Topic 3 National Chemistry Summary Notes. Bonding, Structure and Properties of Substances. Covalent Bonds

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Topic 3 National Chemistry Summary Notes. Bonding, Structure and Properties of Substances. Covalent Bonds"

Transcription

1 Topic 3 National Chemistry Summary Notes Bonding, Structure and Properties of Substances LI 1 Covalent Bonds Most atoms do not exist as single atoms. They are mainly found combined with other atoms in compounds. They are held together in these compounds by chemical bonds. Atoms prefer to be bonded to each other because this gives them a stable electron arrangement. A stable electron arrangement is achieved when the outer energy level (electron level or electron shell) is full. The noble gases all have full outer energy levels and are very stable. Remember you were told in the last topic that chemical reactions are all to do with outer electrons? If the outer energy level is full then the atom is un-reactive. Most atoms need 8 electrons in the outer energy level to be full (the exceptions are Hydrogen and Helium who only need 2). This is sometimes described as a stable octet. You can use target diagrams, like the one shown below for sodium, to show the arrangement of electrons in an atom: The electron arrangement for sodium is : 2,8,1 You will need to be able to draw similar diagrams for the first 20 elements. 1

2 In this first part of the topic we are going to look at how two non-metal atoms form bonds called covalent bonds. When two or more non-metal atoms are joined by covalent bonds we call them molecules.to help us we are going to use simple diagrams showing just the outer electrons of atoms rather than target diagrams. When non-metal atoms (like the example for hydrogen shown below) form covalent bonds they do this by overlapping their outer energy levels in order to share one pair of electrons. This gives each atom a full outer energy level (electron level). Note: In some textbooks energy levels are also called electron shells. LI 2 E Covalent Bonds in Elements There are a group of 7 elements in the Periodic Table that exist as two atoms joined together by covalent bonds in a Diatomic Molecule. They are called The Diatomic Elements and are shown below: Iodine - In Oxygen - October Chlorine - Children Bromine - Buy Nitrogen - Nasty Hydrogen - Halloween Fluorine - Food 2 A diatomic molecule is a molecule containing two non-metal atoms joined together by covalent bonds. A diatomic element is a when a diatomic molecule is formed from two identical atoms

3 When you look at the outer energy levels of each element you can see how many electrons their atoms would have to share in order to fill up their outer energy level. Hydrogen has room for one electron to fill up its outer energy level, so it will share one electron pair. Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine and Fluorine all have 7 electrons in the outer energy level and therefore have room for one more, so they will also share one electron pair. Every time a pair of electrons is shared a covalent bond is made. The bonds between these atoms are described as single bonds because only one pair of electrons are shared: The single covalent bond can also be represented using element symbols and lines: Cl-Cl, H-H, Br-Br, I-I, F-F one dash represents a single bond. 3

4 Double and Triple Covalent Bonds Oxygen atoms have room to share two electron pairs. This means that a double covalent bond is formed between two oxygen atoms. You can draw an overlapping orbital diagram to show this sharing: O=O Nitrogen atoms have 5 outer energy level electrons so they need to share 3 pairs of electrons in order to fill the level. This requires a triple bond: How would you show two nitrogen atoms joining up to form a diatomic molecule using symbols and dashes? Answer: 4

5 LI 3 Covalent Bonds in Compounds Note: You should remember from earlier work that a compound is a substance made up of two or more different elements joined together. As a general rule if a compound is made up of non-metal elements only then it will have covalent bonding. Examples: Methane- CH 4 or Ammonia NH 3 or Water H 2 O or E Note: Covalent bonds are very strong. A covalent bond is when the two positive nuclei involved in the bond are held tightly together by their common attraction for the shared pair of electrons. 5

6 LI 4 E Shapes of Covalent Molecules Molecules are three dimensional structures with specific shapes. We need to know the shapes of some of the simple two element molecules: Molecule Arrangement of Atoms Shape Hydrogen oxide (water) Bent (and flat or planar) Hydrogen fluoride Linear Nitrogen hydride (ammonia) Pyramidal Carbon hydride (methane) Tetrahedral The arrangement of atoms in methane and ammonia are trying to represent the real shape using a perspective diagram. 6

7 LI 5 E Discrete Molecular Covalent versus Giant Network Structures Most covalent substances exist as molecules with a definite number of atoms present eg methane CH 4. These are called discrete covalent molecular structures. Some covalent substances, however, take the form of huge repeating structures, called giant covalent networks. Example 1 : Diamond a covalent network element Diamond contains only carbon atoms joined together by covalent bonds. The carbon atoms are held very tightly giving Diamond great hardness and a very high melting point. Example 2 : Quartz a covalent network compound Quartz contains atoms of silicon and oxygen in the ratio of one silicon to two oxygen. Its formula is SiO 2 and it s proper name is silicon dioxide. The arrangement of atoms in quartz makes the structure very rigid and gives it a high melting and boiling point. To melt a covalent network you have to break that network of covalent bonds which are very strong!!! 7

8 LI 6 Ionic Bonds Ionic bonds are a special bond that forms between a metal atom and a non-metal atom. The bonds form when a metal atom transfers electrons(s) to a non-metal atom. This means the atoms are able to achieve the same stable, full outer energy level arrangement as the nearest noble gas. Ions Atoms which have lost or gained electrons become charged particles called ions. How do you know what kind of ion an atom will become? Atoms in groups 1,2 and 3 all LOSE electrons to become positively charged. Atoms in groups 5,6 and 7 all GAIN electrons to become negatively charged. Atoms in group 4 do not usually form ions!! In General Metals lose electrons forming positive ions. Non-metals gain electrons forming negative ions. Activity!! Complete the following: Group Number Charge on ion + example Na + 8

