Melting and crystallization diagram of a pure substance

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Melting and crystallization diagram of a pure substance"

Transcription

1 Melting and crystallization diagram of a pure substance Safety precautions Naphthalene is harmful if swallowed. May cause cancer. Is further very toxic to aquatic organisms and can have long-term harmful effects in bodies of water. Equipment 1 Cobra4 Wireless Manager Cobra4 Wireless-Link Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Chemistry Software Cobra4 Single user and school licence Holder for Cobra4 with support rod Immersion probe NiCr-Ni, steel, C Retort stand, 210 mm 130 mm, h = 500 mm Right angle clamp Universal clamp Ceran protection plate,155 mm 155 mm Holder for ceran protection plate Glass beaker DURAN, short, 250 ml Glass beaker DURAN, short, 600 ml Powder spatula, steel, l = 180 mm Teclu burner, DIN, natural gas Safety gas tubing, DVGW, sold by metre Hose clip for mm diameter tube Lighter for natural/liquified gases Boiling chips, 200 g Test tube, 180 mm 18 mm, 100 pieces Glass rod, boro 3.3, l = 200 mm, d = 5 mm Naphthalene, white, 250 g Additional material 1 PC with USB port, Windows XP or higher Water Ice Fig. 1: Experimental set-up for recording the heating and cooling curves of naphthalene P PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG All rights reserved 1

2 Melting and crystallization diagram of a pure substance Notes Naphthalene (s) R: /53 S: 36/ Naphthalene forms colourless crystals that have a peculiar smell. It is insoluble in water but dissolves easily in most organic solvents. It can be sublimed and burns with a luminous and very smoky flame. Risks: Harmful if swallowed. May cause cancer. Is very toxic to aquatic organisms, can have long-term harmful effects in bodies of water. Safety precautions: Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Do not breathe dust. When using wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye protection. If swallowed immediately seek medical advice and show packaging or label. Dispose of naphthalene and/or container as hazardous waste. Do not release to the environment. Ask for special instructions / Consult the safety data sheet. First aid: If swallowed immediately seek medical advice and show packaging or label. Waste disposal: Collect flammable, halogen-free organic solvents in an appropriately labelled container. Principle When a pure substance is heated or cooled, the temperature of it does not continually increase or decrease when it undergoes a change in the state of aggregation. Instead of this, and despite the continuing external supply or removal of heat respectively, the temperature of it remains constant until the change in phase has been completed. Two examples of this behaviour are shown in this experiment. Fig. 2: Experimental set-up for recording a heating curve of ice / water. 2 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG All rights reserved P

3 Melting and crystallization diagram of a pure substance Preparatory work - Plug the Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Chemistry on the Cobra4 Wireless-Link and use the holder for Cobra4 to fasten it to the stand rod (see Fig. 1). - Connect the immersion probe to input T1 of the Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Chemistry. - Start the PC and Windows. - Connect the Cobra4 Wireless Manager to the USB port of the computer. - Start the measure software package on the PC. - Switch the Cobra4 Wireless-Link on. The sensor is now automatically recognised and is allocated an ID number (01) which can be seen in the display of the Cobra4 Wireless-Link. Communication between the Cobra4 Wireless-Manager and the Cobra4 Wireless-Link is shown via the Data LED. - Load the Melting and freezing point curves of pure substances experiment. (Experiment > Open experiment. All pre-settings that are necessary for measured value recording are now loaded. Part 1 Melting and freezing point curve of naphthalene Set-up and procedure - Set the experiment up as shown in Fig Fill 200 ml of water into the 600 ml beaker and add a few boiling chips. - Transfer approx. 2 ml of naphthalene to one of the test tubes. - Fit the temperature probe so in this test tube that the probe tip is completely surrounded by naphthalene. - Use a universal clamp to position the test tube in the water bath. - Gently heat the water with the burner. - Click on in the icon strip to start measurement. - When a temperature of approx. 90 C has been reached, stop measurement with a click on in the icon strip. - Transmit the measured values to measure. - Click on File and Save measurement to save the measured data for evaluation after all measurements have been made. - Remove the water bath and click on to have the cooling curve for naphthalene recorded. - When a temperature of approx. 50 C has been reached, stop measurement with a click on in the icon strip. - Transmit the measured values to measure. - Click on File and Save measurement to save the measured data for evaluation after all measurements have been made. Part 2 The heating curve of ice / water Set-up and procedure - Set the experiment up as shown in Fig Put ice that has been crushed as small as possible in the 250 ml beaker and add a little water. - Fit the temperature probe so in the ice / water mixture that sufficient contact is made with the liquid. - Additionally add a few boiling chips. - Gently heat the mixture with the burner while gently stirring it with the glass rod. - Click on in the icon strip to start measurement. P PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG All rights reserved 3

