.2 Lewis Structures of Atoms 11.3 The Ionic Bond Transfer of Electrons from One Atom to Another 11.4 Predicting Formulas of

More information

Answers to Practise Questions (Basic) Atomic Structure and Bonding

Answers to Practise Questions (Basic) Atomic Structure and Bonding Answers to Practise Questions (Basic) Atomic Structure and Bonding Practise questions (Basic) are designed to ensure that students are aware of the basic concepts of the topic. This should be the first

More information

Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases

Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases John E. McMurry http://www.cengage.com/chemistry/mcmurry Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases Javier E. Horta, M.D., Ph.D. University of Massachusetts Lowell Polar Covalent Bonds: Electronegativity

More information

Oxidation Numbers: Rules

Oxidation Numbers: Rules Oxidation Numbers: Rules 1) The oxidation number of the atoms in any free, uncombined element, is zero 2) The sum of the oxidation numbers of all atoms in a compound is zero 3) The sum of the oxidation

More information

Topic 3 National Chemistry Summary Notes. Bonding, Structure and Properties of Substances. Covalent Bonds

Topic 3 National Chemistry Summary Notes. Bonding, Structure and Properties of Substances. Covalent Bonds Topic 3 National Chemistry Summary Notes Bonding, Structure and Properties of Substances LI 1 Covalent Bonds Most atoms do not exist as single atoms. They are mainly found combined with other atoms in

More information

Ionic/covalent/metallic bonds

Ionic/covalent/metallic bonds .1..1 Ionic/covalent/metallic bonds 07 minutes 99 marks Page 1 of 7 Q1. (a) The diagram below represents a part of the structure of sodium chloride. The ionic charge is shown on the centre of only one

More information

Lewis dot symbols are representations of the elements which give a dot (. ) for each valence electron on the atom.

Lewis dot symbols are representations of the elements which give a dot (. ) for each valence electron on the atom. Worksheet 12 - Chemical Bonding The concept of electron configurations allowed chemists to explain why chemical molecules are formed from the elements. In 1916 the American chemist Gilbert Lewis proposed

More information

X-ray diffraction: Electron density map of NaCl

X-ray diffraction: Electron density map of NaCl 4. Bonding Ionic Bonding Evidence for the existence of ions X-ray diffraction: Electron density map of NaCl These maps show the likelihood of finding electrons in a region The contours are lines of equal

More information

Chapter 26. Intermolecular forces Introducing intermolecular forces Van der Waals forces Hydrogen bonding

Chapter 26. Intermolecular forces Introducing intermolecular forces Van der Waals forces Hydrogen bonding Chapter 26 Intermolecular forces 26.1 Introducing intermolecular forces 26.2 Van der Waals forces 26.3 Hydrogen bonding 26.4 Comparing the strengths of van der Waals forces, hydrogen bonding and covalent

More information

Intermolecular Forces

Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular Forces: Introduction Intermolecular Forces Forces between separate molecules and dissolved ions (not bonds) Van der Waals Forces 15% as strong as covalent or ionic bonds Chapter 11 Intermolecular

More information

Lecture 2 ( ) Chapters 2 and 3

Lecture 2 ( ) Chapters 2 and 3 Lecture 2 (9-12-16) Chapters 2 and 3 Goals: Review Periodic Table and the atom, types of bonding for carbon (hybridization), and Lewis structure Learn how to draw bond-line structures Problems: (for all

More information

By Yassmin Dehesh & Setayesh Nekarae

By Yassmin Dehesh & Setayesh Nekarae By Yassmin Dehesh & Setayesh Nekarae A giant covalent structure is a giant structure in which atoms are all joined together by strong covalent bonds. Typical Properties: This type of giant covalent structure

More information

Compounds and Their Bonds

Compounds and Their Bonds Chapter 5 Compounds and Their Bonds An octet refers to 8 valence electrons This is associated with the stability of the noble gases other than He; He is stable with 2 valence electrons (duet) Valence Electrons

More information

Lewis Dot Formulas of Atoms

Lewis Dot Formulas of Atoms Lewis Dot Formulas of Atoms Lewis dot formulas or Lewis dot representations are a convenient bookkeeping method for tracking valence electrons. Valence electrons are those electrons that are transferred

More information

3/5/2014. iclicker Participation Question: A. MgS < AlP < NaCl B. MgS < NaCl < AlP C. NaCl < AlP < MgS D. NaCl < MgS < AlP