9 LI 7 How Does An Ionic Bond Form? Your teacher will show you how to use target diagrams to illustrate how metal atoms react with non-metal atoms to form ionic bonds. The sodium atom gives away its outer electron to the chlorine atom. The sodium atom is now a positive ion with a full outer energy level. The chlorine atom is now a negative ion with a full outer energy level Atoms are electrically neutral (no charge) but electrons are negatively charged. When metal atoms lose electrons becoming positively charged and non-metal atoms gain electrons to become negatively charged these oppositely charged ions attract each other forming a strong bond. E This is often described as an electrostatic force of attraction between positive and negative ions. 9

10 LI 8 E Ionic Lattice Structures A tiny amount of an ionic solid compound contains millions of ions. These millions of ions are held together by ionic bonds, that is : The electrostatic force of attraction between positive and negative ions These forces are so great that the ions group together with positive ions surrounding negative ions and negative ions surrounding positive ions. This produces a regular, geometric structure called an Ionic Lattice. The lattice structure of a sodium chloride crystal. In an ionic lattice the ions are held tight and cannot move. Ionic compounds form lattice structures of oppositely charged particles. 10

11 LI 9 Melting Points of Substances The bonding present in a substance has a big effect on a number of different properties. Melting points (and boiling points) are an important property. How easy it is to melt or boil a substance determines what the physical state will be at room temperature. ( room temperature is aprox 25 o C ) Physical States of Ionic Compounds Have a look at page 6 of the Data Booklet. Find the melting points and boiling points of the following substances and then decide what state they will be at room temperature: Name of Compound Melting Point o C Boiling Point o C Physical State at Room Temperature Barium chloride Calcium oxide Magnesium chloride Potassium iodide As you can see all these ionic compounds are solids at room temperature. In fact all ionic compounds are solids at room temperature. E The high melting and boiling points are due to the strong ionic bonds which need to be broken. A lot of heat energy has to be put in to allow the ions to break free from each other and move around. Therefore all ionic substances are solids at room temperature. 11

12 Physical States of Covalent Compounds Most covalent compounds have low melting points and can be found as gases, liquids and soft solids at room temperature. Name of Compound Melting Point o C Boiling Point o C Physical State at Room Temperature Water (hydrogen oxide) Methane (carbon hydride) Carbon dioxide Silicon dioxide ** ** E Discrete Covalent Molecular compounds all have low melting and boiling points but The Giant Covalent Network compounds like silicon dioxide have very high melting points because very strong covalent bonds have to be broken in order to melt the compound. To melt a Discrete Molecular Covalent compound there are only weak forces of attraction between molecules that are easy to break. LI 10 Comparing Electrical Conductivity of Substances A substance can conduct electricity if it can allow some kind of charged particles to flow through it. An electric current (electricity) is a flow of charged particles. From practical work in science you may remember that all metals conduct electricity but what about non-metal elements, ionic compounds and covalent compounds? Using a simple electrical circuit with a light bulb to indicate whether the substance conducts electricity you will test a range of solids first and fill in the following table: 12

13 The solid to be tested has to be attached in series in the circuit using wires and crocodile clips. Electrical Conductivity of Solid Substances: Name of Substance Sulphur Metallic Bonding (please tick) Covalent Bonding (please tick) Ionic Bonding (please tick) Does it Conduct Yes/No Copper Iron Tin Carbon (graphite) Wax (contains carbon and hydrogen) Sodium Chloride Lead bromide Sugar (carbon, hydrogen and oxygen) 13

14 Summary of Conductivity of Solids 1. All the metals do conduct electricity. 2. The only non-metal that can conduct is carbon in the form of graphite. 3. Ionic compound do not conduct as solids. 4. Covalent compounds do not conduct as solids. LI11 Electrical Conductivity of Liquid Substances A range of liquids were tested. These included solutions of both ionic and covalent substances, some pure liquids and a teacher demonstration of two melts. Melts simply means solids that have to be heated first to melt them before they were tested using a simple circuit. They can also be described as molten. Substance Ionic Bonding (please tick) Covalent Bonding (please tick) Does it Conduct Yes/No sugar solution (carbohydrate) sodium chloride solution copper chloride solution hexane (carbon hydride) nickel sulphate solution molten wax molten lead bromide ethanol 14

15 Summary of Conductivity of Liquids 1. Ionic substances DO conduct when in solution. 2. Ionic substances DO conduct when molten. 3. Covalent solutions, pure liquids and melts do NOT conduct. Problems With Testing Conductivity of a Melt!! Testing conductivity of a melt can often give false positive results. After watching the teacher demonstration, draw a labelled diagram of the apparatus used and clearly indicate and explain the possible source of error. Circuit to Test Conductivity of a Melt: Explanation: 15

16 E LI12 Explanation of Conductivity of Substances Why do covalent substances not conduct in any state or in solution? Covalent substances do not contain any charged particles. They are made up of neutral atoms joined together. Electricity cannot flow unless there are charged particles able to flow (move). Why do ionic substances only conduct in solution or melt? Ionic substances do contain charged particles but they are not able to move in a solid, therefore ionic solids cannot conduct. Ionic solutions do conduct because dissolving the substance has broken down the ionic lattice. The ions are now free to move. Ionic melts conduct because the addition of heat energy has allowed the ions to vibrate more, overcoming the electrostatic forces holding them together and shake free of each other. The ions are free to move. Why do metals conduct in any state? We will be looking at metals in more detail later in the course but they have a special structure where their outer energy level electrons are loosely shared between atoms in a metallic lattice. These electrons are easy to move and since they are charged particles their movement allows electricity to flow through easily. Some text books describe these electrons as a sea of delocalised electrons. Metallic lattice 16

17 Summary of Physical State and Conductivity of Structures Type of Structure Ionic Physical State at Room Temperature High melting point solids Liquid Conductivity Solid Discrete Covalent Molecular Low melting point, gas, liquids and soft solids Giant Covalent Network Very high melting point solids Metallic Wide range of melting points but all solids except mercury 17