4 Melting and crystallization diagram of a pure substance - When the water markedly begins to boil, stop measurement with a click on in the icon strip. - Transmit the measured values to measure. - Click on File and then on Save measurement to have the measured data saved in the measure sub-programme. All measured data can now be evaluated. Results The temperature curves recorded during heating and during cooling do not slope evenly upwards and downwards respectively. Instead of this, the graphs show 3 5 portions in which the temperature remains constant for some time. Evaluation Melting point of naphthalene - A look at Fig. 3 shows that there are two portions in which the temperature hardly changes. At the start, the temperature does not increase from the approx. 23 C although the water is being heated by the burner. This is because the heat supplied by the burner must first be conducted to the inside of the test tube and this takes a little time. - Subsequent to this, the temperature increases until about 80 C is reached. During measurement recording, it could be observed that the naphthalene starts to melt at this point. The temperature remains constant over the whole melting process. It first increases again in the test tube when all of the naphthalene has melted. - This process can be described on a molecular level as follows: The supply of energy increases the natural oscillation of the particles in the crystal lattice (solid naphthalene). The higher the temperature, the stronger the particles oscillate around their rest position, i.e. the energy supplied is converted into energy of motion. At a certain temperature, however, the oscillations are so strong that particles leave the crystal structure, i.e. the crystal disintegrates and begins to melt. The temperature at which this occurs is called the melting point. During the melting process, the whole of the energy supplied is used to separate the individual particles from the crystal structure. The temperature therefore remains constant during this process (see Fig. 3, horizontal course of the curve at 80 C). The further supply of energy only again leads to an increase in temperature when all of the particles have left the crystal, i.e. the crystal has completely disintegrated. Fig. 3: Melting point curve of naphthalene 4 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG All rights reserved P

5 Melting and crystallization diagram of a pure substance Note: The apparent plateau at 95 C in Fig. 3 results because this temperature is very near to the boiling point of water, so that here heat is only very slowly transported from the water to the naphthalene. When the recording of the measured points is made at a constant time interval, then it appears as though the increase in temperature continually lessens. Freezing point of naphthalene - The freezing process is analogous to the melting process but the other way around. When a melt cools, the oscillation amplitude of the individual particles decreases with the decreasing temperature (see Fig. 4, portion 1). It is hereby possible for the melting temperature of the substance to be gone below without freezing taking place, giving what is called a supercooled melt. Spontaneous solidification then raises the temperature back to the melting temperature of the substance (Fig. 4, portion 2), whereby the particles again cluster to a crystal structure. The heat energy that was required to melt the substance is hereby released as latent heat of fusion. This counteracts a further cooling effect and leads to a constant temperature during the following course of the process (Fig. 4, portion 3). The amount of heat that is released during freezing is hereby exactly the same as the amount that was required for the sample to melt. When no further heat of fusion is released because the freezing process has been completed, then cooling again occurs due to a thermal interaction with the environment (Fig. 4, portion 4). Fig. 4: Freezing point curve of naphthalene Melting of ice and evaporation of water - The melting process of water (see Fig. 5, horizontal course of the curve at 0 C) corresponds principally to the melting process of naphthalene (see above). - The vaporizing process of water does not fundamentally differ from the melting process. Here also, only a transition from one state of aggregation to another takes place. The energy of motion of the individual particles that results from the external supply of energy is hereby so large, that they are able to release themselves from their association in the liquid and pass into the gaseous phase, where each can move free of the others. During the vaporizing process, the whole of the energy that is supplied is consumed as heat of evaporation, so that the temperature remains constant (see Fig. 5, horizontal course of the curve at 100 C). P PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG All rights reserved 5

6 Melting and crystallization diagram of a pure substance Fig. 5: Heating curve of ice / water. Notes - In general, cooling curves are easier to record than heating curves. In the latter, inhomogeneous temperature distribution in the liquid phase always leads to greater fluctuations in the temperature values than those of cooling curves. - Deviations of the temperatures obtained from the measurement from the literature values are mainly caused by the NiCr-Ni thermocouples used. These can show higher or lower temperatures than the actual ones because of their production process. Such probes should therefore be initially calibrated against a different type of temperature measurement device, such as a thermometer, which is known to show temperatures accurately. - This experiment can also be carried out using Cobra4 Sensor-Unit 2 x Temperature, NiCr-Ni (article number ) instead of the Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Chemistry. 6 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG All rights reserved P

Determination of the enthalpy of combustion using a bomb calorimeter TEC. Safety precautions

Determination of the enthalpy of combustion using a bomb calorimeter TEC. Safety precautions Safety precautions Naphthalene is harmful if swallowed. May cause cancer. Is further very toxic to aquatic organisms and can have long-term harmful effects in bodies of water. Equipment 1 Bomb calorimeter

More information

Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression AP Chemistry Laboratory #4

Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression AP Chemistry Laboratory #4 Catalog No. AP6356 Publication No. 6356A Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression AP Chemistry Laboratory #4 Introduction A procedure for determining the molar mass of a substance is very useful to chemists.

More information

Related concepts Kohlrausch s law, equivalent conductivity, temperature dependence of conductivity, Ostwald s dilution law.

