1 IBRAHIM SEFA Gazi University, Faculty of Technology, Electrical & Electronics Engineering Turkey Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ibrahim SEFA
2 PRESENTER The paper is being presented by Dr. Ibrahim SEFA Ibrahim Sefa received the B.S. degree from the Department of Electrical and Electronics Education, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey, in 1985, and the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey, in 1993 and 1997, respectively. He is currently an Associate Professor in the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Gazi University. His current research interests include variable speed drives, power electronics, uninterruptible power supplies, control systems, and renewable energy sources.
3 Outline of the Presentation Components of the PV Power Plants MPPT Grid Interactive Inverters Basic Specifications of an Inverter International Standards of Grid Inverters Utility Disconnection Requirements Types of Grid Interactive Inverter The Evolution of the Inverters Conclusion
4 Renewable Energy Systems Renewable energy sources (RES) have become more important research area for the researchers due to increasing energy demand in the world. The most common renewable resources are Solar and Wind. Due to environment issues such as global warming and pollution, limited resources of fossil based fuels and energy crisis, renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic (PV) array, wind turbine, fuel cell, biomass system and the geothermal systems are becoming more and more popular in industrial and also residential applications
6 PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER PLANTS Smart Grid Concept
7 Components of the PV Power Plants
8 PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER PLANTS PV modules All-in-module(US$/W) cost and plant capacity evolution (decreasing prices)
9 PV modules Overview of major PV technologies
10 PV modules Top large scale PV power plants
11 Components of the PV Power Plants-Micro-inverters An alternative approach is based on each PV module having its own small inverter (i.e., micro-inverter) mounted directly onto the backside of the panel. These ac modules allow simple expansion of the system, one module at a time, as the needs or budget dictate.
12 PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER PLANTS Components of the PV Power Plants-Today s Grid-Tied PV Inverters Today s inverters are already smart as they monitor the PV array, track the maximum power and operate at that point, sense the presence of the grid, synchronize to and inject a current in phase with the voltage, monitor the grid and disconnect in case of trouble (e.g., swings in voltage or frequency).
13 Components of PV Power Plants-Today s Grid-Tied PV Inverters
14 Components of PV Power Plants - Today s Grid-Tied PV Inverters
15 Components of PV Power Plants-Interfacing with the utility Whenever the PV system delivers more power than the local demand, the electric meter runs backwards, building up a credit. When demand exceeds that supplied by the PV, the grid provides supplementary power. This arrangement is called net metering (the customer s monthly electric bill is only for that net amount of energy that the PV system is unable to supply).
16 Components of PV Power Plants-Communications
17 Components of PV Power Plants-Reactive power requirement
18 Low Voltage Ride Through Time of Different National Codes
19 Components of PV Power Plants-Energy Storage
20 PV maximum power curves. a) Daily irradiation level and temperature b) Daily MPPT curve* * Red line (MP traction line) shows clearly sky condition. It changes cloudy sky, temprature, PV pullation etc.
21 PV maximum power curves.
22 MPPT MPPT control methods can be grouped in two categories as off-line and on-line methods. This classification whether it is based on actual MPPT or not. On-line methods obtain real MPPT independent from environmental and PV system conditions. Although response speeds of these on-line methods are variable depending on their structures and control methods, they are slower than the off-line methods. Off-line methods, the output power of PV system is not read and calculated. MPPT process is obtained by using PV values (Isc, Voc, temperature and irradiation). Although off-line methods are simple, low cost and useful, switching off loads to determine the MPP is a problem.
23 PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER PLANTS Grid Interactive Inverter Structure of grid interactive system. The grid interactive inverter consists of a PV power supply, a power conditioning unit, distribution panels and a inverter stage.
24 Basic Specifications of an Inverter Typical specifications required for a grid of interactive inverter is determined as follows; The current injected to the grid must be in sinusoidal waveform and its harmonics have to be within the limits specified in the regulations. The power factor of the grid interactive inverter must be unity.
25 Basic Specifications of an Inverter Typical specifications required for a grid of interactive inverter is determined as follows (continue); The radio interference due to the high-frequency switching of power components in the inverter must be under control. The grid interactive inverter has to be separated from the grid when the grid fails. In order to keep the highest RES efficiency, the withdrawal of maximum power must always be provided.
26 International Standards on Grid Inverters There are some rules and constraints about the rectifying AC voltage generated by RES, inverting DC voltage, exporting energy to the grid. A typical grid interactive inverter injects a sinusoidal current to the line, and must meet the international standards like IEC61727, IEEE1547 and EN , and radio frequency interference due to high frequency switching should be under control.