18 Topic 3 Pupil Self-evaluation E Note: if the success criteria is in italics then this is extension level work. Learning Intention Success Criteria I can: 1 I am going to find out how draw target diagrams to show electron arrangements of atoms. atoms can join together in a draw outer electron diagrams to show overlapping energy levels. covalent bond. state that a covalent bond is a shared pair of electrons. state that atoms share electrons to get a full, stable, outer energy level. state that non-metal atoms form covalent bonds. state that when two or more non-metal atoms are joined together by covalent bonds then a molecule if formed. 2 I am going to find out about name the 7 diatomic elements the diatomic molecules. describe what diatomic element and diatomic molecule means. draw diagrams to represent single, double and triple covalent bonds. 3 I am going to find out about draw simple diagrams of two element compounds. how compounds are held state that covalent bonds are very strong. together by covalent bonds. describe what holds a covalent bond together. 4 I am going to find out about the shapes of simple describe the shapes of water, methane, ammonia and hydrogen fluoride molecules. covalent molecules. draw perspective diagrams of these molecules. 5 I am going to find out about different covalent describe what a Giant Network Covalent and a Discrete Molecular Covalent structure is like. structures. give an example of a compound that exists as Giant Network Covalent state that melting point and boiling point are related to structure. 6 I am going to find out how state that ionic bonds form between a non-metal atom and a metal 18

19 atoms can change in order to join together in ionic bonds. 7 I am going to find out how an ionic bond forms. 8 I am going to be able to describe an ionic lattice. 9 I am going to be able to use the data booklet to find out the melting and boiling points of substances and relate this to physical state and type of bonding. 10 I am going to find out how electrical conductivity of a solid substance relates to its bonding. 11 I am going to find out how electrical conductivity of a liquid substance is related to the bonding. 12 I am going to be able to describe why a substance conducts. atom. state that atoms become ions by losing or gaining electrons. state what charge an ion will have from groups 1 to 0. draw diagrams to explain how an ionic bond forms. explain that an electrostatic force of attraction holds the ionic bond together. explain that an ionic solid has a regular, geometric structure called an ionic lattice and describe it. use the data booklet to find the melting and boiling points of selected substances. state that all ionic substances are solids at room temperature. explain why ionic substances are all solids. describe how I could test a solid substance for electrical conductivity. state the conductivity of metal solids. state the conductivity of covalent or ionic solids. state the conductivity of ionic substances when in solution. state the conductivity of covalent substances as solution or as liquid. state that ionic melts conduct but covalent melts do not conduct. explain a problem that can occur when testing melts for conductivity. explain that for an ionic substance to conduct then the ions need to be free to move. describe conductivity in a metal as a flow of electrons. 19

Chapter 6 Assessment. Name: Class: Date: ID: A. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Chapter 6 Assessment. Name: Class: Date: ID: A. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: ID: A Chapter 6 Assessment Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When an atom loses an electron, it forms a(n) a. anion. c.

More information

In the box below, draw the Lewis electron-dot structure for the compound formed from magnesium and oxygen. [Include any charges or partial charges.

In the box below, draw the Lewis electron-dot structure for the compound formed from magnesium and oxygen. [Include any charges or partial charges. Name: 1) Which molecule is nonpolar and has a symmetrical shape? A) NH3 B) H2O C) HCl D) CH4 7222-1 - Page 1 2) When ammonium chloride crystals are dissolved in water, the temperature of the water decreases.

More information

Name Class Date. What is ionic bonding? What happens to atoms that gain or lose electrons? What kinds of solids are formed from ionic bonds?

Name Class Date. What is ionic bonding? What happens to atoms that gain or lose electrons? What kinds of solids are formed from ionic bonds? CHAPTER 1 2 Ionic Bonds SECTION Chemical Bonding BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is ionic bonding? What happens to atoms that gain or lose

More information

7.4. Using the Bohr Theory KNOW? Using the Bohr Theory to Describe Atoms and Ions

7.4. Using the Bohr Theory KNOW? Using the Bohr Theory to Describe Atoms and Ions 7.4 Using the Bohr Theory LEARNING TIP Models such as Figures 1 to 4, on pages 218 and 219, help you visualize scientific explanations. As you examine Figures 1 to 4, look back and forth between the diagrams

More information

Ionic and Metallic Bonding

Ionic and Metallic Bonding Ionic and Metallic Bonding BNDING AND INTERACTINS 71 Ions For students using the Foundation edition, assign problems 1, 3 5, 7 12, 14, 15, 18 20 Essential Understanding Ions form when atoms gain or lose

More information

WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA

WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA For ionic compounds, the chemical formula must be worked out. You will no longer have the list of ions in the exam (like at GCSE). Instead you must learn some and work out others.

More information

Atomic Theory and Bonding

Atomic Theory and Bonding Atomic Theory and Bonding Textbook pages 168 183 Section 4.1 Summary Before You Read What do you already know about Bohr diagrams? Record your answer in the lines below. What are atoms? An atom is the

More information

Lewis Dot Structures of Atoms and Ions

Lewis Dot Structures of Atoms and Ions Why? The chemical properties of an element are based on the number of electrons in the outer shell of its atoms. We use Lewis dot structures to map these valence electrons in order to identify stable electron

More information

Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education

Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education *0123456789* CHEMISTRY 0620/03 Paper 3 Theory (Core) For Examination from 2016 SPECIMEN PAPER 1 hour

More information

Unit 1 Chemical Changes and Structure Revision Notes

Unit 1 Chemical Changes and Structure Revision Notes Unit 1 Revision Notes Rates of reaction The rate of reaction can be increased by: increasing the concentration of a solution decreasing the particle size of a solid increasing the temperature adding a

More information

CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW

CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW Answer the following questions. CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW 1. What are the three kinds of bonds which can form between atoms? The three types of Bonds are Covalent, Ionic and Metallic. Name Date Block 2.