Related concepts Kohlrausch s law, equivalent conductivity, temperature dependence of conductivity, Ostwald s dilution law. Conductivity of strong and weak electrolytes TEC Related concepts Kohlrausch s law, equivalent conductivity, temperature dependence of conductivity, Ostwald s dilution law. Principle It is possible to

More information

Storage of the electrical energy from wind energy with a capacitor

Storage of the electrical energy from wind energy with a capacitor Storage of the electrical energy ENT Keywords Wind energy, generator, capacitor, storage, and saturation function Principle Electrical energy can be stored with the aid of capacitors. This experiment shows

More information

Determination of Molecular Mass by Freezing Point Depression

Determination of Molecular Mass by Freezing Point Depression Determination of Molecular Mass by Freezing Point Depression Objectives: To determine the molecular mass of an unknown solid using the colligative property of freezing point depression. Background: When

More information

Freezing and Melting of Water

Freezing and Melting of Water Freezing and Melting of Water The cooling and warming behavior of water is investigated. With the use of technology, water temperature data is collected, graphed and analyzed. The freezing and melting

More information

Harmonic oscillation springs linked in parallel and in series

Harmonic oscillation springs linked in parallel and in series Harmonic oscillation TEP Principle The spring constant k for different springs and connections of springs is determined. For different experimental set-ups and suspended mass the oscillation period is

More information

Name: LAB: Phase Changes of Water

Name: LAB: Phase Changes of Water Name: LAB: Phase Changes of Water Introduction: Water is a substance commonly found on Earth and in the atmosphere in all three phases of matter (solid, liquid, and gas). This unique property of water

More information

General Chemistry I (FC, 09-10) Lab # 13 Molecular Weight Determination by Freezing Point Depression

General Chemistry I (FC, 09-10) Lab # 13 Molecular Weight Determination by Freezing Point Depression I TRODUCTIO If a nonvolatile solid compound (the solute) is dissolved in a liquid (the solvent), the vapor pressure of the liquid solvent is lowered. This decrease in the vapor pressure of the solvent

More information

Colligative Properties of Solutions

Colligative Properties of Solutions Experiment 2 Colligative Properties of Solutions Introduction: Consider a hypothetical cooling curve which describes the changes in phase of a pure substance in which heat is lost at a steady rate at constant

More information

Freezing-point depression depends on the concentration of the solute. The molality of the solution is a measure of concentration and is defined as:

Freezing-point depression depends on the concentration of the solute. The molality of the solution is a measure of concentration and is defined as: Freezing Point Depression of Lauric Acid Reading assignment: Chang, Chemistry 9 th edition, pages 526-539. Goals We will measure the freezing point depression of lauric acid that takes place with the addition

More information

EXPERIMENT 15 FREEZING POINT: A COLLIGATIVE PROPERTY OF SOLUTIONS

EXPERIMENT 15 FREEZING POINT: A COLLIGATIVE PROPERTY OF SOLUTIONS EXPERIMENT 15 FREEZING POINT: A COLLIGATIVE PROPERTY OF SOLUTIONS INTRODUCTION Scientists seldom work alone today. Instead they work in teams on projects, sharing the labor of carrying out the experiments

More information

Molecular Mass by Freezing Point Depression

Molecular Mass by Freezing Point Depression Molecular Mass by Freezing Point Depression Kyle Miller November 28, 2006 1 Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to determine the molecular mass of organic compounds which are dissolved in a solvent

More information

4. MOLECULAR WEIGHT BY FREEZING POINT DEPRESSION

4. MOLECULAR WEIGHT BY FREEZING POINT DEPRESSION 55 Experiment #4. Molecular Weight by Freezing Point Depression 4. MOLECULAR WEIGHT BY FREEZING POINT DEPRESSION In this experiment you will use a colligative property to determine the molecular weight

More information

Storage of the electrical energy from wind energy with an accumulator

Storage of the electrical energy from wind energy with an accumulator Storage of the electrical energy from ENT Keywords Wind energy, generator, accumulator (storage battery), storage, power, and electric work Principle In general, renewable energy sources depend on the

More information

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGE EXPERIMENT 1

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGE EXPERIMENT 1 PURPOSE To investigate the criteria used to distinguish between physical and chemical changes in matter. 1 DEFINITIONS Chemical property, physical property, chemical change, physical change, conservation

More information

Water Lab. Objective: To distill samples of water that contains volatile and nonvolatile components.

Water Lab. Objective: To distill samples of water that contains volatile and nonvolatile components. Water Lab I. Distillation Hypothesis: Water can be purified by distillation. Objective: To distill samples of water that contains volatile and nonvolatile components. Materials and Equipment: Sodium chloride,

More information

Entropy & Enthalpy Changes A Lab Investigation

Entropy & Enthalpy Changes A Lab Investigation Entropy & Enthalpy Changes A Lab Investigation Summary In this investigation, students will explore basic thermodynamic concepts, including spontaneity, entropy, and enthalpy through a series of guided

More information

Phase change lab questions Period: Physical Science

Phase change lab questions Period: Physical Science Phase change lab questions Period: Physical Science Name: Date: Pre-lab: (As always, write in complete sentences) 1. What should happen to the temperature of a substance while the substance is melting?