27 Summary of the most interesting standards dealing with grid interactive systems Subject IEC61727 IEEE1547 EN Rated Power 10 kw 30 kw 16A X 230V = 3,7 kw Indivudial (3-9) %4,0 (2-10) %4.0 (3) 2,30 A Harmonic Limits (11-15) %2,0 (11-16) %2,0 (5) 1,14 A (17-21) %1,5 (17-22) %1,5 (7) 0,77 A (23-33) %0,6 (23-34) %0,6 (9) 0,40 A (>35) %0,3 (11) 0,33 A (13) 0,21 A (15-39) 2,25/h Even harmonics should be %25 less then Odd harmonics in this range Maximum Total Harmonic Distortion 5.00% 5.00% - Power Factor at %50 Rated Power DA Current Injection Nominal Working Voltage Range Nominal Working Frequency Range 0,9 - - Less then %1 of rated current Less then % 0.5 of rated current %85 - %110 %88 - %110 (196V - 253V) (97V - 121V) 50±1 Hz 59.3 Hz 60.5 Hz - Approximately Equal or less then %30 of Odd harmonics <0.22A - 50W Suitable for half wave rectifier -
28 IEEE 929 Utility disconnect requirements Voltage and Frequency Limits for Grid Interactive Condition State Voltage Frequency Max. Off Time A 0.5 Vnom fnom 6 cycle B 0.5 Vnom<V<0.88 Vnom fnom 2 second C 0.88Vnom- V 1.10 Vnom fnom - D 1.10 Vnom<V<1.37 Vnom fnom 2 second E 1.37 Vnom V fnom 2 second F Vnom f<fnom-0.7 Hz 6 cycle G Vnom f >fnom+0.5 Hz 6 cycle
29 Types of Grid Interactive Inverter There can be one or two or more power processing stages in the grid interactive inverters. Single-stage inverter carries out all tasks such as MPPT, grid current control and, if necessary, like voltage step up. Single stage power processing Two stage power processing
30 Types of Grid Interactive Inverter Transformer-included inverter examples. (a) (b) (c) a) Line frequency transformer is connected between the line and the inverter. b) High-frequency transformer is embedded in an HF-link inverter. c) High-frequency transformer is embedded in DC-DC converter.
31 Types of Grid Interactive Inverter Current and voltage fed grid interactive inverters. (a) (b) a) Current fed grid commutated inverter switching at twice the grid frequency. b) Voltage fed, self commutated inverter at high frequency.
32 Types of Grid Interactive Inverter Multilevel grid interactive inverter. Three Level NPC Grid interactive inverter.
33 Types of Grid Interactive Inverter These topologies synthesize voltage waveform with a number of semiconductor devices connected in a special arrangement, rated at a fraction of the dc bus voltage. Two level Three Level N level Description of Multilevel Inverter
34 The Evolution of the Inverters Advances of the semiconductor power switching devices and the developed new high frequency low loss core materials give idea to the designers investigate of new topologies. High performance dedicated processors help to the designers for the realization of thedigital control. Increasing demand of the grid interactive inverter also tends the manufacturers and researchers to find lower cost and higher efficiency products.
35 The Evolution of the Inverters Historical overview of PV inverters (a) Past centralized (b) Present string (c) Present and future AC-module and AC cell technologies.
36 The Evolution of the Inverters Different AC module topologies.
37 The Evolution of the Inverters Different AC module topologies.
38 The Evolution of the Inverters Different AC module topologies.
39 The Evolution of the Inverters Different AC module topologies.
40 The Evolution of the Inverters Different AC module topologies.
41 The Evolution of the Inverters Team concept is the notion of another PV system. Combining the string technology with the master-slave technology increases the system efficiency compared to the separately operated inverters in the PV systems which has multi inverters.
42 The Evolution of the Inverters The multi-string concept shown in figure is designed to combine the low cost feature of the central inverters with the high efficiency feature of the string inverters. In less-powerful DC-DC converters are connected to the PV strings individually. Each PV string has own MPPT which optimizes the power output by operating independently from the other strings.
43 Conclusion In this study, an extensive research on the grid interactive inverters used in PV applications has been presented. The operation modes of the grid interactive inverter and the basic features of the inverter required to be possess has been explained. Also the international standards on issues like the power quality, the detection of island mode and the grid impedance changes are noted. In addition, the historical development of the grid interactive inverters used in PV applications summarized and the future expectations are given. As a result, the research activities continue in order to develop the inverters which are low-cost, easy to install, long life and operable with high efficiency even though the input voltage and the power change in a wide range due to the natural conditions.
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