More information

Which substance contains positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) O2(s) B) Cu(s) C) CuO(s) D) SiO2(s)

Which substance contains positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) O2(s) B) Cu(s) C) CuO(s) D) SiO2(s) BONDING MIDTERM REVIEW 7546-1 - Page 1 1) Which substance contains positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) O2(s) B) Cu(s) C) CuO(s) D) SiO2(s) 2) The bond between hydrogen and oxygen in

More information

Learning Guide 3A Salts Chem 1010. If you could look at them more closely, here's what you would see.

Learning Guide 3A Salts Chem 1010. If you could look at them more closely, here's what you would see. Introduction Learning Guide 3A Salts Chem 1010 Look at the samples in the two bottles you were given. What observations can you make about them? A: B: If you could look at them more closely, here's what

More information

The Periodic Table: Periodic trends

The Periodic Table: Periodic trends Unit 1 The Periodic Table: Periodic trends There are over one hundred different chemical elements. Some of these elements are familiar to you such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon. Each one has

More information

Bonding in Elements and Compounds. Covalent

Bonding in Elements and Compounds. Covalent Bonding in Elements and Compounds Structure of solids, liquids and gases Types of bonding between atoms and molecules Ionic Covalent Metallic Many compounds between metals & nonmetals (salts), e.g. Na,

More information

Name Date Class STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY

Name Date Class STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY Ionic Compounds Section 8.1 Forming Chemical Bonds In your textbook, read about chemical bonds and formation of ions. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage. chemical bond electrons

More information

Lab Manual Supplement

Lab Manual Supplement Objectives 1. Learn about the structures of covalent compounds and polyatomic ions. 2. Draw Lewis structures based on valence electrons and the octet rule. 3. Construct 3-dimensional models of molecules

More information

Chapter 4: Structure and Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds

Chapter 4: Structure and Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds Chapter 4: Structure and Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds 4.1 Chemical Bonding o Chemical Bond - the force of attraction between any two atoms in a compound. o Interactions involving valence

More information

Bonding Practice Problems

Bonding Practice Problems NAME 1. When compared to H 2 S, H 2 O has a higher 8. Given the Lewis electron-dot diagram: boiling point because H 2 O contains stronger metallic bonds covalent bonds ionic bonds hydrogen bonds 2. Which

More information

CHAPTER 4: MATTER & ENERGY

CHAPTER 4: MATTER & ENERGY CHAPTER 4: MATTER & ENERGY Problems: 1,3,5,7,13,17,19,21,23,25,27,29,31,33,37,41,43,45,47,49,51,53,55,57,59,63,65,67,69,77,79,81,83 4.1 Physical States of Matter Matter: Anything that has mass and occupies

More information

Question Bank Electrolysis

Question Bank Electrolysis Question Bank Electrolysis 1. (a) What do you understand by the terms (i) electrolytes (ii) non-electrolytes? (b) Arrange electrolytes and non-electrolytes from the following substances (i) sugar solution

More information

List the 3 main types of subatomic particles and indicate the mass and electrical charge of each.

List the 3 main types of subatomic particles and indicate the mass and electrical charge of each. Basic Chemistry Why do we study chemistry in a biology course? All living organisms are composed of chemicals. To understand life, we must understand the structure, function, and properties of the chemicals

More information

hij GCSE Additional Science Chemistry 2 Higher Tier Chemistry 2H SPECIMEN MARK SCHEME Version 1.0

hij GCSE Additional Science Chemistry 2 Higher Tier Chemistry 2H SPECIMEN MARK SCHEME Version 1.0 hij GCSE Additional Science Chemistry 2 Higher Tier Chemistry 2H SPECIMEN MARK SCHEME Version.0 Copyright 20 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. The Assessment and Qualifications Alliance (AQA)

More information

Type of Chemical Bonds

Type of Chemical Bonds Type of Chemical Bonds Covalent bond Polar Covalent bond Ionic bond Hydrogen bond Metallic bond Van der Waals bonds. Covalent Bonds Covalent bond: bond in which one or more pairs of electrons are shared

More information

Untitled Document. 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? 4. Which statement best describes the density of an atom s nucleus?

Untitled Document. 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? 4. Which statement best describes the density of an atom s nucleus? Name: Date: 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? A. protons and electrons grouped together in a random pattern B. protons and electrons grouped together in an alternating pattern C. a core

More information

Chapter 2 The Chemical Context of Life

Chapter 2 The Chemical Context of Life Chapter 2 The Chemical Context of Life Multiple-Choice Questions 1) About 25 of the 92 natural elements are known to be essential to life. Which four of these 25 elements make up approximately 96% of living

More information

Candidate Style Answer

Candidate Style Answer Candidate Style Answer Chemistry A Unit F321 Atoms, Bonds and Groups High banded response This Support Material booklet is designed to accompany the OCR GCE Chemistry A Specimen Paper F321 for teaching

More information

? I have some understanding but I need to revise this some more

? I have some understanding but I need to revise this some more 1 I am confident that I understand this and I can apply this to problems? I have some understanding but I need to revise this some more I don t know this or I need help because I don t understand it National

More information

Grade 9 Science Unit: Atoms and Elements Topic 4: Periodic Table & Compounds

Grade 9 Science Unit: Atoms and Elements Topic 4: Periodic Table & Compounds Grade 9 Science Unit: Atoms and Elements Topic 4: Periodic Table & Compounds Topic Using the Periodic Table Metals, Non- Metals & Metalloids I can Explain and identify the periods of the Periodic Table.