More information

Experiment 1: Colligative Properties

Experiment 1: Colligative Properties Experiment 1: Colligative Properties Determination of the Molar Mass of a Compound by Freezing Point Depression. Objective: The objective of this experiment is to determine the molar mass of an unknown

More information

Solubility Curve of Sugar in Water

Solubility Curve of Sugar in Water Solubility Curve of Sugar in Water INTRODUCTION Solutions are homogeneous mixtures of solvents (the larger volume of the mixture) and solutes (the smaller volume of the mixture). For example, a hot chocolate

More information

Laboratory Exercise: Calibration of a Thermometer

Laboratory Exercise: Calibration of a Thermometer CHEM 109 Introduction to Chemistry Fall 2008 Laboratory Exercise: Calibration of a Thermometer In this exercise we will calibrate a standard laboratory thermometer. One of the most common types of laboratory

More information

1. The Solubility of a Salt

1. The Solubility of a Salt 1. The Solubility of a Salt Objective In this experiment, you will determine the solubility of a given salt at various temperatures. Also you will prepare the solubility curve for your salt. Introduction

More information

Evaluation copy. Fractional Distillation. computer OBJECTIVES MATERIALS

Evaluation copy. Fractional Distillation. computer OBJECTIVES MATERIALS Fractional Distillation Computer 8 An example of a simple distillation is the separation of a solution of salt and into two separate pure substances. When the salt solution is heated to boiling, vapor

More information

Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes

Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes An understanding of material things requires an understanding of the physical and chemical characteristics of matter. A few planned experiments can help you

More information

Physical Properties of a Pure Substance, Water

Physical Properties of a Pure Substance, Water Physical Properties of a Pure Substance, Water The chemical and physical properties of a substance characterize it as a unique substance, and the determination of these properties can often allow one to

More information

Chemistry 212 VAPOR PRESSURE OF WATER LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Chemistry 212 VAPOR PRESSURE OF WATER LEARNING OBJECTIVES Chemistry 212 VAPOR PRESSURE OF WATER LEARNING OBJECTIVES The learning objectives of this experiment are to explore the relationship between the temperature and vapor pressure of water. determine the molar

More information

21 st Century Chemistry Structured Question in Topic 1 Planet Earth Unit 1-4

21 st Century Chemistry Structured Question in Topic 1 Planet Earth Unit 1-4 21 st Century Chemistry Structured Question in Topic 1 Planet Earth Unit 1-4 1. Air consists of oxygen and other substances. (a) Is oxygen an element or a compound? Explain briefly. It is an element. [1]

More information

In this experiment, we will use three properties to identify a liquid substance: solubility, density and boiling point..

In this experiment, we will use three properties to identify a liquid substance: solubility, density and boiling point.. Identification of a Substance by Physical Properties 2009 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Permission for academic use provided the original copyright is included Every substance has a unique set

More information

Experiment 5: Molecular Weight Determination From Freezing Point Depression

Experiment 5: Molecular Weight Determination From Freezing Point Depression Experiment 5: Molecular Weight Determination From Freezing Point Depression PURPOSE To become familiar with colligative properties and to use them to determine the molar mass of a substance APPARATUS AND

More information

Determination of Molar Mass by Boiling Point Elevation of Urea Solution

Determination of Molar Mass by Boiling Point Elevation of Urea Solution Determination of Molar Mass by Boiling Point Elevation of Urea Solution CHRISTIAN E. MADU, PhD AND BASSAM ATTILI, PhD COLLIN COLLEGE CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT Purpose of the Experiment Determine the boiling

More information

To measure the solubility of a salt in water over a range of temperatures and to construct a graph representing the salt solubility.

To measure the solubility of a salt in water over a range of temperatures and to construct a graph representing the salt solubility. THE SOLUBILITY OF A SALT IN WATER AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES 2007, 1995, 1991 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Permission for academic use provided the original copyright is included. OBJECTIVE To measure

More information

Experiment 13: Determination of Molecular Weight by Freezing Point Depression

Experiment 13: Determination of Molecular Weight by Freezing Point Depression 1 Experiment 13: Determination of Molecular Weight by Freezing Point Depression Objective: In this experiment, you will determine the molecular weight of a compound by measuring the freezing point of a

More information

USING FREEZING POINT DEPRESSION TO FIND MOLECULAR WEIGHT

USING FREEZING POINT DEPRESSION TO FIND MOLECULAR WEIGHT USING FREEZING POINT DEPRESSION TO FIND MOLECULAR WEIGHT Adapted from "Chemistry with Computers" Vernier Software, Portland OR, 1997 LABORATORY NOTEBOOK Objectives, Chemical & Equipment Tables, and Procedures

More information

Good Hope School Integrated Science New S.1 Summer Work

Good Hope School Integrated Science New S.1 Summer Work Good Hope School Integrated Science New S.1 Summer Work Section 1: Basic vocabulary in Secondary Science The following lists some English terms used in Secondary Science. analyze demonstrate laboratory

More information

PHYSICS 220 LAB #9: CALORIMETRY

PHYSICS 220 LAB #9: CALORIMETRY Name: Partners: PHYSICS 220 LAB #9: CALORIMETRY If you pour cold cream into a hot cup of coffee, the mixture comes to an intermediate equilibrium temperature. If you put a piece of ice in a glass of water,

More information

Freezing Point Depression, the van t Hoff Factor, and Molar Mass

Freezing Point Depression, the van t Hoff Factor, and Molar Mass , the van t Hoff Factor, and Molar Mass Objectives To understand colligative properties. To find the freezing point depression of a solution. To determine the van't Hoff factor for acetic acid dissolved

More information

state and explain how the internal energy and the absolute (kelvin) temperature are related....

