Post World War II. Communism and the Cold War

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1 Post World War II Communism and the Cold War

2 Post World War II

3

4

5 What is the COLD WAR? Longest Era of American History: Clash of ideology that never led to a direct war between the United States and the Soviet Union.

6 Soviet Goals Post WWII Both US and Soviet Union had different goals after World War II Soviets concerned about security (Germany had invaded them twice in the last 30 years). Soviets want to keep the Germans weak. Soviets believe that Communism is superior to capitalism. They believed that Capitalists would try and destroy Communism.

7

8 American Goals Post WWII American leaders were focusing on economic problems. Roosevelt believed that economic growth was the key to world peace. Americans blamed the Depression for World War II When there are economic problems, dictators like Hitler come to power. Democratic governments made for more peaceful people and economic growth. Free enterprise with limited government interference brings economic growth to a country.

9 Yalta Conference Feb Resort town in Russia Polish leaders fled to Britain when Germany invaded Poland. Russians liberated Poland in 1945 and encouraged Polish communists to setup Communist governments. Now two governments claiming control of Poland. Roosevelt and Churchill agree to recognize Polish communist government. Stalin agrees that the government will include members of the pre-war Polish government and free elections.

10 Declaration of a Liberated Europe European governments can choose their own governments freely Germany to be divided into four military zones. Each zone maintained by US, USSR, Great Britain, and France. Berlin divided Germany to pay reparations Ability to pay basis Industrial machinery removed from Germany Increases tensions between the US and USSR in the long run.

11 Truman takes control Strongly anti- Communist and suspicious of Stalin. Determined that Stalin would live up to his agreements.

12 Potsdam Conference Stalin wants heavy reparations from Germany Reparations would come from all military zones Truman wants economic growth for Germany and opposes heavy reparations. Truman learns about successful testing of atomic bomb. Shares with Stalin Truman agrees to some industrial machinery to go to Russia Truman agrees to accept Russian-Polish border. Stalin agrees to pay for machinery with food production.

13 Industrial Areas Agricultural area

14 The Iron Curtain Soviets refuse to uphold Declaration of Liberated Europe Agreement to allow European governments to choose their own governments. Soviet troops stationed in various East European countries Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Hungary, and East Germany become Communist satellite nations.

15 Review Disagreements over Germany Events leading to Cold War Soviet refusal to honor Declaration of Liberated Europe. Soviet action in Poland (before Yalta Conference) Potsdam Conference (Stalin and Truman Relations)

16 Review Questions Why did tensions grow between the US and Soviet Union following World War II? What agreement did the Yalta Conference produce concerning Germany? Do you think the Cold War could have been avoided? Why or Why Not?

17 Cold War Early Years

18 Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan NATO

19 Truman Doctrine Containment: Early Cold War policy Keep Communism within its present territories using, economic, military, and diplomatic action. Iran Soviet Union tries to takeover oil supply in Iran but fails because of American military pressure. Turkey Soviets pressure Turkish government for control of Dardanelles. US again applies military pressure on USSR. Greece Communist uprising in Greece British send troops US sends money to fight the Communists Communist fighters in Greece 1948

20 Truman Doctrine/Marshall Plan Truman Doctrine/Marshall Plan Two halves of the same walnut. Harry S. Truman Marshall Plan Proposed by General George Marshall to rebuild Europe after WW II and rebuild European economies. Long term effect of Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan Stabilised democracy in Greece Solidified US commitment to resist Communism worldwide!

21 In other words Truman Doctrine: Shaped US foreign policy until the end of the Cold War!!!! -Committed to end Communism worldwide!

22 Creation of West Germany

23 Berlin Airlift West Germany formed by merging French, British, and American sectors together. West Berlin made part of the new republic Soviets believe they will never get reparations 1948 Soviet troops cutoff road/rail traffic. Truman orders Berlin Airlift

24 Berlin Airlift To keep the city alive, the airlift lasted 11 months brought 2 million tons of supplies.

25 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) First mutual defense alliance Still exists today Originally included 12 members NATO members agree to come to the aid of other member countries. Allowed West Germany to rearm and join NATO USSR responds by creating Warsaw Pact (alliance of Communist countries)

26

27 China falls to Communism China falls into the hands of Communists under leadership of Mao Tse Dong (Chairman Mao) USSR succesfully tests atomic bomb

28 Review How did the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan attempt to stop the spread of Communism? What long term Cold War Strategy did the United States plan to follow? What was NATO s purpose? How did the USSR respond to NATO? What was the USSR s greatest fear of Germany? What was the Iron Curtain?

29 Korean War Powerpoint

30 The Cold War and American Society Life at Home during the Cold War

31 Second Red Scare Great, WIDESPREAD, fear of Communism in the early 1950 s Surpassed that of the 1920 s Started in 1945 Gouzenko Affair: Igor Gouzenko walked out of Soviet Embassy in Ottawa, Canada with secret documents of USSR Documents show how Soviets are trying to infiltrate government agencies in Canada and the US to get information on the atomic bomb. Sends American public into scare.

32 Loyalty Review Program Truman screens all federal employees for loyalty to US. Truman s action seemed to confirm to many that spies had infiltrated the government. Screened for: Books they read If they travelled overseas Seeing certain foreign films

33 House UnAmerican Activities Committee (HUAC)

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