More information

A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together is called a(n)

A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together is called a(n) Chemistry I ATOMIC BONDING PRACTICE QUIZ Mr. Scott Select the best answer. 1) A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together is

More information

Chemistry B2A Chapter 12 Chemical Bonding

Chemistry B2A Chapter 12 Chemical Bonding Chemistry B2A Chapter 12 Chemical Bonding Octet rule-duet role: when undergoing chemical reaction, atoms of group 1A-7A elements tend to gain, lose, or share sufficient electrons to achieve an electron

More information

Chemistry Ex Study. A. 6 protons B. 6 neutrons C. 12 electrons D. 12 electrons

Chemistry Ex Study. A. 6 protons B. 6 neutrons C. 12 electrons D. 12 electrons hemistry Ex Study Name: Date: 1. The Periodic Table of the Elements classifies all of the known elements into categories based on their physical and chemical properties. Repeating patterns within the table

More information

B) atomic number C) both the solid and the liquid phase D) Au C) Sn, Si, C A) metal C) O, S, Se C) In D) tin D) methane D) bismuth B) Group 2 metal

B) atomic number C) both the solid and the liquid phase D) Au C) Sn, Si, C A) metal C) O, S, Se C) In D) tin D) methane D) bismuth B) Group 2 metal 1. The elements on the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing A) atomic mass B) atomic number C) molar mass D) oxidation number 2. Which list of elements consists of a metal, a metalloid, and

More information

Chapter 18: How Atoms Bond and Molecules Attract. 18.1: Electron-Dot Structures Help Us to Understand Bonding

Chapter 18: How Atoms Bond and Molecules Attract. 18.1: Electron-Dot Structures Help Us to Understand Bonding Chapter 18: How Atoms Bond and Molecules Attract Name: 18.1: Electron-Dot Structures Help Us to Understand Bonding What are the 3 types of bonds we will be learning about? When 2 atoms meet, which part

More information

Ionic and Covalent Bonds

Ionic and Covalent Bonds Ionic and Covalent Bonds Ionic Bonds Transfer of Electrons When metals bond with nonmetals, electrons are from the metal to the nonmetal The becomes a cation and the becomes an anion. The between the cation

More information

Unit 2 Periodic Behavior and Ionic Bonding

Unit 2 Periodic Behavior and Ionic Bonding Unit 2 Periodic Behavior and Ionic Bonding 6.1 Organizing the Elements I. The Periodic Law A. The physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers B. Elements

More information

Molecular Models in Biology

Molecular Models in Biology Molecular Models in Biology Objectives: After this lab a student will be able to: 1) Understand the properties of atoms that give rise to bonds. 2) Understand how and why atoms form ions. 3) Model covalent,

More information

Formulae, Equations & Formula Mass

Formulae, Equations & Formula Mass St Peter the Apostle High School Chemistry Department Formulae, Equations & Formula Mass N4 & N5 Homework Questions Answer questions as directed by your teacher. National 4 level questions are first followed

More information

19.1 Bonding and Molecules

19.1 Bonding and Molecules Most of the matter around you and inside of you is in the form of compounds. For example, your body is about 80 percent water. You learned in the last unit that water, H 2 O, is made up of hydrogen and

More information

Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete each sentence. 11. Ammonia can be reacted with an acid to produce the salt ammonium nitrate.

Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete each sentence. 11. Ammonia can be reacted with an acid to produce the salt ammonium nitrate. Q. This question is about salts of ammonia and salts of lead. (a) Ammonia dissolves in water to make an alkaline solution. Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete each sentence. The ph of a solution

More information

Atoms. Chemistry 100. Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell. Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 2

Atoms. Chemistry 100. Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell. Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 2 Chemistry 100 Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell Ninth Edition Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 2 Atoms Classifications of Matter: Elements An Element is a substance (for example,

More information

ANSWER KEY. Energy Levels, Electrons and IONIC Bonding It s all about the Give and Take!

ANSWER KEY. Energy Levels, Electrons and IONIC Bonding It s all about the Give and Take! ANSWER KEY Energy Levels, Electrons and IONIC Bonding It s all about the Give and Take! From American Chemical Society Middle School Chemistry Unit: Chapter 4 Content Statements: Distinguish the difference

More information

Chapter 16: Tests for ions and gases

Chapter 16: Tests for ions and gases The position of hydrogen in the reactivity series Hydrogen, although not a metal, is included in the reactivity series because it, like metals, can be displaced from aqueous solution, only this time the

More information

Reading Preview. Key Terms covalent bond molecule double bond triple bond molecular compound polar bond nonpolar bond

Reading Preview. Key Terms covalent bond molecule double bond triple bond molecular compound polar bond nonpolar bond Section 4 4 bjectives After this lesson, students will be able to L.1.4.1 State what holds covalently bonded s together. L.1.4.2 Identify the properties of molecular compounds. L.1.4.3 Explain how unequal

More information

Chemistry Assessment Unit AS 1

Chemistry Assessment Unit AS 1 Centre Number 71 Candidate Number ADVANCED SUBSIDIARY (AS) General Certificate of Education January 2011 Chemistry Assessment Unit AS 1 assessing Basic Concepts in Physical and Inorganic Chemistry [AC111]

More information

Diagnostic/Introductory Activity. Word Search

Diagnostic/Introductory Activity. Word Search Diagnostic/Introductory Activity Find any 10 of the first 20 elements. Word Search Q H Z S B N Q J B C N P K M A A M M O O A O E C H E H H U A T L R U X D R E V L G O N I D I O U E I Y I Z N O O S M L

More information

How Atoms Interact with Each Other

How Atoms Interact with Each Other Active Chemistry The Periodic Table Active Chemistry The Periodic Table Activity 8 ow Atoms Interact with Each Other GOALS In this activity you will: Relate patterns in ionization energies of elements