state and explain how the internal energy and the absolute (kelvin) temperature are related.... 6 N08/4/PHYSI/SP2/ENG/TZ0/XX+ A2. This question is about ideal gases. (a) State what is meant by an ideal gas....... For an ideal gas define internal energy. state and explain how the internal energy and

More information

Phase Diagram of tert-butyl Alcohol

Phase Diagram of tert-butyl Alcohol Phase Diagram of tert-butyl Alcohol Bill Ponder Department of Chemistry Collin College Phase diagrams are plots illustrating the relationship of temperature and pressure relative to the phase (or state

More information

Physical and Chemical Properties

Physical and Chemical Properties Physical and Chemical Properties Introduction Matter can be classified in different ways using physical and chemical properties. Physical properties include color, odor, density, hardness, structure, solubility,

More information

Experiment 2. Properties of Water. Introduction. Safety. Objectives. Concepts. Materials

Experiment 2. Properties of Water. Introduction. Safety. Objectives. Concepts. Materials Experiment 2 Properties of Water Introduction Water (H 2 O) is the most abundant compound on Earth's surface and the life on the Earth is possible only because it s unique properties. Have you ever wondered

More information

1º ESO UNIT 3: Pure substances and mixtures. Susana Morales Bernal

1º ESO UNIT 3: Pure substances and mixtures. Susana Morales Bernal 1º ESO UNIT 3: Pure substances and mixtures Objectives 1. To know that a substance is identified according to its characteristic properties like: density and melting or boiling points. 2. To know the concepts

More information

Introducing Measurements in the Laboratory

Introducing Measurements in the Laboratory Introducing Measurements in the Laboratory Objectives The objectives of this laboratory are: a) To use a metric ruler to measure the dimensions of regular geometric shapes, and to use these measurements

More information

Determination of the enthalpy of combustion using a bomb calorimeter TEC

Determination of the enthalpy of combustion using a bomb calorimeter TEC Determination of the enthalpy of TEC Related concepts First law of thermodynamics, Hess s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of combustion, enthalpy of formation, heat capacity. Principle The bomb

More information

CHM112 Lab Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression Grading Rubric

CHM112 Lab Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression Grading Rubric Name Team Name CHM112 Lab Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression Grading Rubric Criteria Points possible Points earned Lab Performance Printed lab handout and rubric was brought to lab 3 Safety and proper

More information

Determination of the Molar Mass of an Unknown Solid by Freezing Point Depression

Determination of the Molar Mass of an Unknown Solid by Freezing Point Depression Determination of the Molar Mass of an Unknown Solid by Freezing Point Depression GOAL AND OVERVIEW In the first part of the lab, a series of solutions will be made in order to determine the freezing point

More information

Colligative Properties and Ice Cream

Colligative Properties and Ice Cream OpenStax-CNX module: m19545 1 Colligative Properties and Ice Cream Mary McHale This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 2.0 Colligative Properties

More information

Observe and measure the effect of a solute on the freezing point of a solvent. Determine the molar mass of a nonvolatile, nonelectrolyte solute

Observe and measure the effect of a solute on the freezing point of a solvent. Determine the molar mass of a nonvolatile, nonelectrolyte solute Chapter 10 Experiment: Molar Mass of a Solid OBJECTIVES: Observe and measure the effect of a solute on the freezing point of a solvent. Determine the molar mass of a nonvolatile, nonelectrolyte solute

More information

Kinetic Molecular Theory. A theory is a collection of ideas that attempts to explain certain phenomena.

Kinetic Molecular Theory. A theory is a collection of ideas that attempts to explain certain phenomena. Kinetic Molecular Theory A theory is a collection of ideas that attempts to explain certain phenomena. A law is a statement of specific relationships or conditions in nature. After centuries of questioning

More information

Lead/Tin Solder Lab. 1. Select a labeled cup(s) and sign your names on the table of lead/tin percentages.

Lead/Tin Solder Lab. 1. Select a labeled cup(s) and sign your names on the table of lead/tin percentages. Lead/Tin Solder Lab 1. Select a labeled cup(s) and sign your names on the table of lead/tin percentages. 2. Mass out 50 grams total of your assigned lead and tin alloy. 3. Melt the metals together in an

More information

PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS (HEAT)

PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS (HEAT) PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS (HEAT) In the matter of physics, the first lessons should contain nothing but what is experimental and interesting to see. A pretty experiment is in itself often more valuable than

More information

Materials 10-mL graduated cylinder l or 2-L beaker, preferably tall-form Thermometer

Materials 10-mL graduated cylinder l or 2-L beaker, preferably tall-form Thermometer VAPOR PRESSURE OF WATER Introduction At very low temperatures (temperatures near the freezing point), the rate of evaporation of water (or any liquid) is negligible. But as its temperature increases, more

More information

3.3 Phase Changes Charactaristics of Phase Changes phase change

3.3 Phase Changes Charactaristics of Phase Changes phase change When at least two states of the same substance are present, scientists describe each different state as a phase. A phase change is the reversible physical change that occurs when a substance changes from

More information

Colligative Properties: Freezing Point Depression and Molecular Weight

Colligative Properties: Freezing Point Depression and Molecular Weight Purpose: Colligative Properties: Freezing Point Depression and Molecular Weight The first purpose of this lab is to experimentally determine the van't Hoff (i) factor for two different substances, sucrose