3/5/2014. iclicker Participation Question: A. MgS < AlP < NaCl B. MgS < NaCl < AlP C. NaCl < AlP < MgS D. NaCl < MgS < AlP Today: Ionic Bonding vs. Covalent Bonding Strengths of Covalent Bonds: Bond Energy Diagrams Bond Polarities: Nonpolar Covalent vs. Polar Covalent vs. Ionic Electronegativity Differences Dipole Moments

More information

Periodic Table Study Guide

Periodic Table Study Guide Chemistry Periodic Table Name: Period: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Periodic Table Study Guide Directions: Please use this packet as practice and review. DO NOT try to answer these questions during presentations, take

More information

Noble Gases are the most elements. Why? Notice that this makes a full outer energy level have electrons.

Noble Gases are the most elements. Why? Notice that this makes a full outer energy level have electrons. NAME: Mods: Now that we know proper formula writing and naming of chemical compounds so we can speak the language of Chemistry, let s move on to understanding how and why these compounds are put together!

More information

Molecular Compounds. Chapter 5. Covalent (Molecular) Compounds

Molecular Compounds. Chapter 5. Covalent (Molecular) Compounds Molecular Compounds Chapter 5 Covalent (Molecular) Compounds Covalent Compound- a compound that contains atoms that are held together by covalent bonds Covalent Bond- the force of attraction between atoms

More information

CH 222 Chapter Seven Concept Guide

CH 222 Chapter Seven Concept Guide CH 222 Chapter Seven Concept Guide 1. Lewis Structures Draw the Lewis Dot Structure for cyanide ion, CN -. 1 C at 4 electrons = 4 electrons 1 N at 5 electrons = 5 electrons -1 charge = + 1 electron Total

More information

bonding The formulas and the boiling points at standard pressure for ethane, methane, methanol, and water are shown in the table below.

bonding The formulas and the boiling points at standard pressure for ethane, methane, methanol, and water are shown in the table below. 1) Draw an electron-dot diagram for each of the following substances: a CaO(an ionic compound) b HBr c N2 Base your answers to questions 2 and 3 on the information below and on your knowledge of chemistry.

More information

1. The charge of any ion of a Group A nonmetal is determined by subtracting 8 from the. 2. Anion names start with the stem of element name and end in.

1. The charge of any ion of a Group A nonmetal is determined by subtracting 8 from the. 2. Anion names start with the stem of element name and end in. Chapter 9: Chemical Names and Formulas Name: Period: Date: Chemistry Content Standard: 2. Biological, chemical, and physical properties of matter result from the ability of atoms to form bonds from electrostatic

More information

Chapter # 5 CHEMICAL BONDING

Chapter # 5 CHEMICAL BONDING Chapter # 5 CHEMICAL BONDING You will learn in this chapter about: Why do atoms form chemical bonds? Ionic bond. Characteristics of ionic compounds. Covalent bond. Characteristic of covalent compounds.

More information

Chapter 14 Lecture Outline

Chapter 14 Lecture Outline A. Properties of liquids Chapter 14 Lecture Outline The intermolecular forces in liquids are stronger than those in gases, so although the molecules of a liquid are free to move around, they remain connected

More information

AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 2 WORKSHEET

AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 2 WORKSHEET Name Date _ AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 2 WORKSHEET MULTIPLE CHOICE. 25 pts. Place the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question in the blank.. 1. About 25 of the 92 natural

More information

GRADE 11 PHYSICAL SCIENCES SESSION 3: CHEMICAL BONDING. Key Concepts. X-planation

GRADE 11 PHYSICAL SCIENCES SESSION 3: CHEMICAL BONDING. Key Concepts. X-planation GRADE 11 PHYSICAL SCIENCES SESSION 3: CHEMICAL BONDING Key Concepts In this session we will focus on summarising what you need to know about: Bonding Covalent bonding Electronegativity in covalent bonding

More information

Chapter 5 Notes: Ions and Ionic Compounds

Chapter 5 Notes: Ions and Ionic Compounds Chapter 5 Notes: Ions and Ionic Compounds Sec. 5.1 Simple Ions 1. Relate the electron configuration of an atom to its chemical reactivity. 2. Determine an atom s number of valence electrons, and use the

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A chemical bond formed between two identical atoms is a(an) bond. A) covalent B) ionic C) molecular

More information

Assessment Schedule 2015 Chemistry: Demonstrate understanding of bonding, structure, properties and energy changes (91164)