More information

CHAPTER 6 Chemical Bonding

CHAPTER 6 Chemical Bonding CHAPTER 6 Chemical Bonding SECTION 1 Introduction to Chemical Bonding OBJECTIVES 1. Define Chemical bond. 2. Explain why most atoms form chemical bonds. 3. Describe ionic and covalent bonding.. 4. Explain

More information

5. Structure, Geometry, and Polarity of Molecules

5. Structure, Geometry, and Polarity of Molecules 5. Structure, Geometry, and Polarity of Molecules What you will accomplish in this experiment This experiment will give you an opportunity to draw Lewis structures of covalent compounds, then use those

More information

(b) Formation of calcium chloride:

(b) Formation of calcium chloride: Chapter 2: Chemical Compounds and Bonding Section 2.1: Ionic Compounds, pages 22 23 1. An ionic compound combines a metal and a non-metal joined together by an ionic bond. 2. An electrostatic force holds

More information

Chapter 5 TEST: The Periodic Table name

Chapter 5 TEST: The Periodic Table name Chapter 5 TEST: The Periodic Table name HPS # date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The order of elements in the periodic table is based

More information

States of Matter and the Kinetic Molecular Theory - Gr10 [CAPS]

States of Matter and the Kinetic Molecular Theory - Gr10 [CAPS] OpenStax-CNX module: m38210 1 States of Matter and the Kinetic Molecular Theory - Gr10 [CAPS] Free High School Science Texts Project This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative

More information

IB Chemistry 1 Mole. One atom of C-12 has a mass of 12 amu. One mole of C-12 has a mass of 12 g. Grams we can use more easily.

IB Chemistry 1 Mole. One atom of C-12 has a mass of 12 amu. One mole of C-12 has a mass of 12 g. Grams we can use more easily. The Mole Atomic mass units and atoms are not convenient units to work with. The concept of the mole was invented. This was the number of atoms of carbon-12 that were needed to make 12 g of carbon. 1 mole

More information

Periodic Table Questions

Periodic Table Questions Periodic Table Questions 1. The elements characterized as nonmetals are located in the periodic table at the (1) far left; (2) bottom; (3) center; (4) top right. 2. An element that is a liquid at STP is

More information

C2.1Structure and bonding, C2.2 Structure and properties & C2.3 Atomic Structure - Foundation

C2.1Structure and bonding, C2.2 Structure and properties & C2.3 Atomic Structure - Foundation C2.Structure and bonding, C2.2 Structure and properties & C2.3 Atomic Structure - Foundation Q. (a) The diagram represents an atom of nitrogen. (i) Use words from the box to label the diagram. electron

More information

Amount of Substance. http://www.avogadro.co.uk/definitions/elemcompmix.htm

Amount of Substance. http://www.avogadro.co.uk/definitions/elemcompmix.htm Page 1 of 14 Amount of Substance Key terms in this chapter are: Element Compound Mixture Atom Molecule Ion Relative Atomic Mass Avogadro constant Mole Isotope Relative Isotopic Mass Relative Molecular

More information

MOLES AND MOLE CALCULATIONS

MOLES AND MOLE CALCULATIONS 35 MOLES ND MOLE CLCULTIONS INTRODUCTION The purpose of this section is to present some methods for calculating both how much of each reactant is used in a chemical reaction, and how much of each product

More information

Chapter Outline. 3 Elements and Compounds. Elements and Atoms. Elements. Elements. Elements 9/4/2013

Chapter Outline. 3 Elements and Compounds. Elements and Atoms. Elements. Elements. Elements 9/4/2013 3 Elements and Compounds Chapter Outline 3.1 Elements A. Distribution of Elements Foundations of College Chemistry, 14 th Ed. Morris Hein and Susan Arena Copyright This reclining Buddha in Thailand is

More information

Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life

Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life Name Period This chapter covers the basics that you may have learned in your chemistry class. Whether your teacher goes over this chapter, or assigns it for you

More information

3. What is the nuclear composition of uranium-235? 1. Which idea of John Dalton is no longer considered part of the modern view of atoms?

3. What is the nuclear composition of uranium-235? 1. Which idea of John Dalton is no longer considered part of the modern view of atoms? North arolina Testing Program EO hemistry Sample Items Goal 1. Which idea of John alton is no longer considered part of the modern view of atoms? toms are extremely small. toms of the same element have

More information

20.2 Chemical Equations

20.2 Chemical Equations All of the chemical changes you observed in the last Investigation were the result of chemical reactions. A chemical reaction involves a rearrangement of atoms in one or more reactants to form one or more

More information

Directions: Multiple Choice For each of the following questions, choose the answer that best answers the question and place it on your answer sheet.

Directions: Multiple Choice For each of the following questions, choose the answer that best answers the question and place it on your answer sheet. CHEMISTRY TEST: THE PERIODIC TABLE Directions: Multiple Choice For each of the following questions, choose the answer that best answers the question and place it on your answer sheet. 1. Which of the following

More information

Unit 3 Study Guide: Electron Configuration & The Periodic Table

Unit 3 Study Guide: Electron Configuration & The Periodic Table Name: Teacher s Name: Class: Block: Date: Unit 3 Study Guide: Electron Configuration & The Periodic Table 1. For each of the following elements, state whether the element is radioactive, synthetic or both.

More information

Topic 4 National Chemistry Summary Notes. Formulae, Equations, Balancing Equations and The Mole

Topic 4 National Chemistry Summary Notes. Formulae, Equations, Balancing Equations and The Mole Topic 4 National Chemistry Summary Notes Formulae, Equations, Balancing Equations and The Mole LI 1 The chemical formula of a covalent molecular compound tells us the number of atoms of each element present

More information

19.2 Chemical Formulas

19.2 Chemical Formulas In the previous section, you learned how and why atoms form chemical bonds with one another. You also know that atoms combine in certain ratios with other atoms. These ratios determine the chemical formula

More information

Unit 3 Notepack Chapter 7 Chemical Quantities Qualifier for Test

Unit 3 Notepack Chapter 7 Chemical Quantities Qualifier for Test Unit 3 Notepack Chapter 7 Chemical Quantities Qualifier for Test NAME Section 7.1 The Mole: A Measurement of Matter A. What is a mole? 1. Chemistry is a quantitative science. What does this term mean?