More information

INVESTIGATION OF THE COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES OF FATTY ACIDS

INVESTIGATION OF THE COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES OF FATTY ACIDS INVESTIGATION OF THE COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES OF FATTY ACIDS INTRODUCTION FATTY ACIDS Fatty acids play a relevant role in our daily life. Fatty acids are long chain hydrocarbons with a terminal carboxyl

More information

INTRODUCTION TO MATTER: CLASSI F ICATION OF MATTER, PHYSICAL AND C He MICAL PROPERTIES, AND PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES

INTRODUCTION TO MATTER: CLASSI F ICATION OF MATTER, PHYSICAL AND C He MICAL PROPERTIES, AND PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES Experiment 3 Name: INTRODUCTION TO MATTER: 9 4 CLASSI F ICATION OF MATTER, PHYSICAL AND C He MICAL e PROPERTIES, AND PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES In this experiment, you will encounter various classification

More information

Energy Matters Heat. Changes of State

Energy Matters Heat. Changes of State Energy Matters Heat Changes of State Fusion If we supply heat to a lid, such as a piece of copper, the energy supplied is given to the molecules. These start to vibrate more rapidly and with larger vibrations

More information

THERMOMETER CALIBRATION USING CONTROLLED TEMPERATURE BATHS

THERMOMETER CALIBRATION USING CONTROLLED TEMPERATURE BATHS Test Procedure for THERMOMETER CALIBRATION USING CONTROLLED TEMPERATURE Texas Department of Transportation TxDOT Designation: Tex-926-K Effective Date: August 1999 1. SCOPE 1.1 Calibrate thermometers by

More information

Part 1: Evaporation and Intermolecular Attractions

Part 1: Evaporation and Intermolecular Attractions CHEM&152 Spring 2009 INTERMOLECULAR FORCES and SOLID-LIQUID TRANSITIONS Fill-in Name Pre-lab attached (p 10-11) Stamp Here Partner Lecture Instructor Parts 1 and 2 of this experiment may be done on separate

More information

Test: Mixtures. hi.com.au Science Resource Centre. 1. Look at these words: Which word best describes the change when: a ice turns to water?

Test: Mixtures. hi.com.au Science Resource Centre. 1. Look at these words: Which word best describes the change when: a ice turns to water? Test: Mixtures 1. Look at these words: Melting evaporation condensation freezing Which word best describes the change when: a ice turns to water? b water appears on a window? c soup dries up on the stove?

More information

Chapter 12 - Liquids and Solids

Chapter 12 - Liquids and Solids Chapter 12 - Liquids and Solids 12-1 Liquids I. Properties of Liquids and the Kinetic Molecular Theory A. Fluids 1. Substances that can flow and therefore take the shape of their container B. Relative

More information

Procedure. Day 1 - Calibration of the Calorimeter. (Part I) The Heat Capacity of the Calorimeter.

Procedure. Day 1 - Calibration of the Calorimeter. (Part I) The Heat Capacity of the Calorimeter. Thermochemistry Experiment 10 Thermochemistry is the study of the heat energy involved in chemical reactions and changes of physical state. Heat energy is always spontaneously transferred from hotter to

More information

Determination of Molecular Weight by Freezing Point Depression

Determination of Molecular Weight by Freezing Point Depression Determination of Molecular Weight by Freezing Point Depression Freezing point depression is a kind of colligative properties as treated in high school chemistry course. Normally used alcohol or mercury

More information

L A T E N T H E A T O F F U S I O N

L A T E N T H E A T O F F U S I O N Class Date Name Partner(s) L A T E N T H E A T O F F U S I O N Materials LoggerPro Software and Real Time Physics Thermodynamics Experiment Files Stainless Steel Temperature Probes (2) Styrofoam Cup Film

More information

Experiment 12E LIQUID-VAPOR EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER 1

Experiment 12E LIQUID-VAPOR EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER 1 Experiment 12E LIQUID-VAPOR EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER 1 FV 6/26/13 MATERIALS: PURPOSE: 1000 ml tall-form beaker, 10 ml graduated cylinder, -10 to 110 o C thermometer, thermometer clamp, plastic pipet, long

More information

PHYSICAL SEPARATION TECHNIQUES. Introduction

PHYSICAL SEPARATION TECHNIQUES. Introduction PHYSICAL SEPARATION TECHNIQUES Lab #2 Introduction When two or more substances, that do not react chemically, are blended together, the result is a mixture in which each component retains its individual

More information

We will study the temperature-pressure diagram of nitrogen, in particular the triple point.

We will study the temperature-pressure diagram of nitrogen, in particular the triple point. K4. Triple Point of Nitrogen I. OBJECTIVE OF THE EXPERIMENT We will study the temperature-pressure diagram of nitrogen, in particular the triple point. II. BAKGROUND THOERY States of matter Matter is made

More information

Pre-Lab Notebook Content: Your notebook should include the title, date, purpose, procedure; data tables.