Assessment Schedule 2015 Chemistry: Demonstrate understanding of bonding, structure, properties and energy changes (91164) NCEA Level 2 Chemistry (91164) 2015 page 1 of 7 Assessment Schedule 2015 Chemistry: Demonstrate understanding of bonding, structure, properties and energy changes (91164) Evidence Statement Q Evidence

More information

Chemistry Performance Final Review # 1 Mixtures

Chemistry Performance Final Review # 1 Mixtures Chemistry Performance Final Review # 1 Mixtures 1. What is a mixture? 2. What is a homogeneous mixture? Provide three examples. 3. What is a heterogeneous mixture? Provide three examples. 4. What is a

More information

AP TOPIC 8: Chemical Bonding

AP TOPIC 8: Chemical Bonding AP TOPIC 8: Chemical Bonding Introduction In the study of bonding we will consider several different types of chemical bond and some of the theories associated with them. TYPES OF BONDING INTRA (Within

More information

How are atoms joined together to make compounds with different structures?

How are atoms joined together to make compounds with different structures? Chapter 8 Covalent Bonding 8.1 8.2 The Nature of Covalent Bonding 8.3 Bonding Theories 8.4 Polar Bonds and Molecules 1 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. CHEMISTRY

More information

Chem 112 Intermolecular Forces Chang From the book (10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20,84,92,94,102,104, 108, 112, 114, 118 and 134)

Chem 112 Intermolecular Forces Chang From the book (10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20,84,92,94,102,104, 108, 112, 114, 118 and 134) Chem 112 Intermolecular Forces Chang From the book (10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20,84,92,94,102,104, 108, 112, 114, 118 and 134) 1. Helium atoms do not combine to form He 2 molecules, What is the strongest attractive

More information

Unit 3: Quantum Theory, Periodicity and Chemical Bonding. Chapter 10: Chemical Bonding II Molecular Geometry & Intermolecular Forces

Unit 3: Quantum Theory, Periodicity and Chemical Bonding. Chapter 10: Chemical Bonding II Molecular Geometry & Intermolecular Forces onour Chemistry Unit 3: Quantum Theory, Periodicity and Chemical Bonding Chapter 10: Chemical Bonding II Molecular Geometry & Intermolecular orces 10.1: Molecular Geometry Molecular Structure: - the three-dimensional

More information

Ionic and Metallic Bonding

Ionic and Metallic Bonding Ionic and Metallic Bonding BNDING AND INTERACTINS 71 Ions For students using the Foundation edition, assign problems 1, 3 5, 7 12, 14, 15, 18 20 Essential Understanding Ions form when atoms gain or lose

More information

Covalent Bonding. Click a hyperlink or folder tab to view the corresponding slides. Exit

Covalent Bonding. Click a hyperlink or folder tab to view the corresponding slides. Exit Covalent Bonding Section 8.1 The Covalent Bond Section 8.2 Naming Molecules Section 8.3 Molecular Structures Section 8.4 Molecular Shapes Section 8.5 Electronegativity and Polarity Click a hyperlink or

More information

Lewis Structures Notes Draw the dot diagram for each atom. Make sure you place the electrons in the correct order.

Lewis Structures Notes Draw the dot diagram for each atom. Make sure you place the electrons in the correct order. Lewis Structures Notes Draw the dot diagram for each atom. Make sure you place the electrons in the correct order. Draw the dot diagrams for Carbon, Nitrogen and Oxygen. Steps for drawing Lewis Structures:

More information

Electronegativity. Tip: Element Electronegativity Element Electronegativity. Hydrogen (H) 2,1. Lithium (Li) 1,0. Beryllium (Be) 1,5.

Electronegativity. Tip: Element Electronegativity Element Electronegativity. Hydrogen (H) 2,1. Lithium (Li) 1,0. Beryllium (Be) 1,5. Electronegativity So far we have looked at covalent molecules. But how do we know that they are covalent? The answer comes from electronegativity. Each element (except for the noble gases) has an electronegativity

More information

Section 3 Covalent and Metallic Bonds

Section 3 Covalent and Metallic Bonds Section 3 Covalent and Metallic Bonds Key Concept Covalent bonds form when atoms share electrons. Metallic bonds form by the attraction of metal ions and the electrons around them. What You Will Learn

More information

Lewis Dot Structure Answer Key

Lewis Dot Structure Answer Key Lewis Dot Structure Answer Key 1) Nitrogen is the central atom in each of the following species: N2 N2 - N2 + Nitrogen can also form electron deficient compounds with a single unpaired electron on the

More information