More information

Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet

Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet Name: Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet The purpose of this worksheet is to get you to recap some of the fundamental concepts that you studied at GCSE and introduce some of the concepts that will be part

More information

Test Bank - Chapter 4 Multiple Choice

Test Bank - Chapter 4 Multiple Choice Test Bank - Chapter 4 The questions in the test bank cover the concepts from the lessons in Chapter 4. Select questions from any of the categories that match the content you covered with students. The

More information

Theme 3: Bonding and Molecular Structure. (Chapter 8)

Theme 3: Bonding and Molecular Structure. (Chapter 8) Theme 3: Bonding and Molecular Structure. (Chapter 8) End of Chapter questions: 5, 7, 9, 12, 15, 18, 23, 27, 28, 32, 33, 39, 43, 46, 67, 77 Chemical reaction valence electrons of atoms rearranged (lost,

More information

TRENDS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE

TRENDS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE Noble gases Period alogens Alkaline earth metals Alkali metals TRENDS IN TE PERIDI TABLE Usual charge +1 + +3-3 - -1 Number of Valence e - s 1 3 4 5 6 7 Electron dot diagram X X X X X X X X X 8 Group 1

More information

1. Structure and Properties of the Atom

1. Structure and Properties of the Atom SACE Stage 1 Chemistry - The Essentials 1. Structure and Properties of the Atom 1.1 Atoms: A simple definition of the atom is that it is the smallest particle that contains the properties of that element.

More information

7) How many electrons are in the second energy level for an atom of N? A) 5 B) 6 C) 4 D) 8

7) How many electrons are in the second energy level for an atom of N? A) 5 B) 6 C) 4 D) 8 HOMEWORK CHEM 107 Chapter 3 Compounds Putting Particles Together 3.1 Multiple-Choice 1) How many electrons are in the highest energy level of sulfur? A) 2 B) 4 C) 6 D) 8 2) An atom of phosphorous has how

More information

AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts

AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts 8.1 Types of Chemical Bonds A. Ionic Bonding 1. Electrons are transferred 2. Metals react with nonmetals 3. Ions paired have lower energy

More information

Chapter 6 The Periodic Table

Chapter 6 The Periodic Table Chapter 6 The Periodic Table Organizing the Periodic Table In a grocery store, the products are grouped according to similar characteristics. With a logical classification system, finding and comparing

More information

IB Chemistry. DP Chemistry Review

IB Chemistry. DP Chemistry Review DP Chemistry Review Topic 1: Quantitative chemistry 1.1 The mole concept and Avogadro s constant Assessment statement Apply the mole concept to substances. Determine the number of particles and the amount

More information

SCPS Chemistry Worksheet Periodicity A. Periodic table 1. Which are metals? Circle your answers: C, Na, F, Cs, Ba, Ni

SCPS Chemistry Worksheet Periodicity A. Periodic table 1. Which are metals? Circle your answers: C, Na, F, Cs, Ba, Ni SCPS Chemistry Worksheet Periodicity A. Periodic table 1. Which are metals? Circle your answers: C, Na, F, Cs, Ba, Ni Which metal in the list above has the most metallic character? Explain. Cesium as the

More information

Chemistry Assessment Unit AS 1

Chemistry Assessment Unit AS 1 Centre Number 71 Candidate Number ADVANCED SUBSIDIARY (AS) General Certificate of Education January 2014 Chemistry Assessment Unit AS 1 assessing Basic Concepts in Physical and Inorganic Chemistry AC112

More information

Molecular Geometry and VSEPR We gratefully acknowledge Portland Community College for the use of this experiment.

Molecular Geometry and VSEPR We gratefully acknowledge Portland Community College for the use of this experiment. Molecular and VSEPR We gratefully acknowledge Portland ommunity ollege for the use of this experiment. Objectives To construct molecular models for covalently bonded atoms in molecules and polyatomic ions

More information

Specimen Paper. Time allowed! 60 minutes

Specimen Paper. Time allowed! 60 minutes Centre Number Surname Candidate Number Specimen Paper For Examiner s Use Other Names Candidate Signature Examiner s Initials General Certificate of Secondary Education Foundation Tier Question 1 Mark Chemistry

More information

Chapter 3. Stoichiometry: Ratios of Combination. Insert picture from First page of chapter. Copyright McGraw-Hill 2009 1

Chapter 3. Stoichiometry: Ratios of Combination. Insert picture from First page of chapter. Copyright McGraw-Hill 2009 1 Chapter 3 Insert picture from First page of chapter Stoichiometry: Ratios of Combination Copyright McGraw-Hill 2009 1 3.1 Molecular and Formula Masses Molecular mass - (molecular weight) The mass in amu

More information

305 ATOMS, ELEMENTS, AND MINERALS

305 ATOMS, ELEMENTS, AND MINERALS DATE DUE: Name: Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 ATOMS, ELEMENTS, AND MINERALS Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer. Use GEOLOGIC VOCABULARY where APPLICABLE!

More information

The melting temperature of carbon

The melting temperature of carbon hemical misconceptions 71 The melting temperature of carbon Target level Topics Rationale This exercise is suitable for either 14 16 year olds who have studied bonding and structure and can calculate relative

More information

CHAPTER 6 REVIEW. Chemical Bonding. Answer the following questions in the space provided.