Pre-Lab Notebook Content: Your notebook should include the title, date, purpose, procedure; data tables. Determination of Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression M. Burkart & M. Kim Experimental Notes: Students work in pairs. Safety: Goggles and closed shoes must be worn. Dispose of all chemical in the plastic

More information

Investigation M3: Separating Mixtures into Component Parts

Investigation M3: Separating Mixtures into Component Parts Investigation M3: Separating Mixtures into Component Parts Goals: Use various methods to separate mixtures, make inferences from temperature/time graphs, and identify substances. 81 Activity M3.3: What

More information

Determination of Molar Mass by Freezing-Point Depression

Determination of Molar Mass by Freezing-Point Depression DETERMINATION OF MOLAR MASS BY FREEZING-POINT DEPRESSION 141 Determination of Molar Mass by Freezing-Point Depression OBJECTIVES: Gain familiarity with colligative properties of nonelectrolyte solutions

More information

EXPERIMENT 1 (Organic Chemistry I)

EXPERIMENT 1 (Organic Chemistry I) EXPERIMENT 1 (Organic Chemistry I) Melting Point Determination Purpose a) Determine the purity of a substance using melting point as physical property b) Identify an unknown compound using its melting

More information

SCIENCE EXPERIMENTS ON FILE Revised Edition. Ice Cream Lab. Linda Preston

SCIENCE EXPERIMENTS ON FILE Revised Edition. Ice Cream Lab. Linda Preston 5.46-1 SCIENCE EXPERIMENTS ON FILE Revised Edition Ice Cream Lab Linda Preston Topic Lowering the freezing point Time 2 1 2 hours (includes time required to chill the ice cream mixture before doing the

More information

Experiment 18: Determination of Molecular Mass by Melting Point Depression

Experiment 18: Determination of Molecular Mass by Melting Point Depression VC18 Experiment 18: Determination of Molecular Mass by Melting Point Depression Abstract In this experiment, you will explore the colligative properties of the melting point depression of water. An aqueous

More information

Test 5 Review questions. 1. As ice cools from 273 K to 263 K, the average kinetic energy of its molecules will

Test 5 Review questions. 1. As ice cools from 273 K to 263 K, the average kinetic energy of its molecules will Name: Thursday, December 13, 2007 Test 5 Review questions 1. As ice cools from 273 K to 263 K, the average kinetic energy of its molecules will 1. decrease 2. increase 3. remain the same 2. The graph below

More information

Heat. Determining the efficiency of the heat pump as a function of the temperature differential. LD Physics Leaflets P

Heat. Determining the efficiency of the heat pump as a function of the temperature differential. LD Physics Leaflets P Heat Thermodynamic cycle Heat pump LD Physics Leaflets P2.6.3.1 Determining the efficiency of the heat pump as a function of the temperature differential Objects of the experiment g Understanding of the

More information

thermo practice test

thermo practice test Name: ate: 1. If only the respective tempreatures of two objects are known, what additional information can be determined?. how much heat the objects contain 3. ase your answer(s) to the following question(s)

More information

Example: orange juice from frozen concentrate.

Example: orange juice from frozen concentrate. Dilution: a process in which the concentration (molarity) of a solution is lowered. The amount of solute (atoms, moles, grams, etc.) remains the same, but the volume is increased by adding more solvent.

More information

Topic 1 National Chemistry Summary Notes. Rates of Reaction

Topic 1 National Chemistry Summary Notes. Rates of Reaction Chemical Reactions Topic 1 National Chemistry Summary Notes Rates of Reaction LI 1, 2 and 3 We know a chemical reaction has taken place when we notice one or more of the following things happening: Colour

More information

Freezing Point Depression

Freezing Point Depression Name: Date: Lab Partners: Lab section: Freezing Point Depression The addition of salt to water lowers the freezing point of water. This is the mechanism by which roads are cleared of ice in the winter

More information

7H Solutions. Unit Menu Main Menu Equipment

7H Solutions. Unit Menu Main Menu Equipment 7H Solutions How can we tell whether a liquid is a mixture? 7H1 7H 7H3 7H4 7H5 7H6 7H7 7H8 7H9 Measure the boiling point of water Is tap water pure? Measure density How much salt can we get from rock salt?

More information

Determination of Molar Mass by Vapor Density

Determination of Molar Mass by Vapor Density Determination of Molar Mass by Vapor Density One of the properties that helps characterize a substance is its molar mass. If the substance in question is a volatile liquid, a common method to determine

More information

Specific Heat Capacity and Latent Heat Questions A2 Physics

Specific Heat Capacity and Latent Heat Questions A2 Physics 1. An electrical heater is used to heat a 1.0 kg block of metal, which is well lagged. The table shows how the temperature of the block increased with time. temp/ C 20.1 23.0 26.9 30.0 33.1 36.9 time/s

More information

1. The Determination of Boiling Point

1. The Determination of Boiling Point 1. The Determination of Boiling Point Objective In this experiment, you will first check your thermometer for errors by determining the temperature of two stable equilibrium systems. You will then use

More information

Definitions in Science

Definitions in Science Definitions in Science What is the difference between a hypothesis, a theory, and a law? A hypothesis is a statement that is unproven that is yet to be tested A theory is a set of hypotheses that come

More information

Physical/Chemical practice questions Name Regents Chemistry

Physical/Chemical practice questions Name Regents Chemistry Physical/Chemical practice questions Name Regents Chemistry 1. Which substance can not be decomposed by a chemical change? A) ammonia B) copper C) propanol D) water 6. Which substance can be decomposed

