Uterine Fibroids: Not As Simple As You Think.

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1 Uterine Fibroids: Not As Simple As You Think

2 Uterine Leiomyoma Most common uterine neoplasm 20-30% women >35yo Under hormonal influence Enlarge during pregnancy or BCP use Regress after menopause Symptoms Dysmenorrhea Menorrhagia Infertility Pressure sensation

3

4 MRI of Uterine Leiomyoma Low signal on T2WIs Round Mass effect Well defined margins often with pseudocapsule Lacy or confluent hyperintensity

5 Uterine Leiomyoma As they grow, they may outgrow their blood supply, resulting in various types of degeneration Hyaline (homogeneous eosinophilic proteinaceous material) Myxoid (hyaluronic acid-rich mucopolysaccharide gelatenous material) Cystic Calcific Hemorrhagic (red or carneous, occurs in pregnancy or with BCPs)

6 smooth muscle 46 yo f pre-uae Leiomyoma with edema T2WI T2WI T2WI sub sub edema

7 Uterine Leiomyoma Edema is common Scattered or diffuse Frequently prominent at periphery With extensive edema, get marked enhancement due to retention of contrast material within the abundant interstitial spaces Okizuka H, et al. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1993;17:

8 Suspect Leiomyosarcoma Lyphadenopathy, ascites, or peritoneal seeding Rapid growth of leiomoyoma Obstet Gynecol 1994;83: Hemorrhage High signal on T2WIs in >50% of mass Tanaka YO, et al. J Magn Reson Imaging 2004;20: High signal on T2WIs and intense enhancement Yamashita Y, et al. Radiology 1993;189: Irregular or indistinct margin Pattani SJ, et al. Magn Reson Imaging 1995;13: Schwartz LB, et al. Fertil Steril 1998;70:

9 Suspect Leiomyosarcoma Lypmhadenopathy, ascites, or peritoneal seeding are unusual Rapid growth of leiomoyoma is not useful <3% of sarcomas have rapidly growing uterus <1% of rapidly growing leiomyomas have leiomyosarcomas Hemorrhage is not useful Hemorrhage is not uncommon in fibroids but unusual in leiomyosarcomas High signal on T2WIs in >50% of mass is not useful Not uncommon in fibroids High signal on T2WIs and intense enhancement is not useful Seen with cellular leiomyomas (composed of compact smooth muscle cells with little or no collagen) Irregular, nodular, or indistinct margins

10 Leiomyosarcoma Leiomyoma

11 Uterine Leiomyosarcoma Sarcomatous transformation of preexisting leiomyoma is rare Diagnosis usually made as an incidental pathologic diagnosis in 0.5% or resected fibroids Most arise independently from myometrial smooth muscle cells

12 59 yo f with lung nodule ca and pelvic mass with increased uptake on PET/CT. Surgery: Fibroid ovary fibroids

13 51 yo f with pelvic mass Surgery : granulosa cell tumor ovary with fibroma and thecal elements (sex cord-stromal tumor)

14 Exophytic fibroid or fibroma? Fibroid Normal ovary Bridging Vascular Sign

15 Bridging Vascular Sign Vessels that extend from the uterus to supply a pelvic mass indicate the uterine origin of a juxtauterine mass Caused by feeding vessels that arise from the uterine arteries In one study, it was present in in 20/26 exophytic leiomyomas and absent in all other adnexal masses, resulting in a diagnostic accuracy of 80% Kim JC, et al. J Comput Assist Tomogr 2000;24:57060 But, ovarian malignancies that invade the uterus may also show this sign Kim SH, et al. J Comput Assist Tomogr 2001;25:36-42

16 47 yo f with pelvic pain & solid adnexal mass on US Uterine Fibroid U U U

17 Ovarian Vascular Pedicle Sign If you can trace gonadal veins anterior to psoas muscle and common iliac vessels into a pelvic mass, it indicates that the ovary is the organ of origin Identified in 92% of ovarian masses Also seen in 13% of subserosal uterine myomas The ovarian veins form a plexus in the broad ligament that communicates with the uterine plexus Lee JH, et al. AJR 2003;181:

18 44 yo f for UAE evaluation Adenomyotic Cyst T2WI T2WI T2WI R ovary L ovary Post-C Post-C

19 Adenomyotic Cyst Also known as cystic adenomyosis Appears as a an endometrioma-like intramyometrial hemorrhagic cyst surrounded by adenomyotic (low signal) wall May be subserosal Tekeuchi M, et al. RadioGraphics 2011;31:99-115

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