CHAPTER 6 REVIEW. Chemical Bonding. Answer the following questions in the space provided. Name Date lass APTER 6 REVIEW hemical Bonding SETIN 1 SRT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. a A chemical bond between atoms results from the attraction between the valence

More information

CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.

CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10. CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.102 10.1 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN IONS Ion-ion Interactions and Lattice Energy

More information

Chapter 2 mastery check

Chapter 2 mastery check 1. Each element has its own characteristic atom in which a. the atomic mass is constant. b. the atomic number is constant. c. the mass number is constant. d. two of the above are correct. e. all of the

More information

Name Block Date Ch 17 Atomic Nature of Matter Notes Mrs. Peck. atoms- the smallest particle of an element that can be identified with that element

Name Block Date Ch 17 Atomic Nature of Matter Notes Mrs. Peck. atoms- the smallest particle of an element that can be identified with that element Name Block Date Ch 17 Atomic Nature of Matter Notes Mrs. Peck atoms- the smallest particle of an element that can be identified with that element are the building blocks of matter consists of protons and

More information

Instructions Answer all questions in the spaces provided. Do all rough work in this book. Cross through any work you do not want to be marked.

Instructions Answer all questions in the spaces provided. Do all rough work in this book. Cross through any work you do not want to be marked. GCSE CHEMISTRY Higher Tier Chemistry 1H H Specimen 2018 Time allowed: 1 hour 45 minutes Materials For this paper you must have: a ruler a calculator the periodic table (enclosed). Instructions Answer all

More information

CHAPTER 12: CHEMICAL BONDING

CHAPTER 12: CHEMICAL BONDING CHAPTER 12: CHEMICAL BONDING Active Learning Questions: 3-9, 11-19, 21-22 End-of-Chapter Problems: 1-36, 41-59, 60(a,b), 61(b,d), 62(a,b), 64-77, 79-89, 92-101, 106-109, 112, 115-119 An American chemist

More information

Exam 2 Chemistry 65 Summer 2015. Score:

Exam 2 Chemistry 65 Summer 2015. Score: Name: Exam 2 Chemistry 65 Summer 2015 Score: Instructions: Clearly circle the one best answer 1. Valence electrons are electrons located A) in the outermost energy level of an atom. B) in the nucleus of

More information

BOND TYPES: THE CLASSIFICATION OF SUBSTANCES

BOND TYPES: THE CLASSIFICATION OF SUBSTANCES BOND TYPES: THE CLASSIFICATION OF SUBSTANCES Every (pure) substance has a unique set of intrinsic properties which distinguishes it from all other substances. What inferences, if any can be made from a

More information

CHAPTER 3: MATTER. Active Learning Questions: 1-6, 9, 13-14; End-of-Chapter Questions: 1-18, 20, 24-32, 38-42, 44, 49-52, 55-56, 61-64

CHAPTER 3: MATTER. Active Learning Questions: 1-6, 9, 13-14; End-of-Chapter Questions: 1-18, 20, 24-32, 38-42, 44, 49-52, 55-56, 61-64 CHAPTER 3: MATTER Active Learning Questions: 1-6, 9, 13-14; End-of-Chapter Questions: 1-18, 20, 24-32, 38-42, 44, 49-52, 55-56, 61-64 3.1 MATTER Matter: Anything that has mass and occupies volume We study

More information

W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY

W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY INTRODUCTION W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY These notes and exercises are designed to introduce you to the basic concepts required to understand a chemical formula or equation. Relative atomic masses of

More information

Bonds. Bond Length. Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. Bond Energy. Chapter 8. Bonding: General Concepts

Bonds. Bond Length. Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. Bond Energy. Chapter 8. Bonding: General Concepts Bonds hapter 8 Bonding: General oncepts Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. Bond Energy Bond Length It is the energy required to break a bond. The distance where

More information

Laboratory 11: Molecular Compounds and Lewis Structures

Laboratory 11: Molecular Compounds and Lewis Structures Introduction Laboratory 11: Molecular Compounds and Lewis Structures Molecular compounds are formed by sharing electrons between non-metal atoms. A useful theory for understanding the formation of molecular

More information

Basic chemistry for A level Biology

Basic chemistry for A level Biology Basic chemistry for A level Biology Make a list of the missing words from the text please. Chose from this list; MISSING WORDS Neutrons, arrangement, carbon-14, charge, weak, alkaline, covalently, number,

More information

Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules & Life

Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules & Life Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules & Life What Are Atoms? An atom are the smallest unit of matter. Atoms are composed of Electrons = negatively charged particles. Neutrons = particles with no charge (neutral).

More information

Periodic Table, Valency and Formula

Periodic Table, Valency and Formula Periodic Table, Valency and Formula Origins of the Periodic Table Mendelѐѐv in 1869 proposed that a relationship existed between the chemical properties of elements and their atomic masses. He noticed

More information

C4 Revision Questions Bumper Pack

C4 Revision Questions Bumper Pack C4 Revision Questions Bumper Pack You will need a Periodic Table to answer these questions!! C4a Atomic structure 1. Write down a definition of an element. 2. Write down: a) the approximate radius of an

More information

Atomic Structure. Name Mass Charge Location Protons 1 +1 Nucleus Neutrons 1 0 Nucleus Electrons 1/1837-1 Orbit nucleus in outer shells

Atomic Structure. Name Mass Charge Location Protons 1 +1 Nucleus Neutrons 1 0 Nucleus Electrons 1/1837-1 Orbit nucleus in outer shells Atomic Structure called nucleons Name Mass Charge Location Protons 1 +1 Nucleus Neutrons 1 0 Nucleus Electrons 1/1837-1 Orbit nucleus in outer shells The number of protons equals the atomic number This

More information

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 3 ATOMS AND MOLECULES Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following correctly represents 360 g of water? (i) 2 moles of H 2 0 (ii) 20 moles of water (iii) 6.022 10 23 molecules of water (iv)

More information