More information

Expt. 5: Binary Phase Diagram CHEM 366 V-1. Binary Solid-Liquid Phase Diagram

Expt. 5: Binary Phase Diagram CHEM 366 V-1. Binary Solid-Liquid Phase Diagram Expt. 5: Binary Phase Diagram CHEM 366 V-1 Introduction Binary Solid-Liquid Phase Diagram The substances that we encounter in the material world are hardly ever pure chemical compounds but rather mixtures

More information

Experiment 10B DETERMINING THE MOLAR MASS OF A GAS

Experiment 10B DETERMINING THE MOLAR MASS OF A GAS Experiment 10B DETERMINING THE MOLAR MASS OF A GAS FV 3-31-16 MATERIALS: Dry 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask, piece of foil (~3 x 3 ), 800 ml beaker, 500 ml graduated cylinder, iron ring, ring stand, wire gauze,

More information

Study the following diagrams of the States of Matter. Label the names of the Changes of State between the different states.

Study the following diagrams of the States of Matter. Label the names of the Changes of State between the different states. Describe the strength of attractive forces between particles. Describe the amount of space between particles. Can the particles in this state be compressed? Do the particles in this state have a definite

More information

Triple Point Experiment

Triple Point Experiment Equipment List Rotary vane vacuum pump 2-stage, 2 to 7 CFM. For example, Edwards 2M2 (2 CFM), Edwards RV5 (3.5 CFM), Edwards E2M8 (6.7 CFM) or equivalent. Bell jar Nalgene polycarbonate plastic, 5-5/8

More information

The particulate nature of matter

The particulate nature of matter The particulate nature of matter Solids, liquids and gases The kinetic theory of matter Explaining the states of matter Changes of state An unusual state of matter An unusual change of state Heating and

More information

Molecular Mass Determination by Boiling Point Elevation

Molecular Mass Determination by Boiling Point Elevation Exercise 15 Page 1 Illinois Central College CHEMISTRY 130 Name: Molecular Mass Determination by Boiling Point Elevation Objectives. In this experiment we will use the fact that the presence of a nonvolatile

More information

# 12 Condensation Polymerization: Preparation of Two Types of Polyesters

# 12 Condensation Polymerization: Preparation of Two Types of Polyesters # 12 Condensation Polymerization: Preparation of Two Types of Polyesters Submitted by: Arturo Contreras, Visiting Scholar, Center for Chemical Education, Miami University, Middletown, OH; 1996 1997. I.

More information

CHEM 2423 Recrystallization of Benzoic Acid EXPERIMENT 4 - Purification - Recrystallization of Benzoic acid

CHEM 2423 Recrystallization of Benzoic Acid EXPERIMENT 4 - Purification - Recrystallization of Benzoic acid EXPERIMENT 4 - Purification - Recrystallization of Benzoic acid Purpose: a) To purify samples of organic compounds that are solids at room temperature b) To dissociate the impure sample in the minimum

More information

Taking Apart the Pieces

Taking Apart the Pieces Lab 4 Taking Apart the Pieces How does starting your morning out right relate to relief from a headache? I t is a lazy Saturday morning and you ve just awakened to your favorite cereal Morning Trails and

More information

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certifi cate of Secondary Education

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certifi cate of Secondary Education www.smarteduhub.com UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certifi cate of Secondary Education *0367948514* CHEMISTRY 06/61 Paper 6 Alternative to Practical May/June 12

More information

A Survey of Thermodynamics

A Survey of Thermodynamics A Survey of Thermodynamics Objective In this lab various topics relating to the study of thermodynamics will be explored. First, the flow of heat will be examined. Here an ice cube will be placed in a

More information

1. The Kinetic Theory of Matter states that all matter is composed of atoms and molecules that are in a constant state of constant random motion

1. The Kinetic Theory of Matter states that all matter is composed of atoms and molecules that are in a constant state of constant random motion Physical Science Period: Name: ANSWER KEY Date: Practice Test for Unit 3: Ch. 3, and some of 15 and 16: Kinetic Theory of Matter, States of matter, and and thermodynamics, and gas laws. 1. The Kinetic

More information

FXA 2008. Candidates should be able to : Define and apply the concept of specific heat capacity. Select and apply the equation : E = mcδθ

FXA 2008. Candidates should be able to : Define and apply the concept of specific heat capacity. Select and apply the equation : E = mcδθ UNIT G484 Module 3 4.3.3 Thermal Properties of Materials 1 Candidates should be able to : Define and apply the concept of specific heat capacity. Select and apply the equation : E = mcδθ The MASS (m) of

More information

Hands-On Labs SM-1 Lab Manual

Hands-On Labs SM-1 Lab Manual EXPERIMENT 4: Separation of a Mixture of Solids Read the entire experiment and organize time, materials, and work space before beginning. Remember to review the safety sections and wear goggles when appropriate.

More information

Molecular Weight of a Volatile Liquid

Molecular Weight of a Volatile Liquid Molecular Weight of a Volatile Liquid One of the important applications of the Ideal Gas Law is found in the experimental determination of the molecular weight of gases and vapors. In order to measure

More information